Luzhou, China
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Huo D.,Chongqing University | Zhang M.,Chongqing University | Hou C.,Chongqing University | Qin H.,Chongqing University | And 5 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2011

Flavor substances determine the difference of the liquors. A recognition method for liquor brands discrimination was developed based on gas chromatography (GC) detection combining with pattern recognition in this study. First, 70 samples' GC data from seven liquors were collected. Ten kinds of basic flavor substances including ethyl caproate and ethyl lactate were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Then, principal components analysis was used to testify the discrimination ability based on the GC quantitative data of the 10 flavor substances. Finally, linear discriminant analysis was used to establish discriminant functions in order to differentiate the liquors. The results showed that both methods can differentiate liquors. In principal components analysis, the first three principal components accounted for 86.527% of total variation, which can effectively describe the complicated relationship between flavor substances and products. The precision rate of linear discriminant analysis was 100%, which can correctly discriminate all the samples, and the correct discriminate rate for new samples is 93.9%. The results show that established discriminant functions can effectively differentiate liquors. According to the study, the method of GC technique combining with pattern recognition can be used to identify and differentiate liquors.


Wang Y.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Wang Y.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | Li Q.,China National Offshore Oil Corporation | Wang S.,Northeastern University China | And 4 more authors.
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2013

This study is devoted to developing a continuous activated carbon (AC) production process integrating drying, carbonization, and physical activation without external heat input. The massive byproduct in the distilled spirit industry, distilled spirit lees (SL), was used as the raw material in this study. The kinetic behaviors in each step, including drying, carbonization, and activation, were first investigated via laboratory tests. The results show that the whole AC production process can be completed in 30 min, including most of the time for drying, several minutes for carbonization, and several seconds for activation. On the basis of these laboratory results, an integrated process for continuous production of AC was proposed. The mass and heat balance calculation demonstrated a good balance for the developed process technology, and a pilot plant treating 2000 kg of SL/h was in turn built and commissioned to run autothermally and continuously. This demonstrated thus the technology for application to granular feedstock such as SL, although the produced AC from SL had surface areas of only about 191 m2/g and relatively low adsorption values, including 610-630 mg/g for iodine and 20-30 mg/g for methylene blue, due to the too short activation time in the pilot activator. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Hou C.,Chongqing University | Dong J.,Chongqing University | Zhang G.,Chongqing University | Lei Y.,University of Connecticut | And 6 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2011

Artificial tongue systems are multisensory devices which are highly desirable for the analysis and recognition of complicated composition samples. Herein, a low-cost and simple colorimetric sensor array for identification and quantification of proteins were reported. Using prophyrin, porphyrin derivatives (mainly metalloporphyrins) and chemically responsive dyes as the sensing elements, the developed sensor array of artificial tongue showed a unique pattern of colorific change upon its exposure to proteins. The composite pattern for each sample was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), thus providing a clustering map for more practical visualization. All the pure and mixed proteins, as well as denatured proteins, gave distinct patterns, thus resulting in their unambiguous identification. The PCA analysis also suggested that the unique pattern of colorific change may be due to the change of protein conformation and local environmental pH. These results demonstrate that the developed colorimetric artificial tongue system is an excellent sensing platform for identification and quantitative analysis of protein samples. © 2011.


Zhang S.,Chongqing University | Zhang S.,Luzhou Laojiao Group Co. | Yang L.,Chongqing University | Huo D.,Chongqing University | And 6 more authors.
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2012

The molecular interactions of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphine zinc (ZnTPP) and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine cobalt(II) (CoTPP) with dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) have been investigated by absorption/absorption difference spectroscopy. The interactions between the metalloporphyrins and DMMP change the absorbance characteristics of the porphyrins resulted from the formation of the metalloporphyrin-DMMP complexes. According to the Benesi-Hildebrand (B-H) equation, the equilibrium constants and stoichiometries of the binding systems at four different temperatures (288, 293, 298 and 303 K) were obtained. Experimental results showed that both ZnTPP and CoTPP bind to DMMP via axial coordination, resulting in the formation of 1:1 metalloporphyrin-DMMP complexes. However, it was found that ZnTPP showed stronger binding capacity with the equilibrium constant (K) of 83.864 M -1 at room temperature, while CoTPP exhibited weaker binding with K of 24.904 M -1. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (Δ rHmθ), entropy change (Δ rSmθ) and free energy changes (Δ rGmθ) were also studied for the interactions, indicating that the formation of the metalloporphyrins-DMMP complex was an exothermic reaction. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Yao C.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Yao C.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Dong L.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Wang Y.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | And 6 more authors.
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2011

Distilled spirits Lees, rich in cellulose, water and N element, are difficult to burn efficiently and cleanly in grate chain stock boiler. The circulating fluidized bed decoupling combustion (CFBDC) was therefore proposed to burn the distilled spirits lees efficiently and with low-NOx emission. The pyrolysis behavior of the distilled spirits lees was investigated in a fluidized bed reactor for optimizing the pyrolysis conditions of the pyrolyzer in CFBDC. The results showed that the distilled spirits lees began to devolatize at 250 °C and at 350-450 °C the tar yield reached its maximum of about 16.3 wt.% (dry base). The chemical oxygen demand (COD) value of the condensed liquid reached its maximum of about 50,000 mg/L at 450 °C. With raising temperature the pyrolysis gas tended to contain more CO and H2 and less CO 2. The functional groups H-O, aliphatic C-H, aromatic ring, C=O and C-O were all presented in the char generated at low-temperatures, while only the C-O group was identified for the char from the pyrolysis at 650 °C. The article suggested that the pyrolysis for the CFBDC was better around 500 °C so that certain volatiles could remain in the char to sustain stable combustion. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Hou C.,Chongqing University | He K.,Chongqing University | Yang L.,Chongqing University | Huo D.,Chongqing University | And 5 more authors.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

A plant-esterase extracted from wheat flour and purified with a PEG1000/NaH2PO4 aqueous two-phase system was characterized for its catalytic characteristics. The optimal condition for plant-esterase to catalyze 1-naphthyl acetate was at 30°C, pH 6. 5. It kept stability at 20°C during 120 min and at pH 5. 5 during 60 h. The effects of metal ions, chemical modification reagents and pesticides on plant-esterase activity were investigated. It was found that Ba2+ and Pb2+ at concentrations of 20 mM significantly inhibited the activity of plant-esterase while Mg2+, Ca2+ and Fe2+ at the same concentration enhanced the enzyme activity. Chemical modification reagents significantly influenced the activity of plant-esterase. Particularly, PMSF (4. 5 mM) and N-bromosuccinimide (11 mM) inhibited by 5. 40-19. 87% of the enzyme activity. It is implied that serine and tryptophan are related to the enzyme activity. Plant-esterase were displayed concentration-dependent inhibition by dichlorvos, carbofuran and carbendazim (IC50 = 0. 31-63. 12 ppm). All these results indicated that catalytic efficiency of plant-esterase strongly depends on reaction conditions, activity effectors and amino acid residues at the active site. It makes meaningful guidance on further design of sensing material in monitoring pesticides. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Qin H.,Chongqing University | Qin H.,Luzhou Laojiao Group Co. | Huo D.,Chongqing University | Zhang L.,Luzhou Laojiao Group Co. | And 6 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2012

Colorimetric artificial nose was used to characterize and identify Chinese liquors from six different geographic origins. Using chemical dyes as the sensing elements, the developed colorimetric artificial nose showed a unique pattern of color changes upon its exposure to Chinese liquors. Data analysis was performed by chemometric techniques: Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Each category of Chinese liquor could cluster together in PCA score plot. No errors in classification by HCA were observed in 45 trials. LDA model showed a 100% of prediction ability for Chinese liquor. The results demonstrated that colorimetric artificial nose was able to classify Chinese liquors from different geographic origins. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Song Y.,Tianjin University of Science and Technology | Song Y.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Wang Y.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Yao C.-B.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | And 5 more authors.
Guocheng Gongcheng Xuebao/The Chinese Journal of Process Engineering | Year: 2011

The feasibility of utilizing the circulating fluidized bed combustion ash of distilled spirits lees as fertilizer was investigated. The rape culture experiment was carried out in 5 different kinds of soils, and the rape growth states in the germination and growth stages were measured to evaluate the effect of adding ash to the soils as fertilizer. The results show that the ash exhibited different effects on the rape growth in different culture stages. There was an antiblastic effect on the rape growth in the germination stage in a loamy soil, but the rape growth was much improved when adding the ash to a clayey soil. The latter led the mature rape to having obviously increased net height and weight. The ash could change the pH value of acid soil into neutral state, facilitating the humic acid decomposition and plant growth. Comparing the soils at soil:ash 5:1(ω) with original soil, the increased amplitudes of net height of rape in Guojiaohong Turang, Qingke Turang and Fuyang Turang were 80.1%, 80.9% and 163.6%, respectively. As consequence, it was feasible and effective to use directly the combustion ash of distilled spirits lees as fertilizer.


Huo D.-Q.,Chongqing University | Zhang G.-P.,Chongqing University | Hou C.-J.,Chongqing University | Dong J.-L.,Chongqing University | And 6 more authors.
Fenxi Huaxue/ Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

The development of colorimetric sensor array for the detection of natural amino acids is reported. Using a cross-responsive array containing a diverse family of chemically responsive dyes, the colorimetric sensor array provides enormous discriminatory power among different analytes. Digital imaging of the dye array before and after immersion provides a color change profile as a unique fingerprint for each specific analyte. The 6×6 array used in this research has 36 dyes that were sensitive to amino acids. A functional portable type apparatus was developed for data acquisition and data processing. Using colorimetric sensor arrays, 10 natural amino acids have been analyzed within 5 min of exposure at concentrations of 375 μ M. The digital data library generated was analyzed with statistical and chemometric methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Facile identification of all the amino acids was readily achieved using comparison of the color change profiles or a PCA score plot. Using LDA analysis, the classification accuracy of identification was 97%. These results suggest that colorimetric sensor arrays may prove to be useful for the identification of natural amino acids, and they also represent a potential application in the field of cell recognition, food quality assurance, and microbial identification. Copyright © 2010, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Limited. All rights reserved.


Hou C.,Chongqing University | Dong J.,Chongqing University | Qin H.,Chongqing University | Huo D.,Chongqing University | Shen C.,Luzhou Laojiao Group Co.
Analytical Letters | Year: 2012

The olfactory system is responsible for the discrimination and identification of myriad odorant molecules at very low concentrations. On the basis of the gene super family encoding olfactory receptors, it has led to the rapid development of cell based olfactory biosensors. Attempts are currently made not only to imitate the mechanism of the biological nose but also to utilize some of its sensor molecules as functional unities in olfactory biosensors. Recently, the development of olfactory biosensors has achieved rapid advances by using protein molecules and cells, even biological organs as functional elements, that is, odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and olfactory receptors (ORs) at the molecular level, cell based gene engineered cells or olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), and mammalian olfactory organs. With using the living cells expressing olfactory signal proteins as sensing elements, the cell based biosensors have a naturally evolved selectivity to odorant molecules. Furthermore, the biosensors also have the capacity to respond to odorant in a physiologically relevant manner. In this paper, we briefly introduce the molecular basis of olfaction and summarize the cell based olfactory biosensors. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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