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Nanticoke, PA, United States

Willauer H.D.,Washington Technology | Dimascio F.,U.S. Navy | Hardy D.R.,Nova Research Inc. | Lewis M.K.,U.S. Navy | And 2 more authors.
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2012

A novel electrochemical acidification process has been developed in a successful feasibility attempt to extract large quantities of CO 2 in the form of bicarbonate and carbonate from seawater for potential use as a source of carbon for hydrocarbon production at sea. This indirect approach acidifies seawater by the electrolytic production of acid. Lowering seawater pH was found to be proportional to the applied current to the cell. Spontaneous degassing and recovery of CO 2 below pH 4.5 was reduced from 92% in synthetic seawater to 30% in natural seawater. The effects of increased operational time, flow rate, current, and natural seawater's complex equilibrium buffer on process performance and CO 2 recovery have been shown to be essential for further improvements in future cell design, efficiency, and scale-up. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Willauer H.D.,U.S. Navy | Hardy D.R.,U.S. Navy | Lewis M.K.,U.S. Navy | Lewis M.K.,Luzerne County Community College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry A | Year: 2010

Using seawater doped with sodium bicarbonate and Celgard 2400 gas permeable membranes, bicarbonate ion disproportionates to carbon dioxide and carbonate when gaseous carbon dioxide is first removed from the seawater solution by diffusion through gas permeable membranes at elevated water pressures. The permeability of CO2 by phase transition from bicarbonate solutions at pressures above 100 psi is only possible due to the use of multiple gas permeable membrane layers. The multiple layers minimize water permeability at pressures below and above the Young-Laplace bubble point of single membrane layers, however the gas permeability efficiency and rate are greatly decreased. Published 2010 by the American Chemical Society. Source


Kayll P.M.,University of Montana | Perkins D.,Luzerne County Community College
Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2013

We introduce a variation of chip-firing games on connected graphs. These 'burn-off' games incorporate the loss of energy that may occur in the physical processes that classical chip-firing games have been used to model. For a graph G = (V,E), a configuration of 'chips' on its nodes is a mapping C : V → N. We study the configurations that can arise in the course of iterating a burn-off game. After characterizing the 'relaxed legal' configurations for general graphs, we enumerate the 'legal' ones for complete graphs Kn. The number of relaxed legal configurations on Kn coincides with the number tn+1 of spanning trees of Kn+1. Since our algorithmic, bijective proof of this fact does not invoke Cayley's Formula for tn, our main results yield secondarily a new proof of this formula. © 2013 Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science (DMTCS), Nancy, France. Source


Willauer H.D.,U.S. Navy | Dimascio F.,U.S. Navy | Hardy D.R.,U.S. Navy | Lewis M.K.,U.S. Navy | And 2 more authors.
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2011

Based on continuous electrodeionization (CEDI) technology, a novel hybrid electrochemical acidification process has been developed to extract large quantities of CO 2 from seawater. This indirect approach acidifies seawater to recover CO 2 from bicarbonate. The electrolytic regeneration of cation exchange resin allowed simultaneous and continuous ion exchange and regeneration to occur within the cell along with control of the seawater pH. Lowering seawater pH was found to be proportional to the applied current to the cell, and the CO 2 in the acidified seawater was readily removed at pH less than 6.0. In addition, the cell produced a portion of hydrogen gas without additional energy penalties. © This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2011 by the American Chemical Society. Source


Willauer H.D.,U.S. Navy | Hardy D.R.,U.S. Navy | Lewis M.K.,U.S. Navy | Lewis M.K.,Luzerne County Community College | And 2 more authors.
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2010

Ion-exchange resins in dynamic seawater and model bicarbonate systems were studied to determine their feasibility and practicality for extracting large quantities of carbon dioxide from seawater for use as a carbon feedstock for fuel synthesis. The capacity and selectivity of both a strong acid cation-exchange resin and a strong base anion-exchange resin revealed that the cation-exchange resin total carbon dioxide recovery (0.32 mg/g of resin) was far superior to the anion-exchange capacity (0.07 mg/g of resin). In addition, the ease of regeneration of the cation-exchange resin was demonstrated using deionized water as a possible substitute for strong acids. The laboratory-scale data are used to estimate the full industrial-scale feasibility of a carbon-capture process by these approaches. © This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2010 by the American Chemical Society. Source

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