Betzdorf, Luxembourg
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Galatis G.,Technical University of Delft | Guo J.,Technical University of Delft | Buursink J.,LuxSpace Sarl
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2016

Photovoltaic solar array (PVSA) systems are the most widely used method for spacecraft power generation. However, in many satellite missions the optimum orientation of the PVSA system is not always compatible with that of the payload orientation. Many methods, have been examined in the past to overcome this problem. Up to date, the most widely used active method for large costly satellites is the solar array drive mechanism (SADM). The SADM serves as the interface between the satellite body and the PVSA enabling the decoupling of their spatial orientation. Non the less, there exists a research and development gap for such systems regarding low cost micro-satellites. The first step of this research individual orbital parameters of various micro-satellites have been extracted, and have been compared to the rotational freedom of the corresponding SADMs used. The findings demonstrated that the implemented SADMs are over designed. It is therefore concluded that these components are not tailored made for each spacecraft mission individually, but rather, exhibit a generic design to fulfill a majority of mission profiles and requirements. Motivated by the above analysis, the cardinal objective of the current reaserch is to develop a low cost mechanism that will be precisely tailored for the use of a LEO micro-satellite platform orbiting in altitudes of 500-1000Km. The design of the mechanism may vary from the existing miniaturized SADMs. For example, the preliminary analysis of the current research suggests, that the conventional use of the slip ring system as the electronic transfer unit can be replaced by a seMI Orientation Unit (MIOU). Systems engineering tools for concept generation and selection have been used. In addition, simulation and mathematical modelling have been implemented on component and system level, to accurately predict the behavior of the system under various modes of operation. The production and system testing of the prototype has taken place and it has verified that the development of such a system, will aid the power generation of the solar arrays, while having a positive impact on the cost reduction of such satellites. In the presentation the final results and conclusion are presented. This ongoing project is the result of the collaboration between the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering of TU Delft and LuxSpace Sarl. The overall goal of this research is to lay the foundations and fill the gap between research and design, for the development of SADMs for low cost micro-satellites in LEO. Copyright © 2016 by the International Astronautical Federation (IAF). All rights reserved.

Moser H.A.,LuxSpace Sarl | Goerlach T.,LuxSpace Sarl | Poppe M.,LuxSpace Sarl | Buursink J.,LuxSpace Sarl
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2016

Technology evolved in various ways, driven by great inventors such as Leonardo da Vinci, Thomas Edison or Henry Ford as well as by well-planned and structured invention with problem solving techniques such as Altschuller's theory of inventive problem solving (TIPS). The latter approach relies on a rigid transparent and repeatable framework that is founded on a set of historical solution principles. Da Vinci and Edison could rely on intuition and individual genius. As different as these two examples are the various engineering approaches in the space industry, in the micro-satellite branch and even within micro-satellite companies. In this paper approaches of three micro-satellite projects within one company are described. The projects are categorised and key characteristics such as team rationale and size, supplier relationship, major product measure, requirements management, documentation approach and project duration as well as environments such as customers are described. By analysing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the approaches conclusions for future projects in the company are drawn. This analysis is neither comprehensive nor finalised, but it is a crucial step in a continuous evolution process of a learning organisation. Within the current paper, selected instances of this analysis and its outcome are presented. Here, we focus on one of the key differences in engineering approaches: the relationship between project entities such as contractor and subcontractors. There are two opposite models for the contractor-subcontractor relationship: a) a consortium that builds on mutual trust, therefore reduces legal and formal burdens to the minimum and b) a consortium that relies on formal and legally detailed contracts. The latter option necessitates an engineering approach that concentrates on pre-defined documentation and contractually agreed deliverables whereas the trust-based consortium requires a more intensive informal interaction and coordination. These two opposite models of project-entity relationships also appear in the relationship between customer and contractor. Being aware of these differences and identifying the best fitting engineering approach is essential for mission success. Copyright 2016 by LuxSpace Sarl.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SEC-2010.3.1-1 | Award Amount: 43.43M | Year: 2011

PERSEUS contributes to Europes efforts to monitor illegal migration and combat related crime and goods smuggling by proposing a large scale demonstration of a EU Maritime surveillance System of Systems, on the basis of existing national systems and platforms, enhancing them with innovative capabilities and moving beyond EUROSURs 2013 expectations, addressing key challenges: supporting the network created by National Contact Centres, Frontex and EMSA through increased capabilities, including transnational exchange of useful and available information, and associated procedures and mechanisms, thereby supporting the creation of a common information sharing environment generation of a common situational picture improved detection and identification of non collaborative/suspicious small boats and low flying aircraft enhanced and increasingly automated detection of abnormal vessel behaviours, identification of threats and tracking of reporting and non-reporting vessels PERSEUS articulates this demonstration through 5 exercises grouped in 2 campaigns, implementing missions of drug trafficking and illegal migration control and delivering surveillance continuity from coastal areas to high seas. PERSEUS delivers a comprehensive set of validated and demonstrated recommendations and proposes standards. PERSEUS has assembled major users and providers, ensuring privileged access to existing surveillance systems and assets for an optimised coverage of the area of interest. These users will define, assess and validate the alignment of PERSEUSs recommendations to their needs. PERSEUS also includes an evolution mechanism to enlarge the user base and integrate emerging technologies during its lifetime. PERSEUS will augment the effectiveness of operational capabilities of the existing systems a relevant and coordinated contribution to the establishment of an integrated European-wide maritime border control system

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PROTEC-1-2015 | Award Amount: 3.23M | Year: 2016

ReDSHIFT will address barriers to compliance for spacecraft manufacturers and operators presented now and in the future by requirements and technologies for de-orbiting and disposal of space objects. This will be achieved through a holistic approach that considers from the outset opposing and challenging constraints for the safety of the human population when these objects re-enter the atmosphere, designed for demise, and for their survivability in the harsh space environment while on orbit. Ensuring robustness into the future, ReDSHIFT will take advantage of disruptive opportunities offered by 3D printing to develop highly innovative, low-cost spacecraft solutions, exploiting synergies with electric propulsion, atmospheric and solar radiation pressure drag, and astro-dynamical highways, to meet de-orbit and disposal needs, but which are also designed for demise. Inherent to these solutions will be structures to enhance spacecraft protection, by fracture along intended breakup planes, and re-entry demise characteristics. These structures will be subjected to functional tests as well as specific hypervelocity impact tests and material demise wind tunnel tests to demonstrate the capabilities of the 3D printed structures. At the same time, novel and complex technical, economic and legal issues of adapting the technologies to different vehicles, and implementing them widely across low Earth orbit will be tackled through the development of a hierarchical, web-based tool aimed at a variety of space actors. This will provide a complete debris mitigation analysis of a mission, using existing debris evolution models and lessons learned from theoretical and experimental work. It will output safe, scalable and cost-effective satellite and mission designs in response to operational constraints. Through its activities, ReDSHIFT will recommend new space debris mitigation guidelines taking into account novel spacecraft designs, materials, manufacturing and mission solutions.

Brusch S.,German Aerospace Center | Lehner S.,German Aerospace Center | Fritz T.,German Aerospace Center | Soccorsi M.,German Aerospace Center | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

Ship detection is an important application of global monitoring of environment and security. In order to overcome the limitations by other systems, surveillance with satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is used because of its possibility to provide ship detection at high resolution over wide swaths and in all weather conditions. A new X-band radar onboard the TerraSAR-X (TS-X) satellite gives access to spatial resolution as fine as 1 m. In this paper, first results on the combined use of TS-X ship detection, automatic identification system (AIS), and satellite AIS (SatAIS) is presented. The AIS system is an effective terrestrial method for tracking vessels in real time typically up to 40 km off the coast. SatAIS, as a space-based system, allows almost global coverage for monitoring of ships since not all ships operate their AIS and smaller ships are not equipped with AIS. The system is considered to be of cooperative nature. In this paper, the quality of TS-X images with respect to ship detection is evaluated, and a first assessment of its performance for ship detection is given. The velocity of a moving ship is estimated using complex TS-X data. As test cases, images were acquired over the North Sea, Baltic Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and Pacific Ocean in Stripmap mode with a resolution of 3 m at a coverage of 30 km × 100 km. Simultaneous information on ship positions was available from TS-X and terrestrial as well as SatAIS. First results on the simultaneous superposition of SatAIS and high-resolution radar images are presented. © 2006 IEEE.

Bita I.P.A.,Luxspace Sarl | Barret M.,Supelec | Pham D.-T.,CNRS Mathematics Laboratory
Signal Processing | Year: 2010

We study a JPEG2000 compatible multicomponent image compression scheme, which consists in applying a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to each component of the image and a spectral linear transform between components. We consider the case of a spectral transform which adapts to the image and a 2-D DWT with fixed coefficients. In Akam Bita et al. (accepted for publication, [6]) we gave a criterion minimized by optimal spectral transforms. Here, we derive a simplified criterion by treating the transformed coefficients in each subband as having a Gaussian distribution of variance depending on the subband. Its minimization under orthogonality constraint is shown to lead to a joint approximate diagonalization problem, for which a fast algorithm (JADO) is available. Performances in coding of the transform returned by JADO are compared on hyper- and multi-spectral images with the Karhunen-Loève transform (KLT) and the optimal transform (without Gaussianity assumption) returned by the algorithm OrthOST introduced in Akam Bita et al. (accepted for publication, [6]). For hyper- (resp. multi-) spectral images, we observe that JADO returns a transform which performs appreciably better than (resp. as well as) the KLT at medium to high bit-rates, nearly attaining (resp. slightly below) the performances of the transform returned by OrthOST, with a significantly lower complexity than the algorithm OrthOST. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Akam Bita I.P.,LUXSPACE Sarl | Barret M.,Supelec | Pham D.-T.,CNRS Mathematics Laboratory
Signal Processing | Year: 2010

It is well known in transform coding, that the Karhunen-Loève transform (KLT) is optimal only for Gaussian sources. However, in many applications using JPEG2000 Part 2 codecs, the KLT is generally considered as the optimal linear transform for reducing redundancies between components of multicomponent images. In this paper we present the criterion satisfied by an optimal transform of a JPEG2000 compatible compression scheme, under high resolution quantization hypothesis and without the Gaussianity assumption. We also introduce two variants of the compression scheme and the associated criteria minimized by optimal transforms. Then we give two algorithms, derived of the Independent Component Analysis algorithm ICAinf, that compute the optimal transform, one under the orthogonality constraint and the other without no constraint but invertibility. The computational complexity of the algorithms is evaluated. Finally, comparisons with the KLT are presented on hyperspectral and multispectral satellite images with different measures of distortion, as it is recommended for evaluating the performances of the codec in applications (like classification and target detection). For hyperspectral images, we observe a little but significant gain at medium and high bit-rates of the optimal transforms compared to the KLT. The actual drawback of the optimal transforms is their heavy computational complexity. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Akam Bita I.P.,LUXSPACE Sarl | Barret M.,Supelec | Dalla Vedova F.,LUXSPACE Sarl | Gutzwiller J.-L.,Supelec
Journal of Applied Remote Sensing | Year: 2010

Our research focuses on reducing complexity of hyperspectral image codecs based on transform and/or subband coding, so they can be on-board a satellite. It is well-known that the Karhunen Loeve transform (KLT) can be sub-optimal for non Gaussian data. However, it is generally recommended as the best calculable coding transform in practice. Now, for a compression scheme compatible with both the JPEG2000 Part2 standard and the CCSDS recommendations for onboard satellite image compression, the concept and computation of optimal spectral transforms (OST), at high bit-rates, were carried out, under low restrictive hypotheses. These linear transforms are optimal for reducing spectral redundancies of multi-or hyper-spectral images, when the spatial redundancies are reduced with a fixed 2-D discrete wavelet transform. The problem of OST is their heavy computational cost. In this paper we present the performances in coding of a quasi-optimal spectral transform, called exogenous OrthOST, obtained by learning an orthogonal OST on a sample of hyperspectral images from the spectrometer MERIS. Moreover, we compute an integer variant of OrthOST for lossless compression. The performances are compared to the ones of the KLT in both lossy and lossless compressions. We observe good performances of the exogenous OrthOST. © 2010 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

Strozyna M.,Poznań University of Economics | Eiden G.,LuxSpace Sarl | Filipiak D.,Poznań University of Economics | Malyszko J.,Poznań University of Economics | Wecel K.,Poznań University of Economics
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing | Year: 2016

The paper presents a methodology for identification, assessment and selection of internet data sources that shall be used to supplement existing internal data in a continuous manner. Several criteria are specified to help in the selection process. The proposed method is described based on an example of the system for the maritime surveillance purposes, originally developed within the SIMMO research project. As a result, we also present a ranking of concrete data sources. The presented methodology is universal and can be applied to other domains, where internet sources can offer additional data. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

Ruy G.,LuxSpace SaRL
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2013

Since the inception of the Hyogo Frame for Action in 2005 by UNISDR, effectively starting a global approach for risk and losses reduction strategy by building resilience for nations and communities, one of the major item is early warning and information dissemination. Early warning is usually understood as the prediction of the disaster, whatever it can be, but is also comprised of the information dissemination to the population, as to ultimately allow every individual to take self protecting measures or follow competent authority's instructions to this effect. While information dissemination before the disaster can rely on existing infrastructure, that infrastructure may be destroyed or severely impaired during the disaster and may drastically reduce the efficiency of the authorities and ability of individuals to take appropriate self protecting measures. The general principle is delegation and subsidiarity, meaning that each state or region is responsible of the implementation of appropriate systems. Depending on the political, technological and financial approach, this lead to largely different solutions where interoperability is not always sought for, not to speak about the cultural problems that can arise in areas of multiple cultures and languages, whatever they might originate from, such as high foreign tourism load, cross border disaster or multiple ethnic groups. Required resiliency is quite high and rather close, even identical, to military telecommunication systems while their target is different. Military infrastructure has proven to be efficient in certain cases. Other approaches rely on existing civilian, commercial infrastructure, usually cellular phone systems or, in a more generic way, such as the use of AM radio in the USA. Radio amateurs have also an obligation to maintain an autonomous HF capability so as to serve as an emergency relay point. The drawback of all these approaches is that they target a limited "audience", use existing infrastructure and terminals that may require high technological level. At any rate they demand a level of maintenance that is costly. Geostationary satellites and the most simple, ubiquitous FM radio can offer an elegant, global solution to information dissemination to large population when all existing means are destroyed, impaired or even non existing. This approach is quite a complete change of paradigm, however, figures are there: this is possible and can be technically achieved. While the proposed solution is by no mean considered as achieved, it definitely paves the way for a unified, global system with a high capability of evolution that is accessible to every government. ©2013 by the International Astronautical Federation. All rights reserved.

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