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Luton, United Kingdom

Sachdeva R.,University of Birmingham | Kannan T.R.,Luton and Dunstable Hospital | Mendonca C.,Coventry University | Patteril M.,Coventry University
Anaesthesia | Year: 2014

Summary The practice of checking the ability to mask ventilate before administering neuromuscular blocking drugs remains controversial. We prospectively evaluated the changes in the expired tidal volume during pressure-controlled ventilation (two-handed mask ventilation technique) as a surrogate marker to assess the ease of mask ventilation following administration of rocuronium. After informed consent, 125 patients were anaesthetised using a standard induction technique consisting of fentanyl, propofol and rocuronium, with anaesthesia then maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. The mean (SD) expired tidal volume before administration of rocuronium increased by 61 (13) ml at 2 min following onset of neuromuscular block (p < 0.001). This supports the concept that neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium facilitates mask ventilation. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland. Source

Antiplatelet agents are established, evidence-based treatments to reduce the risk of subsequent stroke in patients diagnosed with transient ischaemic attack (TIA). This case discusses the clinical dilemma clinicians are faced with when treating TIA-like symptoms in patients with coexisting arteriovenous malformation (AVM). A 65-year-old Caucasian woman reported a sudden onset of right hand weakness and impaired coordination. The episode lasted for 1 min and then resolved completely. She was subsequently diagnosed with a TIA and started on aspirin 75 mg. Her coexisting medical history included a large left-sided parietal-occipital AVM. The case highlights the clinician's need to balance the risk posed by antiplatelet agents increasing the likelihood of AVM rupture between the risk of untreated TIA progressing to stroke. Factors worth considering include number of vascular risk factors, AVM-related steal phenomena, size of AVM and whether or not there has been previous AVM-related haemorrhage. Source

Thorburn K.,Alder Hey Childrens Hospital | Eisenhut M.,Luton and Dunstable Hospital | Riordan A.,Alder Hey Childrens Hospital
Minerva Anestesiologica | Year: 2012

Background. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common pathogens involved in nosocomial infection in children. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of nosocomial RSV infection on mortality and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) morbidity of ventilated children. Methods. This is a prospective observational cohort study of all children ventilated with RSV infection in a tertiaryreferral PICU over a 10-year period. Determinants of the relationship of nosocomial (PICU-acquired and hospital ward-acquired) RSV infection to mortality and PICU morbidity were adjusted for by performing multiple regression analysis. Results. Of 525 RSV-positive children ventilated on PICU during the ten-year study period, 38 (7.2%) acquired their RSV infection following PICU admission and 38 (7.2%) had acquired RSV in hospital. Ten (26%) children that acquired RSV on PICU died (RR 6.4, 95%CI 3.2-12.9) and 11 (29%) with hospital ward-acquired infection died (RR 9.8, 95%CI 5.1-18.9), compared to 18 (4%) with community-acquired RSV infection. Nosocomial RSV infection was significantly and independently associated with death which was more strongly predicted by immunodeficiency and congenital heart disease (P<0.01). Nosocomial RSV infection was the strongest predictor for morbidity as reflected in duration of ventilation and length of stay on PICU (P<0.01). Conclusion. Nosocomial RSV infection was independently associated with increased mortality and was the strongest predictor of duration of ventilation and length of stay in children on PICU. Decreasing nosocomial RSV infection would reduce deaths in ventilated children. © 2012 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA. Source

Tahseen S.,University of Leeds | Griffiths M.,Luton and Dunstable Hospital
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2010

Background Trial of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC) is considered acceptable after one caesarean section (CS), however, women wishing to have trial after two CS are generally not allowed or counselled appropriately of efficacy and complications. Objective To perform a systematic review of literature on success rate of vaginal birth after two caesarean sections (VBAC-2) and associated adverse maternal and fetal outcomes; and compare with commonly accepted VBAC-1 and the alternative option of repeat third CS (RCS). Search strategy We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Current Controlled Trials, HMIC Database, Grey Literature Databases (SIGLE, Biomed Central), using search terms Caesarean section, caesarian, C*rean, C*rian, and MeSH headings 'Vaginal birth after caesarean section', combined with second search string two, twice, second, multiple. Selection criteria No randomised studies were available, case series or cohort studies were assessed for quality (STROBE), 20/23 available studies included. Data collection and analysis Two independent reviewers selected studies and abstracted and tabulated data and pooled estimates were obtained on success rate, uterine rupture and other adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Meta-analyses were performed using RevMan-5 to compare VBAC-1 versus VBAC-2 and VBAC-2 versus RCS. Main results VBAC-2 success rate was 71.1%, uterine rupture rate 1.36%, hysterectomy rate 0.55%, blood transfusion 2.01%, neonatal unit admission rate 7.78% and perinatal asphyxial injury/death 0.09%. VBAC-2 versus VBAC-1 success rates were 4064/5666 (71.1%) versus 38 814/50 685 (76.5%) (P < 0.001); associated uterine rupture rate 1.59% versus 0.72% (P < 0.001) and hysterectomy rates were 0.56% versus 0.19% (P = 0.001) respectively. Comparing VBAC-2 versus RCS, the hysterectomy rates were 0.40% versus 0.63% (P = 0.63), transfusion 1.68% versus 1.67% (P = 0.86) and febrile morbidity 6.03% versus 6.39%, respectively (P = 0.27). Maternal morbidity of VBAC-2 was comparable to RCS. Neonatal morbidity data were too limited to draw valid conclusions, however, no significant differences were indicated in VBAC-2, VBAC-1 and RCS groups in NNU admission rates and asphyxial injury/neonatal death rates (Mantel-Haenszel). Conclusions Women requesting for a trial of vaginal delivery after two caesarean sections should be counselled appropriately considering available data of success rate 71.1%, uterine rupture rate 1.36% and of a comparative maternal morbidity with repeat CS option. © RCOG 2009 BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Source

Rashid F.,University of Nottingham | Aber A.,Luton and Dunstable Hospital | Iftikhar S.Y.,University of Nottingham
World Journal of Emergency Surgery | Year: 2012

The gastric fundal diverticulae are rare. They can present with variable symptoms. We are enclosing a literature review on gastric fundal diverticulum. Lessons have emerged which may help in the management of this rare condition in future. © 2012 Rashid et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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