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Chen Y.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Chen Y.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Xiang Z.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Wang X.,Lushui Bureau of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Primatology | Year: 2015

The Burmese snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus strykeri) is one of the most recently discovered primate species, and occurs only along the border of Myanmar and China. Its ecology is largely unknown owing to its harsh and remote habitat. However, study of this new species can contribute to our understanding of how primates adapt to a high-altitude lifestyle. We here describe our preliminary study of a group of R. strykeri, using a mix of direct observation and camera traps, at Pianma, Yunnan, China. From May 2013 to May 2014, we conducted direct observation and deployed 30 camera traps to examine the social characteristics of R. strykeri, estimate group home range via the modified minimum convex polygon method, and estimate the vertical range used. We achieved direct observation on 8 days and obtained 222 camera trap images triggered by the passing of R. strykeri. The cameras captured five one-male, multifemale units and one all-male unit. We observed fusion of units without aggression during both direct observation and camera trapping, suggesting that R. strykeri lives in a multilevel society, similarly to the other members of the genus. The ratio of adults to immatures was high relative to stable populations of Rhinopithecus, suggesting the population is in decline. We estimated the group’s home range to be 22.9 km2 and found that R. strykeri occurred at 2400–3300 m. Our work shows that camera traps can be used effectively to survey rare primates. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Chi M.,Dali University | Zhi-Pang H.,Dali University | Xiao-Fei Z.,Dali University | Li-Xiang Z.,Dali University | And 5 more authors.
Primates | Year: 2014

This paper summarizes the results of 358 interviews we conducted on Rhinopithecus strykeri in the Gaoligong Mountains, northwest Yunnan, China, between April 2011 and December 2012. Based on our interview records and selective field surveys (47 days of field survey for seven possible distribution areas), we suggest that there may be up to 10 groups of R. strykeri occurring in China between the Salween River and the border with Myanmar, and that the total population of R. strykeri in China should be between 490 and 620 animals. According to interviewees, Rhinopithecus strykeri tends to use conifer and mixed conifer-broad-leaved forest, predominantly between 2,600 and 3,100 m above sea level. To better protect this globally threatened species, classified as critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), we suggest extensions to current nature reserve boundaries to better include the home ranges of China's remaining population. © 2014 Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan.

Chen Y.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Xiao Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li M.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Wang X.,Lushui Bureau of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve | And 5 more authors.
Acta Theriologica Sinica | Year: 2016

Mt. Gaoligong, situated along the China-Myanmar border, is one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world. However, the knowledge of the fauna diversity in this area is still lack due to complex terrain and dense vegetation. From November 2013 to September 2015, we investigated the biodiversity of mammals and birds by deploying 30 infrared camera traps in the west slope of mid-section of Mt. Gaoligong at Pianma, Yunnan, China. We established 41 different camera sites with 9 503 camera-trapping days and obtained 808 independent images. We identified 21 mammals and 24 birds, belonging to 10 orders, 21 families and 38 genera. We also identified Rhinopithecus strykeri, a recently discovered non-human primate species in the mid-section of Mt. Gaoligong. Primates, Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Passeriformes, Galliformes and Rodentia were the most abundant orders and widely distributed in the study area. Based on the detailed time records from seven most abundant species, the results showed that: (1) Macaca assamensis, R. strykeri and Ithaginis cruentus had a similar daily activity patterns with one peak in the morning and another in the afternoon; (2) the activity patterns of Dremomys lokriah and Myophonus caeruleus peaked at noon, but D. lokriah had another peak at dusk; and (3) Martes flavigula and Sus scrofa exhibited nocturnality, however S. scrofa were more active at night. This survey provides basic and valuable information for current status of mammalian and avian diversity at Mt. Gaoligong, which is essential for wildlife monitoring and biodiversity conservation for this area. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.

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