Lupin Ltd Research Park

Pune, India

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Pune, India
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Kanode R.,Lupin Ltd Research Park | Chandra S.,Lupin Ltd Research Park | Sharma S.,Lupin Ltd Research Park
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods | Year: 2017

Non-genotoxic carcinogens may play a significant role in development of cancer. Currently short-term assays for mutagenicity classify genotoxic carcinogens and lack the abilities to detect epigenetic carcinogens. The need to develop an endpoint always remains to recognize potentially carcinogenic agents employing rapid and practical bioassays. For this, the present study utilized TA98 and TA1537 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium to evaluate four non-genotoxic carcinogenic agents (Coumarin, β-Myrcene, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and trans-anethole). These chemicals were tested individually and in combination with promutagens 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in presence of metabolic activation system (S9) by plate incorporation method. Exposure to all four test chemicals revealed marked increase of revertant colonies in promutagen combined groups as compared to promutagens alone. However significantly greater fold responses were observed with 2AA combination groups (Coumarin +2AA, β-Myrcene +2AA, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate +2AA and trans-anethole +2AA) with TA98 strain as compared with TA1537, which seems to have enhanced the mutagenic response of 2AA in metabolically activated conditions. It is concluded that out of both tester strains TA98 strain of Salmonella typhimurium has the potential to detect non-genotoxic carcinogens when combined with potent promutgens either by inhibiting or modulating activities of liver microsomal enzymes biochemically which may indirectly contribute to neoplastic alterations. Further this simple, short-term alternative assay may provide rapid information during extrapolative toxicology for differentiating genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Bahirat U.A.,Lupin Ltd Research Park | Shenoy R.R.,Manipal University India | Goel R.N.,Lupin Ltd Research Park | Nemmani K.V.S.,Lupin Ltd Research Park
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2016

G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) receptor is a rhodopsin-like, class A Gαs-coupled receptor, predominantly expressed in pancreatic islet cells and intestinal entero-endocrine cells. GPR119 has been emerged as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effect of APD668, a GPR119 agonist alone and in combination with linagliptin, a DPPIV inhibitor on oral fat tolerance test. Our findings demonstrate that APD668, a GPR119 agonist inhibits the intestinal triglyceride absorption after acute fat load in mice. Single dose administration of APD668 increases incretin secretion and enhances total PYY levels in presence of fat load in mice. We found that, the anti-dyslipidemic action of APD668 was reversed in presence of exendin-3 in oral fat tolerance test. In addition, our results showed that exendin-3 (9-39) failed to block the effect of APD668 on gastric emptying indicating that gastric emptying effects of APD668 are indeed mediated through GPR119 receptor dependent mechanism. Combined administration of APD668 and linagliptin significantly increased plasma active GLP-1 levels in-vivo and showed improvement in fat tolerance. However, APD668 failed to show anti-dyslipidemic activity in tyloxapol-induced hyperlipidemia in mice. Furthermore, we investigated the chronic effects of APD668 on hepatic steatosis in high trans-fat diet fed steatohepatitis model in mice. Oral administration of APD668 in HTF diet fed mice ameliorated hepatic endpoints such as plasma ALT, AST, liver weight and steatosis. These findings suggest that GPR119 agonists may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Malewar N.,Lupin Ltd. Research Park | Avachat M.,Lupin Ltd. Research Park | Pokharkar V.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Kulkarni S.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University
AAPS PharmSciTech | Year: 2013

The purpose of the present study was to control in vitro burst effect of the highly water-soluble drug, ropinirole hydrochloride to reduce in vivo dose dumping and to establish in vitro-in vivo correlation. The pharmacokinetics of two entirely different tablet formulation technologies is also explored in this study. For pharmacokinetics study, FDA recommends at least 10% difference in drug release for formulations to be studied but here a different approach was adopted. The formulations F8A and F9A having similar dissolution profiles among themselves and with Requip® XL™ (f 2 value 72, 77, 71 respectively) were evaluated. The C max of formulation F8A comprising hypromellose 100,000 cP was 1005.16 pg/ml as compared to 973.70 pg/ml of formulation F9A comprising hypromellose 4000 cP irrespective of T max of 5 and 5.75 h, respectively. The difference in release and extent of absorption in vivo was due to synergistic effect of complex RH release mechanism; however, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ values were comparable. The level A correlation using the Wagner-Nelson method supported the findings where R 2 was 0.7597 and 0.9675 respectively for formulation F8A and F9A. Thus, in vivo studies are required for proving the therapeutic equivalency of different formulation technologies even though f 2 ≥ 50. The technology was demonstrated effectively at industrial manufacturing scale of 200,000 tablets. © 2013 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.


Verma M.K.,Lupin Ltd Research Park | Goel R.,Lupin Ltd Research Park | Nandakumar K.,Manipal University India | Nemmani K.V.S.,Lupin Ltd Research Park
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2017

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of D-Ala2GIP, a gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) receptor agonist, to attenuate the behavioral phenotype of Parkinson's disease caused by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration in mice. In the behavioral studies, MPTP administration led to spontaneous locomotor activity deficits, impaired rotarod performance, akinesia, muscular rigidity and increased tremor amplitude, which was attenuated by pretreatment with D-Ala2GIP (50–100 nmol/kg, i.p.). This acute neuroprotective response by D-Ala2GIP was found to be blocked by a selective GIP receptor antagonist, (Pro3)GIP (50 nmol/kg, i.p.), indicating that the observed effects are mediated through GIP receptor mediated signaling pathway. Biochemical studies revealed that D-Ala2GIP reduced the brain malondialdehyde levels and enhanced the brain glutathione levels, thereby mitigating the MPTP-induced oxidative stress. MPTP administration resulted in reduction of the striatal concentration of dopamine and its metabolites, homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3, 4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). Pretreatment with D-Ala2GIP attenuated the loss of striatal dopamine levels without affecting the normal dopamine catabolism. Thus, the observed effects in the MPTP-induced Parkinsonism model could be in part attributable to the antioxidant properties of D-Ala2GIP and enhanced turnover of dopamine in the nigrostriatal pathways in mouse brain. These findings together suggest that GIP receptor could be a therapeutic target in the management of symptoms of Parkinson's disease. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Nigade P.B.,Lupin Ltd Research Park | Gundu J.,Lupin Ltd Research Park | Sreedhara Pai K.,Manipal University India | Nemmani K.V.S.,Lupin Ltd Research Park
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics | Year: 2017

Background: Majority of reported studies so far developed correlation regression equations using the rat muscle-to-plasma drug concentration ratio (Kp-muscle) to predict tissue-to-plasma drug concentration ratios (Kp-tissues). Use of regression equations derived from rat Kp-muscle may not be ideal to predict the mice tissue-Kps as there are species differences. Objectives: (i) To develop the linear regression equations using mouse tissue-Kps; (ii) to assess the correlation between organ blood flow and/or organ weight with tissue-Kps and (iii) compare the observed tissue-Kps from mice with corresponding predicted tissue-Kps using Richter’s rat-Kp specific equations. Method: Disposition of 12 small molecules were investigated extensively in mouse plasma and tissues after a single oral dose administration. Linear correlation was assessed for each of the tissue with rest of the other tissues, separately for weak and strong bases. Result: Newly developed regression equations using mice tissue-Kps, predicted 79% data points within twofold. As observed correlation r2 range was 0.75–0.98 between Kp-muscle and Kp-brain, -spleen, -skin, -liver, -lung, suggesting superior correlation between the tissue-Kps. Order of tissue-Kps, showed that tissue concentrations were directly proportional to the organ blood flow and inversely to the organ weight. Further, the observed tissue-Kps from mice were compared with corresponding predicted tissue-Kps using Richter’s rat-Kp specific equations. Overall, 46, 54 and 63% data points were under predicted (<0.5-fold) for liver, spleen and lung, respectively. Whereas 63 and 75% data points were over predicted (>twofold) for skin and brain, respectively. These findings suggest that cross species extrapolation predictability is poor. Conclusion: All these findings together suggest that mouse specific regression equations developed under controlled experimental conditions could be most appropriate for predicting mouse tissue-Kps for compounds with wide range of volume of distribution. © 2017 Springer International Publishing Switzerland


Ahuja V.,Lupin Ltd Research Park | Bokan S.,Lupin Ltd Research Park | Sharma S.,Lupin Ltd Research Park
Drug Discovery Today | Year: 2017

The sensitivity of the various preclinical models used to predict toxicity in humans varies. In this review, we analyze the various models used to predict safety in drug discovery and development with a view to understanding their translational value in humans. Twenty recently approved anticancer drugs were studied and the available nonclinical and clinical adverse effects information available from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was analyzed. We found that gastrointestinal and hematopoietic toxicities in humans were predicted to the maximum extent by nonclinical models, whereas respiratory, integumentary, renal, nervous, hepatic, and cardiovascular were moderately predicted. Ocular, endocrine, and musculoskeletal toxicities were poorly predicted while lymphatic and immune toxicities were difficult to predict. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Malewar N.,Lupin Ltd. Research Park | Avachat M.,Lupin Ltd. Research Park | Kulkarni S.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Pokharkar V.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology | Year: 2015

Context: Venlafaxine Hydrochloride (VH) is a highly soluble and highly permeable antidepressant compound. Thus controlling VH release from tablet dosage form over a prolonged period is a challenge. Objective: The objective of this work was to study the effect of various barrier layer formulation compositions, its orientations and manufacturing technology on release profile of highly soluble VH. Materials and methods: Different barrier compositions and orientations were established on the same extended release formulations of VH using compression as well as film coating technologies. Barrier effectiveness in reducing the VH release was verified through in vitro dissolution studies. Results and discussion: The "belly band" portion of the tablets was successfully oriented in different ways to develop bilayer as well as trilayer tablets. The compression technology had substantially reduced the VH release up to 16% in various compositions and orientation as compared to core tablet. The film coating technology had reduced the VH release up to 14% effectively; thereby shifting the dissolution curve to downside. Conclusion: The explored "belly band" portion of the tablets had reduced the VH release substantially. These innovatively created different barrier orientation technologies hold the great promise of commercialization in future. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Nebbioso A.,The Second University of Naples | Pereira R.,University of Vigo | Khanwalkar H.,Institute Of Genetique Et Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire | Khanwalkar H.,Lupin Ltd Research Park | And 12 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics | Year: 2011

Deregulation of the epigenome is recognized as cause of cancer and epigenetic factors are receiving major attention as therapeutic targets; yet, the molecular mode of action of existing epi-drugs is largely elusive. Here, we report on the decryption of the mechanism of action of UVI5008, a novel epigenetic modifier, that inhibits histone deacetylases, sirtuins, and DNA methyltransferases. UVI5008 highly efficiently induces cancer cell-selective death in a variety of models and exerts its activities in several human tumor xenografts and genetic mouse models of human breast cancer in vivo. Its anticancer activity involves independent activation of death receptors and reactive oxygen species production. Importantly, UVI5008 action is not critically dependent on p53, Bcl-2 modifying factor, and/or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand as cell death is efficiently induced in cells mutated or deficient for these factors limiting the risk of drug resistance development and maximizing its application spectrum. The simultaneous modulation of multiple (epigenetic) targets promises to open new avenues with unanticipated potential against cancer. ©2011 AACR.


Ahuja V.,Lupin Ltd Research Park | Sharma S.,Lupin Ltd Research Park
Journal of Applied Toxicology | Year: 2014

Early assessment of the toxicity potential of new molecules in pharmaceutical industry is a multi-dimensional task involving predictive systems and screening approaches to aid in the optimization of lead compounds prior to their entry into development phase. Due to the high attrition rate in the pharma industry in last few years, it has become imperative for the nonclinical toxicologist to focus on novel approaches which could be helpful for early screening of drug candidates. The need is that the toxicologists should change their classical approach to a more investigative approach. This review discusses the developments that allow toxicologists to anticipate safety problems and plan ways to address them earlier than ever before. This includes progress in the field of in vitro models, surrogate models, molecular toxicology, 'omics' technologies, translational safety biomarkers, stem-cell based assays and preclinical imaging. The traditional boundaries between teams focusing on efficacy/ safety and preclinical/ clinical aspects in the pharma industry are disappearing, and translational research-centric organizations with a focused vision of bringing drugs forward safely and rapidly are emerging. Today's toxicologist should collaborate with medicinal chemists, pharmacologists, and clinicians and these value-adding contributions will change traditional toxicologists from side-effect identifiers to drug development enablers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


PubMed | Lupin Ltd Research Park
Type: Review | Journal: Drug discovery today | Year: 2016

The sensitivity of the various preclinical models used to predict toxicity in humans varies. In this review, we analyze the various models used to predict safety in drug discovery and development with a view to understanding their translational value in humans. Twenty recently approved anticancer drugs were studied and the available nonclinical and clinical adverse effects information available from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was analyzed. We found that gastrointestinal and hematopoietic toxicities in humans were predicted to the maximum extent by nonclinical models, whereas respiratory, integumentary, renal, nervous, hepatic, and cardiovascular were moderately predicted. Ocular, endocrine, and musculoskeletal toxicities were poorly predicted while lymphatic and immune toxicities were difficult to predict.

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