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Damianovich M.,Lung Cancer Research Laboratory | Hout Siloni G.,Lung Cancer Research Laboratory | Barshack I.,Chaim Sheba Medical Center | Barshack I.,Tel Aviv University | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Lung Cancer | Year: 2013

Background Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) has a profound impact on quality of life and survival in patients with lung cancer. Identification of the factors within the tumor and its environment that mediate MPE is still lacking. Patients and Methods Intratumoral microvessel density (MVD), endothelial cell and pericyte (PC) capillary coverage, endothelial cell (EC)-PC relationship, lymphatic endothelium integrity, and the expression of receptor tyrosine kinases were all assessed immunohistochemically in pleural tumor biopsy specimens from 24 patients with lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) with and without pleural disease, with the aim to evaluate the involvement with MPE. Results In the effusion-positive (+) specimens, MVD values were found to be significantly higher, and a number of vessels were noted to lack immunoreactivity for ECs (CD31). Likewise, PC α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression was also less extensive in the MPE+ cases. The observation of only sporadic staining of PCs can also explain the findings regarding platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs), the expression of which, although more prominent in MPE+ samples, were almost exclusively detected on tumor stromal cells and not on vascular PCs. Conversely, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) appeared on both kinds of cells. With respect to lymphatic vessels, lymphatic intraluminal tumor cells were occasionally found in MPE+ specimens. Conclusion Our study suggests that disturbed vessel wall integrity, as well as abnormalities of fluid clearance by the lymphatic system, together with overexpression of growth factors, may take part in the pleural fluid accumulation in lung ADCs. Results of the decreased PC capillary coverage and PDGFR expression in MPE are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Zismanov V.,Lung Cancer Research Laboratory | Zismanov V.,Tel Aviv University | Drucker L.,Meir Medical Center | Drucker L.,Tel Aviv University | And 3 more authors.
Anti-Cancer Drugs | Year: 2014

Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This malignancy is a complex disease, and it is important to identify potential biological targets, the blockade of which would affect multiple downstream signaling cascades. A growing number of reports recognize novel therapeutic targets in the protein homeostasis network responsible for generating and protecting the protein fold. The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an essential molecular chaperon involved in the posttranslational folding and stability of proteins. It is required for conformational maturation of multiple oncogenic kinases that drive signal transduction and proliferation of cancer cells. However, in the case of unfolded protein accumulation endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is induced and several response pathways such as proteasome functions are activated. The ubiquitin-proteasome system orchestrates the turnover of innumerable cellular proteins. Here, we suggest that the therapeutic efficacy of Hsp90 inhibition may be augmented by coadministering proteasome inhibitor on human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Indeed, we showed that coadministration of the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) and proteasome inhibitor (velcade) induced ER stress evidenced by increased unfolded protein response markers. The consequences were evident in multiple aspects of the NSCLC phenotype: reduced viability and cell count, increased apoptotic cell death, and most profoundly, synergistically decreased cell motility. Our findings provide proof-of-concept that targeting ER homeostasis is therapeutically beneficial in NSCLC cell lines. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Zismanov V.,Lung Cancer Research Laboratory | Zismanov V.,Tel Aviv University | Drucker L.,Meir Medical Center | Drucker L.,Tel Aviv University | And 3 more authors.
Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world for which novel systemic treatments are urgently needed. Protein homeostasis that regulates protein levels and their fold is critical for cancer cell proliferation and survival. A complex network of cellular organelles and signaling cascades is involved in control of protein homeostasis including endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Thus, proteins in control of ER homeostasis are increasingly recognized as potential therapeutic targets. Molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) play an important role in ER homeostasis. Previous studies demonstrate that Hsp90 and HDAC inhibitors are individually functional against lung cancer. In this work we suggested that combined Hsp90 and HDAC inhibitors may elevate ER stress thereby enhancing the anti non small lung cancer (NSCLC) activity. Methods and results: Using an in vitro cell line model we demonstrated that 17-DMAG (HSP90 inhibitor) co-administration with PTACH (HDAC inhibitor) caused elevated ER stress (immunoblotting) (more than 110%↑, p < 0.05) accompanied by apoptotic cell death (Annexin V) (7-21%↑, p < 0.05). Moreover, 17-DMAG/PTACH treated cells lost the ability to migrate (scratch test) (57-85%↓ of scratch closure, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings provide proof-of-concept that targeting ER homeostasis is therapeutically beneficial in lung cancer cell lines. Indeed, the elevated ER stress caused by 17-DMAG/PTACH combined treatment leads to increased cell death of NSCLC cell lines compared to the application of the drugs separately. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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