Lund, Sweden
Lund, Sweden

Lund University is one of northern Europe's oldest and most prestigious universities,consistently ranking among the world's top 100 universities. Further, it ranks among the best universities in Northern Europe and in international rankings. The university, located in the city of Lund in the province of Scania, Sweden, traces its roots back to 1425, when a Franciscan studium generale was founded in Lund next to the Lund Cathedral, arguably making it the oldest institution of higher education in Scandinavia followed by studia generalia in Uppsala in 1477 and Copenhagen in 1479. The current university was however not founded until 1666 after Sweden acquired Scania in the 1658 peace agreement with Denmark.Lund University has eight faculties, with additional campuses in the cities of Malmö and Helsingborg, with 47,000 students in more than 280 different programmes and around 2,250 separate courses. The University has some 680 partner universities in over 50 countries and it belongs to the League of European Research Universities as well as the global Universitas 21 network.Two major facilities for materials research are currently under construction in Lund: MAX IV, which will be a world-leading synchrotron radiation laboratory and European Spallation Source , a European facility that will be home to the world’s most powerful neutron source.The university traditionally centers on the Lundagård park adjacent to the Lund Cathedral, with various departments spread in different locations in town, but mostly concentrated in a belt stretching north from the park connecting to the university hospital area and continuing out to the northeastern periphery of the town, where one finds the large campus of the Faculty of Engineering. Wikipedia.


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Borrebaeck C.A.K.,Lund University
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2017

Interest in precision diagnostics has been fuelled by the concept that early detection of cancer would benefit patients; that is, if detected early, more tumours should be resectable and treatment more efficacious. Serum contains massive amounts of potentially diagnostic information, and affinity proteomics has risen as an accurate approach to decipher this, to generate actionable information that should result in more precise and evidence-based options to manage cancer. To achieve this, we need to move from single to multiplex biomarkers, a so-called signature, that can provide significantly increased diagnostic accuracy. This Opinion article focuses on the progress being made in identifying protein biomarker signatures of clinical utility, using blood-based proteomics. © 2017 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.36M | Year: 2017

Mitigation of climate change is a key scientific and societal challenge and also a headline target of the EU2020 strategy. Strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are necessary to reach the global warming target agreed on at the 2015 United Nations Convention of Parties in Paris. Such emission reductions can only be achieved if sources are properly quantified and mitigation efforts are verified, but there are large discrepancies between official emission inventories and estimates derived from direct measurement of the air. MEMO2 will contribute to the EU2020 targets with a focus on methane (CH4), the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2 and one of Europes most important energy sources. CH4 emissions are a major contributor to Europes global warming impact, but they are also a good target for climate change mitigation because of a rather short lifetime of 10 years (policy-maker compatible) and several sources offering possibilities of no-regret emission reduction (landfills, gas leaks, manure). However CH4 emissions are not well quantified yet. MEMO2 will bridge the gap between large-scale scientific estimates from in situ monitoring programs and the bottom-up estimates of emissions from local sources that are used in the national reporting. MEMO2 will identify and evaluate CH4 emissions and support mitigation measures by I) developing new and advanced mobile methane measurements tools and networks, isotopic source identification, and modelling at different scales, and II) educating a new generation of crossthinking scientists, which are able to effectively implement novel measurement and modelling tools in an interdisciplinary and intersectoral context. The 9 beneficiaries and 13 non-academic partners of MEMO2 offer a wellstructured intersectoral training programme to equip young researchers with strong scientific and personal competencies, which will enhance their employability as well as European innovation capacity in the future.


HarmonicSS vision is to create an International Network and Alliance of partners and cohorts, entrusted with the mission of addressing the unmet needs in primary Sjogren Syndrome; working together to create and maintain a platform with open standards and tools, designed to enable secure storage, governance, analytics, access control and controlled sharing of information at multiple levels along with methods to make results of analyses and outcomes comparable across centers and sustainable through Rheumatology associations. The overall idea of the HarmonicSS project is to bring together the largest well characterized regional, national and international longitudinal cohorts of patients with Primary Sjgrens Syndrome (pSS) including those participating in clinical trials, and after taking into consideration the ethical, legal, privacy and IPR issues for sharing data from different countries, to semantically interlink and harmonize them into an integrative pSS cohort structure on the cloud. Upon this harmonized cohort, services for big data mining, governance and visual analytics will be integrated, to address the identified clinical and health policy pSS unmet needs. In addition, tools for specific diagnostic procedures (e.g. ultrasonography image segmentation), patient selection for clinical trials and training will be also provided. The users of the HarmonicSS platform are researchers (basic/translational), clinicians, health policy makers and pharma companies. pSS is relevant not only due to its clinical impact but also as one of the few model diseases to link autoimmunity, cancer development (lymphoproliferation) and the pathogenetic role of infection. Thus, the study of pSS can facilitate research in many areas of medicine; for this reason, the possibility for sustainability and expandability of the platform is enhanced. Moreover, pSS has a significant impact on the healthcare systems, similar to that of rheumatoid arthritis.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.93M | Year: 2017

We propose a European Training Network that will provide a total of 540 ESR-months of training in Monte Carlo event generator physics and techniques, and related applications in experimental particle physics. Monte Carlo event generators are central to high energy particle physics. They are used by almost all experimental collaborations to plan their experiments and analyze their data, and by theorists to simulate the complex final states of the fundamental interactions that may signal new physics. We will build on the success of our current MCnetITN, by creating a European Training Network incorporating all the authors of current general purpose event generators, with the main purposes of: (a) training a large section of our user base, using annual schools on the physics and techniques of event generators and short-term studentships of Early Stage Researchers as a conduit for transfer of knowledge to the wider community; (b) training the next generation of event generator authors through dedicated PhD studentships; (c) providing broader training in transferable skills through our research, through dedicated training in entrepreneurship and employability and through secondments to non-academic partners. We will achieve these training objectives both through dedicated activities and through our research activities: (d) developing the next generation of higher precision event generators and supporting them for use throughout the LHC era and beyond; (e) playing a central role in the analysis of LHC data and the discovery of new physics there; and (f) extracting the maximum potential from existing data to constrain the modeling of the higher-energy data from the LHC and future experiments.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 4.00M | Year: 2017

Nanowires (NWs) exhibit unique properties that make them potential building blocks for a variety of next generation NanoElectronics devices. Recent advances have shown that NWs with predefined properties can be grown, offering a new paradigm enabling functional device prototypes including: biosensors, solar cells, transistors, quantum light sources and lasers. The critical mass of scientific knowledge gained now needs to be translated into NW technologies for industry. FP7-MC NanoEmbrace (ITN) and FUNPROB (IRSES), made substantial contributions to NW research, producing excellent scientific and technological results (>100 journal papers published) and delivered outstanding training in nanoscience and transferable skills to ESRs. Despite demonstrable scientific and technological advantages of NWs, NW-based technology concepts have not yet been translated into market-ready products, because industry and academia have not worked hand-in-hand to commercialize the research findings. Thus, it is essential that NW research is now directed towards customer-oriented scientific R&D; whilst applying innovative industrial design techniques to ensure rapid translation of the basic technologies into commercial devices. This ambitious challenge requires close collaboration between academia and the nascent NW industry, combining the efforts of scientists and engineers to address market needs. Building upon our previous achievements, a team of leading scientific experts from top institutions in Europe, strengthened by experts in innovative design and industrial partners with an excellent track record of converting cutting edge scientific ideas into market products has formed the INDEED network to address this challenge. To enhance employability, INDEED will train young ESRs to become experts with a unique skill set that includes interdisciplinary scientific techniques, industrial experience through R&D secondments and innovative design skills.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.13M | Year: 2017

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) of aging are a growing burden on societies. Although studies on the degeneration of neurons have been a main focus of research, increasing evidence points to synapses as the site where Alzheimers disease (AD), Parkinsons disease (PD) and Huntingtons disease (HD) begin. There is growing evidence that synapses are sites of early and aberrant protein misfolding, aggregation and spread in NDDs. A key problem in research on NDDs has been that the normal physiological roles at synapses of the aggregation-prone proteins (- amyloid/amyloid precursor protein, tau, -synuclein and huntingtin), which are linked pathologically and genetically to these diseases, are not known. Using cutting-edge technologies and multidisciplinary approaches the SYNDEGEN consortium aims to bring together leading experts in cell biology, synapse biology and imaging, stem cell biology and NDDs in Europe to determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms whereby synapses become dysfunctional in AD, PD and HD for the purpose of developing novel therapies. The goal of the consortium is to train talented young scientists in interdisciplinary, innovative and collaborative research aimed at the development of novel molecular based treatment strategies for these major diseases of aging. A gap in the training of students in these important diseases is that disease expertise and novel methods to study synapses are localized in isolated groups in different locations in the EU. Similar questions are being asked about the mechanisms of synaptic dysfunction in AD, PD and HD, but no one university or company has sufficiently broad knowledge and technical expertise required to study and develop therapies for synaptic dysfunction in these disorders. This training programme will be implemented in 6 academic centres and 2 SMEs representing a comprehensive, highly interactive and multidisciplinary partnership.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETPROACT-01-2016 | Award Amount: 6.08M | Year: 2017

Many technologically and societally important mathematical problems are intractable for conventional, serial computers. Therefore, a significant need exists for parallel-computing approaches that are capable to solve such problems within reasonable time frames. Recently, part of our consortium demonstrated proof-of-principle of a parallel-computation system in which a given combinatorial problem is encoded into a graphical, modular network that is embedded in a nanofabricated planar device. The problem is then solved by a large number of independent biological agents, namely molecular-motor-propelled protein filaments, exploring the network in a highly parallel fashion (PNAS 113, 2591 (2016)). Notably, this approach uses orders of magnitude less energy than conventional computers, thus addressing issues related to power-consumption and heat-dissipation. Within Bio4Comp we (i) will establish the technological and scientific basis for robust upscaling of this approach, (ii) will demonstrate scalability by systematically increasing the problem size by several orders of magnitude, and (iii) will develop new algorithms with the aim to open up a wide range of applications. Additionally, we will (iv) help foster and structure an ecosystem of scientists and companies that will accelerate the path to market acceptance, including the creation of a joint roadmap. Benefits to society will include the ability to solve hitherto intractable problems, and the development of a sustainable and energy-efficient computing approach that is radically different from current information and communications technology.


Adlercreutz P.,Lund University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

Different methods of preparing lipases for use in organic media are critically reviewed. Solid lipase preparations can be made by typical immobilisation methods such as adsorption, entrapment, covalent coupling or cross-linking. Immobilisation is especially attractive for lipases because, in addition to the normal benefits of enzyme immobilisation, it can also lead to a considerable increase in catalytic activity, probably caused by conformational changes in the lipase molecules. Activation can be achieved, for example, using hydrophobic support materials or surfactants during the immobilisation procedure. Surfactants can also be used to solubilise lipases in organic media via the formation of hydrophobic ion pairs, surfactant-coated lipase or reversed micelles. Lipase preparation methods are discussed with regard to potential lipase inactivation and activation effects, mass transfer limitations, lipase stability and other features important for applications. The practical applications of lipases in organic media reviewed include ester synthesis, modification of triacylglycerols and phospholipids, fatty acid enrichment, enantiomer resolution, biodiesel production and acylation of carbohydrates and bioactive compounds. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Aging of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) leads to several functional changes, including alterations affecting self-renewal and differentiation. Although it is well established that many of the age-induced changes are intrinsic to HSCs, less is known regarding the stability of this state. Here, we entertained the hypothesis that HSC aging is driven by the acquisition of permanent genetic mutations. To examine this issue at a functional level in vivo, we applied induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell reprogramming of aged hematopoietic progenitors and allowed the resulting aged-derived iPS cells to reform hematopoiesis via blastocyst complementation. Next, we functionally characterized iPS-derived HSCs in primary chimeras and after the transplantation of re-differentiated HSCs into new hosts, the gold standard to assess HSC function. Our data demonstrate remarkably similar functional properties of iPS-derived and endogenous blastocyst-derived HSCs, despite the extensive chronological and proliferative age of the former. Our results, therefore, favor a model in which an underlying, but reversible, epigenetic component is a hallmark of HSC aging.


Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction (MI) by adhering to the site of a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque. The aim of this study was to screen for differences in the micro RNA (miRNA) content of platelets from patients with myocardial infarction and control patients, to investigate a possible release of miRNAs from activated platelets and to elucidate whether platelet-derived miRNAs could act as paracrine regulators of endothelial cell gene expression. Using RNA-seq, we found 9 differentially expressed miRNAs in patients compared with healthy controls, of which 8 were decreased in patients. Of these, miR-22, -185, -320b, and -423-5p increased in the supernatant of platelets after aggregation and were depleted in thrombi aspirated from MI patients, indicating the release of certain miRNAs from activated platelets. To confirm that endothelial cells could take up the released platelet miRNAs, transfer of both fluorescently labeled miRNA and exogenous cel-miR-39 from activated platelets to endothelial cells was shown. Finally, a possible paracrine role of released platelet miR-320b on endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression was shown. Thus, platelets from patients with MI exhibit loss of specific miRNAs, and activated platelets shed miRNAs that can regulate endothelial cell gene expression.

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