Lund University is one of northern Europe's oldest and most prestigious universities,consistently ranking among the world's top 100 universities. Further, it ranks among the best universities in Northern Europe and in international rankings. The university, located in the city of Lund in the province of Scania, Sweden, traces its roots back to 1425, when a Franciscan studium generale was founded in Lund next to the Lund Cathedral, arguably making it the oldest institution of higher education in Scandinavia followed by studia generalia in Uppsala in 1477 and Copenhagen in 1479. The current university was however not founded until 1666 after Sweden acquired Scania in the 1658 peace agreement with Denmark.Lund University has eight faculties, with additional campuses in the cities of Malmö and Helsingborg, with 47,000 students in more than 280 different programmes and around 2,250 separate courses. The University has some 680 partner universities in over 50 countries and it belongs to the League of European Research Universities as well as the global Universitas 21 network.Two major facilities for materials research are currently under construction in Lund: MAX IV, which will be a world-leading synchrotron radiation laboratory and European Spallation Source , a European facility that will be home to the world’s most powerful neutron source.The university traditionally centers on the Lundagård park adjacent to the Lund Cathedral, with various departments spread in different locations in town, but mostly concentrated in a belt stretching north from the park connecting to the university hospital area and continuing out to the northeastern periphery of the town, where one finds the large campus of the Faculty of Engineering. Wikipedia.
Boda C.S.,Lund University
Landscape Research | Year: 2017
The politics of landscape production involve questions about the power to deﬁne what landscape means, who or what belongs to landscape and who or what belongs in landscape. Asserting the right to participate in landscape production and thus to help steer landscape along desirable development pathways remains a core component of landscape politics and grows in importance as many societies experience widespread citizen withdrawal from engagement in political processes. In this article, I review the history of landscape production in Florida, USA, to reveal the interrelated consequences of adjustments in political economy, administration, land use and spatial representations for future landscape development. In particular, my analysis of the strategic contestation of undesirable development in the production of the local landscape in a small coastal community highlights the increasing need to engage strategically in the politics of landscape production in the pursuit of socially and environmentally desirable landscapes the world over. © 2017 Landscape Research Group Ltd.
Bjornsson I.,Lund University
Safety Science | Year: 2017
The control of risks in engineering design is, for most conventional construction projects, achieved through the use of design codes. However, relying on design based on code-compliance can lead to situations where risks are overlooked or inadequately treated; a complementary approach is needed. In this paper, a holistic risk-informed approach for the treatment of accidental hazards during the conceptual design of bridges is considered and a framework for such an approach is provided. The treatment of these design situations is incompatible with current codified approaches. Although risk assessments are commonly used in the design of large scale infrastructure projects, such approaches are rarely used for more common bridge designs. The assessment procedure, applicable for more conventional bridge projects, is described and some background information is provided that is useful for applying the proposed approach in practice. To illustrate the application of the proposed approach in practice, a case study of a bridge construction project in the west of Sweden is considered in which the approach is applied. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Strand P.,Lund University
Advances in health sciences education : theory and practice | Year: 2015
The role of workplace supervisors in the clinical education of medical students is currently under debate. However, few studies have addressed how supervisors conceptualize workplace learning and how conceptions relate to current sociocultural workplace learning theory. We explored physician conceptions of: (a) medical student learning in the clinical workplace and (b) how they contribute to student learning. The methodology included a combination of a qualitative, inductive (conventional) and deductive (directed) content analysis approach. The study triangulated two types of interview data from 4 focus group interviews and 34 individual interviews. A total of 55 physicians participated. Three overarching themes emerged from the data: learning as membership, learning as partnership and learning as ownership. The themes described how physician conceptions of learning and supervision were guided by the notions of learning-as-participation and learning-as-acquisition. The clinical workplace was either conceptualized as a context in which student learning is based on a learning curriculum, continuity of participation and partnerships with supervisors, or as a temporary source of knowledge within a teaching curriculum. The process of learning was shaped through the reciprocity between different factors in the workplace context and the agency of students and supervising physicians. A systems-thinking approach merged with the "co-participation" conceptual framework advocated by Billet proved to be useful for analyzing variations in conceptions. The findings suggest that mapping workplace supervisor conceptions of learning can be a valuable starting point for medical schools and educational developers working with changes in clinical educational and faculty development practices.
Safavi S.,Copenhagen University |
Paulsson K.,Lund University
Blood | Year: 2017
Hypodiploidy <40 chromosomes is an uncommon genetic feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in both children and adults. It has long been clear by cytogenetic analyses, and recently confirmed by mutational profiling, that these cases may be further subdivided into 2 subtypes: near-haploid ALL with 24 to 30 chromosomes and low-hypodiploid ALL with 31 to 39 chromosomes. Both groups are associated with a very poor prognosis, and these patients are among those who could benefit most from novel treatments. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.
Pavlov M.Y.,Uppsala University |
Liljas A.,Lund University |
Ehrenberg M.,Uppsala University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2017
Two sets of ribosome structures have recently led to two different interpretations of what limits the accuracy of codon translation by transfer RNAs. In this review, inspired by this intermezzo at the Ribosome Club, we briefly discuss accuracy amplification by energy driven proofreading and its implementation in genetic code translation. We further discuss general ways by which the monitoring bases of 16S rRNA may enhance the ultimate accuracy (d-values) and how the codon translation accuracy is reduced by the actions of Mg2+ ions and the presence of error inducing aminoglycoside antibiotics. We demonstrate that complete freezing-in of cognate-like tautomeric states of ribosome-bound nucleotide bases in transfer RNA or messenger RNA is not compatible with recent experiments on initial codon selection by transfer RNA in ternary complex with elongation factor Tu and GTP. From these considerations, we suggest that the sets of 30S subunit structures from the Ramakrishnan group and 70S structures from the Yusupov/Yusupova group may, after all, reflect two sides of the same coin and how the structurally based intermezzo at the Ribosome Club may be resolved simply by taking the dynamic aspects of ribosome function into account. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Perspectives on the ribosome’. © 2017 The Authors.
Uhr C.,Lund University
Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management | Year: 2017
In an emergency or disaster situation, it is likely that a conglomerate of societal resources will respond to various needs. In such a multi-organizational setting, collaboration becomes necessary. Empirical findings suggest that collaboration can be very problematical and this paper argues that a possible explanation can be found in intra-organizational leadership ideals, dysfunctional in a collaborative context. In order to facilitate a principal discussion, an analytical framework for discussing leadership and collaboration is suggested. Moreover, literature findings suggesting individual qualities facilitating collaboration are presented. Three leadership archetypes are used to problematize intra-organizational ideals in inter-organizational settings. It is suggested that more attention must be paid to qualities enabling individuals to operate simultaneously in different, and partly conflicting, management contexts. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tedore C.,Lund University |
Johnsen S.,Duke University
Current Zoology | Year: 2017
RGB displays effectively simulate millions of colors in the eyes of humans by modulating the relative amount of light emitted by 3 differently colored juxtaposed lights (red, green, and blue). The relationship between the ratio of red, green, and blue light and the perceptual experience of that light has been well defined by psychophysical experiments in humans, but is unknown in animals. The perceptual experience of an animal looking at an RGB display of imagery designed for humans is likely to poorly represent an animal's experience of the same stimulus in the real world. This is due, in part, to the fact that many animals have different numbers of photoreceptor classes than humans do and that their photoreceptor classes have peak sensitivities centered over different parts of the ultraviolet and visible spectrum. However, it is sometimes possible to generate videos that accurately mimic natural stimuli in the eyes of another animal, even if that animal's sensitivity extends into the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. How independently each RGB phosphor stimulates each of an animal's photoreceptor classes determines the range of colors that can be simulated for that animal. What is required to determine optimal color rendering for another animal is a device capable of measuring absolute or relative quanta of light across the portion of the spectrum visible to the animal (i.e., a spectrometer), and data on the spectral sensitivities of the animal's photoreceptor classes. In this article, we outline how to use such equipment and information to generate video stimuli that mimic, as closely as possible, an animal's color perceptual experience of real-world objects. © The Author (2016).
Unger E.L.,Lund University
Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry | Year: 2017
Metal-halide perovskite semiconductors are certainly one of the hottest topic in solar energy conversion. Optimization of both the absorber material and device architecture has led to an astoundingly rapid increase in the reported device efficiencies. Initially developed in the context of dye-sensitized solar cell research, metal-halide perovskite devices now reach efficiency values and hence need to be compared to more conventional photovoltaic technologies such as silicon, copper indium gallium diselenide and cadmium telluride. Strong direct band gap absorption, long charge carrier diffusion length, ease and flexibility in processing at low temperatures and facile tunability makes these materials ideal for solar energy conversion applications. This review will both reflect on favorable properties of these hybrid and ionic semiconductors as well as reflecting on lead toxicity, material and device stability as the most critical issues that need to be solved in order for these materials to become technologically viable. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Dang J.,Lund University
Behavioral and Brain Sciences | Year: 2017
All three critical points of the evolutionary explanation proposed by Maestripieri et al. may not withstand close scrutiny. Instead, there should be an alternative explanation that has nothing to do with genetic continuity, but stresses the rewarding property of attractiveness that results mainly from sociocultural value assignment and sexual experience pursuit. © Cambridge University Press 2017.
Eliasson L.,Lund University
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2017
The pathophysiology of diabetes is complex and recent research put focus on the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and the insulin-secreting beta cells as central in the development of the disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the small non-coding RNAs regulating post-transcriptional gene expression, are significant regulators of beta cell function. One of the most abundant miRNAs in the islets is miR-375. This review focus on the role of miR-375 in beta cell function, including effects in development and differentiation, proliferation and regulation of insulin secretion. It also discusses the regulation of miR-375 expression, miR-375 as a potential circulating biomarker in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and the need for the beta cell to keep expression of miR-375 within optimal levels. The summed picture of miR-375 is a miRNA with multiple functions with importance in the formation of beta cell identity, control of beta cell mass and regulation of insulin secretion. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Warlenius R.,Lund University
Journal of Political Ecology | Year: 2016
Ecological debt is usually conceptualized as the accumulated result of different kinds of uneven flows of natural resources and waste, but these flows are seldom referred to as ecologically unequal exchange. Ecologically unequal exchange, on the other hand, is usually defined as different flows of resources and waste, but the accumulated results of these flows are seldom referred to as ecological debt. In this article, influential definitions and conceptualizations of ecological debt and ecologically unequal exchange are compared and the notions linked together analytically with a stock-flow perspective. A particular challenge is presented by emissions of substances that have global consequences, most importantly carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. They form part of ecologically unequal exchange, but what is unequal is not the exchange of resources or energy, but the appropriation of the sinks that absorb these substances. New concepts, unequal sink appropriation and the more specific carbon sink appropriation are proposed as a way of highlighting this distinction.
Boethius A.,Lund University
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2017
Delayed-return foraging strategies connected with a sedentary lifestyle are known from Late Mesolithic Scandinavian settlements. However, recent evidence from the archaeological site of Norje Sunnansund, in south-eastern Sweden, indicates the presence of sedentism from the Early Mesolithic. By analyzing the faunal assemblage from Norje Sunnansund, patterns of delayed-return strategies were examined for five categories of faunal exploitation/interaction: seal hunting, fishing, ungulate hunting, opportunistic hunting and rodent intrusions. The evidence suggests selective hunting strategies, large catches of fish and all year round seasonality indicators as well as evidence of commensal behavior in non-typical commensal species. The data were related to ethnographic accounts and sedentary foraging societies' modes of subsistence. The evidence suggests an expanding, sedentary, aquatically dependent Early Mesolithic foraging lifestyle in southern Scandinavia, which, it is argued, came to dominate the mode of subsistence, implying larger settlements and a larger prevalent population. This process may have been going on for millennia prior to the rise of the Late Mesolithic Ertebølle culture, implying much larger Late Mesolithic populations than previously realized, perhaps comparable with the native cultures of the north-west coast of America. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
Sahlin U.,Lund University
Risk, Reliability and Safety: Innovating Theory and Practice - Proceedings of the 26th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2016 | Year: 2017
Things are seldom ideal. The quality in information underlying the assessment of risk and support decisions is not an exception. Quantitative measures of uncertainty are extremely useful, but a problem with quantitative measures of uncertainty is that qualitative aspects of uncertainty, e.g. related to weaknesses in background knowledge or deep uncertainty (Cox 2012), are difficult to address. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London.
Pinzon-Rodriguez A.,Lund University |
Muheim R.,Lund University
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2017
Birds have a light-dependent magnetic compass that provides information about the spatial alignment of the geomagnetic field. It is proposed to be located in the avian retina and mediated by a lightinduced, radical-pair mechanism involving cryptochromes as sensory receptor molecules. To investigate how the behavioural responses of birds under different light spectra match with cryptochromes as the primary magnetoreceptor, we examined the spectral properties of the magnetic compass in zebra finches. We trained birds to relocate a food reward in a spatial orientation task using magnetic compass cues. The birds were well oriented along the trained magnetic compass axis when trained and tested under low-irradiance 521 nm green light. In the presence of a 1.4 MHz radio-frequency electromagnetic (RF)-field, the birds were disoriented, which supports the involvement of radical-pair reactions in the primary magnetoreception process. Birds trained and tested under 638 nm red light showed a weak tendency to orient ~45 deg clockwise of the trained magnetic direction. Under low-irradiance 460 nm blue light, they tended to orient along the trained magnetic compass axis, but were disoriented under higher irradiance light. Zebra finches trained and tested under high-irradiance 430 nm indigo light were well oriented along the trained magnetic compass axis, but disoriented in the presence of a RF-field. We conclude that magnetic compass responses of zebra finches are similar to those observed in nocturnally migrating birds and agree with cryptochromes as the primary magnetoreceptor, suggesting that light-dependent, radicalpair- mediated magnetoreception is a common property for all birds, including non-migratory species. © 2017 Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Smirnova O.G.,Lund University
CEUR Workshop Proceedings | Year: 2016
Distributed computing infrastructures have a long history, starting with pools of PCs and clusters three decades ago, briefly passing a stage of HPC Grids, and now converging to fully virtualised facilities. The Nordic Tier-1, prototype of which was launched back in 2003 to serve CERN needs, is a small-scale model of a distributed infrastructure, and thus an interesting case for studying experience and future trends in a controlled environment. The talk will present an overview of the current trends in distributed computing and data storage from the perspective of the distributed Nordic Tier-1, covering a variety of aspects, from technological to political ones. © 2016 Oxana G. Smirnova.
Buchmueller O.,Imperial College London |
Doglioni C.,Lund University |
Wang L.-T.,University of Chicago
Nature Physics | Year: 2017
Among the numerous proposals to explain the nature of dark matter, there is the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) scenario, which is based on a simple assumption that dark matter was in thermal equilibrium in the early hot Universe, and its particles have mass and interactions not too different from the massive particles in the standard model. In this Progress Article we overview the inference of WIMP production at high-energy colliders, with a particular focus on searches at the Large Hadron Collider. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Hanell F.,Lund University
Journal of Documentation | Year: 2017
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to extend the knowledge of how identity is connected to information sharing activities in social media during pre-school teacher training. Design/methodology/approach: An ethnographic study is performed where 249 students at a Swedish pre-school teacher-training programme are followed through participant observations from November 2013 to January 2014, and from September 2014 to January 2015. The material produced includes 230 conversations from a Facebook Group used by 210 students and several teachers, field notes and transcribed interviews with nine students. Comparative analysis is used to analyse the Facebook conversations to identify ways of positioning identity and engaging in information sharing activities. Interviews with students are analysed to contextualise and validate the findings from the online interactions. Findings: Three identity positions are identified: discussion-oriented learner, goal-oriented learner and customer-oriented learner. The way a student commits to others, to ideas and to a career choice affects their identity positions and information sharing activities. Results suggest that information sharing with social media should be understood as a powerful device for identity development in pre-school teacher training. Research limitations/implications: This study is designed to provide detailed accounts with high validity on the expense of a high degree of representativeness. Originality/value: No previous library and information science-studies have been presented that explore the relationship between the identity of learners and the information sharing activities in which they engage, in the context of social media or in relation to teacher training. © 2017, © Emerald Publishing Limited.
Feigin V.L.,Auckland University of Technology |
Norrving B.,Lund University |
Mensah G.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Circulation Research | Year: 2017
On the basis of the GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2013 Study, this article provides an overview of the global, regional, and country-specific burden of stroke by sex and age groups, including trends in stroke burden from 1990 to 2013, and outlines recommended measures to reduce stroke burden. It shows that although stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years rates tend to decline from 1990 to 2013, the overall stroke burden in terms of absolute number of people affected by, or who remained disabled from, stroke has increased across the globe in both men and women of all ages. This provides a strong argument that "business as usual" for primary stroke prevention is not sufficiently effective. Although prevention of stroke is a complex medical and political issue, there is strong evidence that substantial prevention of stroke is feasible in practice. The need to scale-up the primary prevention actions is urgent. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Alkhalili N.,Lund University
Antipode | Year: 2017
This article traces the declining fortunes of the mushaa', a once-prominent Levantine culture of common land. Palestinians managed to resist attempts by the Ottoman Empire and the British Mandate to break up the mushaa'. Under Israeli colonization, the remaining commons are now subject to another type of appropriation: individual Palestinian contractors seize hold of mushaa' land and build on it. This article introduces the concept of "enclosures from below", whilst looking at the dynamics of seizure of the commons by Palestinian refugees, who once were peasants practising mushaa' on their lands and are now landless, some having become expert contractors. I show that the contractors consider their actions to be a form of resistance against the settler colonial project, manifested in the advancing of the Wall and settlement expansion. This is described through a case study of the Shu'faat area in Jerusalem. Changing uses of mushaa' land reflect wider tendencies in the Palestinian national project that has become increasingly individualized. © Antipode Foundation.
Husfeldt T.,Lund University
Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs | Year: 2017
We show that the eccentricity of every vertex in an undirected graph on n vertices can be computed in time n expO(k log d), where k is the treewidth of the graph and d is the diameter. This means that the diameter and the radius of the graph can be computed in the same time. In particular, if the diameter is constant, it can be determined in time n expO(k). This result matches a recent hardness result by Abboud, Vassilevska Williams, and Wang [SODA 2016] that shows that under the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis of Impagliazzo, Paturi, and Zane [J. Comp. Syst. Sc., 2001], for any ∈ > 0, no algorithm with running time n2-∈ exp o(k) can distinguish between graphs with diameter 2 and 3. Our algorithm is elementary and self-contained. © 2016 Thore Husfeldt.
Borrebaeck C.A.K.,Lund University
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2017
Interest in precision diagnostics has been fuelled by the concept that early detection of cancer would benefit patients; that is, if detected early, more tumours should be resectable and treatment more efficacious. Serum contains massive amounts of potentially diagnostic information, and affinity proteomics has risen as an accurate approach to decipher this, to generate actionable information that should result in more precise and evidence-based options to manage cancer. To achieve this, we need to move from single to multiplex biomarkers, a so-called signature, that can provide significantly increased diagnostic accuracy. This Opinion article focuses on the progress being made in identifying protein biomarker signatures of clinical utility, using blood-based proteomics. © 2017 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.
Ekedahl H.,Lund University
American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2017
OBJECTIVE: In patients with chronic radicular pain, we aimed to evaluate subgroup differences in 1-yr response to transforaminal epidural steroid injection. DESIGN: In this longitudinal cohort study of 100 subjects, 170 transforaminal epidural steroid injections were performed for 1 yr. The sample was stratified by type of disc herniation (protrusion n = 57, extrusion n = 27), by location of disc herniation (central/subarticular n = 60, foraminal n = 24), by grade of nerve root compression (low-grade compression n = 61, high-grade subarticular nerve compression n = 14, high-grade foraminal nerve compression n = 25), and by positive Slump test (n = 67). Treatment response was evaluated by visual analogue scale leg pain and self-reported disability (Oswestry Disability Index). Logistic regression was used to analyze the predictive value of baseline characteristics including the stratified subgroups. RESULTS: High-grade subarticular nerve compression predicted the 1-yr improvement in both visual analogue scale leg pain (P = 0.046) and Oswestry Disability Index (P = 0.027). Low age (P < 0.001), short duration of leg pain (P = 0.015), and central/subarticular disc herniation (P = 0.017) predicted improvement in Oswestry Disability Index. CONCLUSIONS: In patients treated with one or several transforaminal epidural steroid injections due to chronic lumbar radicular pain, clinical findings failed to predict the 1-yr treatment response. Low age, short duration of leg pain, central/subarticular disc herniation, and high-grade subarticular nerve compression predicted a favorable 1-yr response to transforaminal epidural steroid injection. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Bjorck S.,Lund University
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2017
OBJECTIVES:: To assess if bone mass and metabolism are impaired in genetically at risk children with screening-detected celiac disease. METHODS:: Included were 71 children with screening-detected celiac disease diagnosed at 10.0?±?0.7 (mean?±?SD) years and 142 matched controls as well as 30 children with screening-detected celiac disease diagnosed at 3.3?±?0.4 years of age presently on a gluten-free diet for 6.9?±?1.1 years and 60 matched controls. All participants were assessed for bone mineral density (BMD) of total body and spine by Dual X-ray absorptiometry, serum 25(OH) vitamin D3, parathyroid hormone (PTH), IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IFNγ, and TNFα. RESULTS:: At diagnosis, screening-detected celiac disease children as compared to controls had a mean -0,03?g/cm reduced BMD of both total body and spine (p?=?0.009 and p?=?0.005 respectively), a mean -11.4?nmol/L lower level of 25(OH) vitamin D3 (p?0.001) and a mean +1.0?pmol/L higher PTH level (p?0.001). Systemic levels of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL12p70, IL13, and TNFα were all increased in screening-detected celiac disease as compared to controls (p?0.001). No difference in BMD, 25(OH) vitamin D3, PTH and cytokine levels were detected in children on a gluten-free diet compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS:: Children with screening-detected celiac disease have reduced BMD, lower levels of vitamin D3, higher levels of PTH and signs of systemic inflammation compared with controls. These differences were not found in celiac disease children on a gluten-free diet, indicating that children with screening-detected celiac disease benefit from an early diagnosis and treatment. © 2017 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology,
Nordin A.,Lund University
Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing: AIEDAM | Year: 2017
The aim of this paper is to investigate the challenges associated with the industrial implementation of generative design systems. Though many studies have been aimed at validating either the technical feasibility or the usefulness of generative design systems, there is, however, a lack of research on the practical implementation and adaptation in industry. To that end, this paper presents two case studies conducted while developing design systems for industrial uses. The first case study focuses on an engineering design application and the other on an industrial design application. In both cases, the focus is on detail-oriented performance-driven generative design systems based on currently available computer-assisted design tools. The development time and communications with the companies were analyzed to identify challenges in the two projects. Overall, the results show that the challenges are not related to whether the design tools are intended for artistic or technical problems, but rather in how to make the design process systematic. The challenges include aspects such as how to fully utilize the potential of generative design tools in a traditional product development process, how to enable designers not familiar with programming to provide design generation logic, and what should be automated and what is better left as a manual task. The paper suggests several strategies for dealing with the identified challenges. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017
Topp E.A.,Lund University
Advanced Robotics | Year: 2017
Interactive robots can benefit from learning from humans in situated communications, for instance in a guided tour, where the human user explains the environment to a mobile robot, or from being instructed to handle a specific task in an industrial setting. We have to assume that human users do not always give unambiguous or consistent information, which might result in inconsistent information being stored, which can later lead to confusing situations in further interaction with the user. We suggest to consider behavioural features observable from user actions, including commands given to the robot, to detect inconsistencies in the information given by the user with respect to the overall understanding of the situation. We explain our concept of Interaction Patterns and discuss how such patterns can be applied to support hypothesis generation regarding the category of a presented item in a guided tour scenario, which can lead to meaningful request formulation in mixed-initiative interaction. We report on results regarding the identification of Interaction Patterns in data from a user study with 37 subjects. © 2017 Taylor & Francis and The Robotics Society of Japan
News Article | April 28, 2017
Forget high-speed cameras capturing 100 000 images per second. A research group at Lund University in Sweden has developed a camera that can film at a rate equivalent to five trillion images per second, or events as short as 0.2 trillionths of a second. This is faster than has previously been possible. The new super-fast film camera will therefore be able to capture incredibly rapid processes in chemistry, physics, biology and biomedicine, that so far have not been caught on film. To illustrate the technology, the researchers have successfully filmed how light - a collection of photons - travels a distance corresponding to the thickness of a paper. In reality, it only takes a picosecond, but on film the process has been slowed down by a trillion times. Currently, high-speed cameras capture images one by one in a sequence. The new technology is based on an innovative algorithm, and instead captures several coded images in one picture. It then sorts them into a video sequence afterwards. In short, the method involves exposing what you are filming (for example a chemical reaction) to light in the form of laser flashes where each light pulse is given a unique code. The object reflects the light flashes which merge into the single photograph. They are subsequently separated using an encryption key. The film camera is initially intended to be used by researchers who literally want to gain better insight into many of the extremely rapid processes that occur in nature. Many take place on a picosecond and femtosecond scale, which is unbelievably fast - the number of femtoseconds in one second is significantly larger than the number of seconds in a person's life-time. "This does not apply to all processes in nature, but quite a few, for example, explosions, plasma flashes, turbulent combustion, brain activity in animals and chemical reactions. We are now able to film such extremely short processes", says Elias Kristensson. "In the long term, the technology can also be used by industry and others". For the researchers themselves, however, the greatest benefit of this technology is not that they set a new speed record, but that they are now able to film how specific substances change in the same process. "Today, the only way to visualise such rapid events is to photograph still images of the process. You then have to attempt to repeat identical experiments to provide several still images which can later be edited into a movie. The problem with this approach is that it is highly unlikely that a process will be identical if you repeat the experiment", he says. Most days, Elias Kristensson and Andreas Ehn conduct research on combustion - an area which is known to be difficult and complicated to study. The ultimate purpose of this basic research is to make next-generation car engines, gas turbines and boilers cleaner and more fuel-efficient. Combustion is controlled by a number of ultra-fast processes at the molecular level, which can now be captured on film. For example, the researchers will study the chemistry of plasma discharges, the lifetime of quantum states in combustion environments and in biological tissue, as well as how chemical reactions are initiated. In the autumn, there will be more film material available. The researchers call the technology FRAME - Frequency Recognition Algorithm for Multiple Exposures. A regular camera with a flash uses regular light, but in this case the researchers use "coded" light flashes, as a form of encryption. Every time a coded light flash hits the object - for example, a chemical reaction in a burning flame - the object emits an image signal (response) with the exact same coding. The following light flashes all have different codes, and the image signals are captured in one single photograph. These coded image signals are subsequently separated using an encryption key on the computer. A German company has already developed a prototype of the technology, which means that within an estimated two years more people will be able to use it.
News Article | May 1, 2017
The world's fastest film camera can now record some five trillion frames per second. (Credit: Lund University) Forget watching water balloons pop or bullets tearing through fruit. The next generation of super-fast camera is 15 and a bit million times faster than a commercial slow-mo camera like a Phantom Flex, and can show the movement of light itself. A research group at Lund University in Sweden has demonstrated a camera with the ability to film at some five trillion images per second. That's not five trillion discrete frames per second, mind you. In order to split time down that finely, the camera pulls several images out of a single frame. While the "shutter" is open, several different laser light flashes hit the subject. Each laser flash is visually coded, so it can be separated from the rest of the information in the frame afterwards using a decryption key. In this way, it's quite similar to the previous 'world's fastest camera' record holder out of the University of Tokyo, which managed a paltry 4.4 trillion frames per second. As for what such a thing might be useful for? Most likely scientific and industrial research, where it's quick enough to visually track processes that occur on a picosecond or femtosecond scale. The research team that invented the process spends most of its time working on combustion, which is reasonably well understood at the macro level, but is driven by a number of ultra-fast processes at the molecular level. The team will use the camera to document the chemistry of plasma discharges, the initiations of different chemical reactions, and the lifetime of quantum states, both in combustion situations and in biological tissue. Lord knows how big a camera card you'd need ... If you recorded the blink of an eye (which takes around 0.3 seconds) and then played it back at a nice cinematic 24 frames per second, it would take a little under two thousand years to watch. Check out the video below, which is mercifully shorter:
News Article | May 5, 2017
Researchers in dermatology at Lund University in Sweden believe they have cracked the mystery of why we are able to quickly prevent an infection from spreading uncontrollably in the body during wounding. They believe this knowledge may be of clinical significance for developing new ways to counteract bacteria. "Perhaps we don't need to kill them with antibiotics but simply gather them so that the body can better take care of the infection", say researchers Jitka Petrlova (lead author of the article) and Artur Schmidtchen, Professor in Dermatology and Venereology, Lund University. The study was conducted in close collaboration with their colleagues in Lund, Copenhagen and Singapore, and has been published in the scientific journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The researchers have discovered that fragments of thrombin - a common blood protein which can be found in wounds - can aggregate both bacteria and their toxins; something they did not see in normal blood plasma. The aggregation takes place quickly in the wound and causes bacteria and endotoxins not only to gather but also to be "eaten" by the body's inflammatory cells. "This way, the body avoids a spread of the infection. We believe this to be a fundamental mechanism for taking care of both bacteria and their toxins during wound healing", says Jitka Petrlova and continues; "Our discovery links aggregation and amyloid formation to our primary defence against infections - our innate immunity. It is well known that various aggregating proteins can cause amyloid disease, in skin or internal organs, such as the brain. Therefore, a mechanism that is supposed to protect us from infections, can sometimes be over-activated and lead to degenerative diseases." Artur Schmidtchen, who has conducted research in the field of innate immunity for over 20 years, is pleased with the results of the study. "I have always been fascinated by how nature has effectively created different defence mechanisms, and wound healing provides a rich source of new discoveries. The ability to effectively heal wounds is of evolutionary significance to our survival. Compared to antibiotics, innate immunity has been around for millions of years - and I think we should consider the application of these concepts in an era of increasing antibiotic resistance."
News Article | May 4, 2017
Fish that show bravery often become prey themselves, whereas shyer individuals survive to a greater extent. Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have now successfully established a connection between bold personalities and the risk of being killed by a predator in the wild. The researchers marked common roaches, a widespread freshwater fish, and studied their personalities. After investigating which individuals then became food for cormorants, the biologists at Lund University were able to show that the bravest fish run twice the risk of being eaten compared to the shyest individuals. Common roaches, just like human beings, are individuals with different personalities and traits. One of these is courage -- and not all common roaches are equally bold. For a long time, researchers have assumed that the inclination to expose oneself to risks is a compromise between the actual risk itself and any associated consequences on the one hand, and the potential reward on the other. Boldness and the willingness to take major risks are thus a strategy which can lead to something really tasty to eat or a partner with whom to mate. But it can also end badly. Until recently, there have only been a few research findings from wild populations to support this assumption. That is, until now, when the biologists studied personalities among common roaches in Krankesjön lake in southern Sweden. Captured common roaches were taken to a lab and placed in a dark concealed area. Then, the researchers measured how long it took each fish to swim out of the concealed area. The bolder the individual, the less time it took. Each common roach was subsequently implanted with a microchip and released in Krankesjön lake. At the lake, plenty of fish-eating cormorants ate the tagged common roaches. The birds then regurgitated fully functioning microchips on the small island where they rest between searches for food. By using a portable reader, the researchers were able to identify which common roaches had fallen victim to the cormorants -- the bolder or the shyer individuals. Relating the behaviour of a certain individual to the risk of being killed by a predator is a major challenge. A number of previous studies have instead focused on how morphological characteristics (appearance and shape) are linked to the risk of being eaten by a predator. "Our study is unique in that we focus on an important behaviour and not morphology, but also because we allow the interplay between predator and prey to take place in their natural habitat, their home lake", says Kaj Hulthén, one of the researchers behind the study.
News Article | May 5, 2017
Taking the art of photography a notch higher, researchers at Sweden's Lund University developed a camera, which can capture five trillion images in a second or moments as short as 0.2 trillionths of a second. These extraordinary capabilities of the new camera dubbed FRAME or Frequency Recognition Algorithm for Multiple Exposures, has earned it the title of the fastest camera in the world. However, the camera is not a DSLR or Digital Single Lens Reflex one, but a film camera. Nevertheless its super-fast capabilities will assist scientists in recording rapid processes, which occur during experiments in biomedicine, chemistry, physics, and biology. The FRAME camera uses what scientists call "coded light" instead of regular light used normal cameras deploy. This coded light is basically a flash, which is provided to the camera in the form of an encryption. Therefore, every time the coded light falls on the picture's subject — for instance a chemical reaction in a burning flame — the subject will emit a response signal in the exact same coding. The light flashes that follow the first one have different codes embedded. These signals are then captured in a single picture. The image signals — in the form of codes — are later separated from each other with the help of an encryption key on the computer. Interested users will be able to get this unique technology within two years as a German company has already developed a prototype of the camera. FRAME's technology has been developed based on an original algorithm. This algorithm helps the camera capture many coded images in a single photograph rather than clicking pictures one by one, sequentially. Once the coded images are taken, the camera seperates them into a video sequence later. In layman terms, the object that is being filmed or photographed has be exposed to laser flashes of light. Each of these laser flashes define a unique code and as the filmed object reflects the light, the signals are collected to form a single photograph. Scientists will be the first to initially use the fastest film camera in the world to get an in-depth understanding of many of nature's quickest processes. Many of these moments occur on femtosecond and picosecond scales, which are the minuscule parts of a time second. "This does not apply to all processes in nature, but quite a few, for example, explosions, plasma flashes, turbulent combustion, brain activity in animals and chemical reactions. We are now able to film such extremely short processes. In the long term, the technology can also be used by industry and others," Elias Kristensson, the co-author of the study, asserted. To illustrate the same, Kristensson and team succeeded in filming how light, which is a collection of photos, travels a distance equivalent to a paper's thickness. In the real world, the process takes just picoseconds. However, in the film the FRAM camera captured, the process was slowed down a trillion times. The study's findings have been published in the journal Light: Science and Applications. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
News Article | May 8, 2017
Previous research has demonstrated that saturated fat is more fattening and less muscle building than polyunsaturated fats. A new study shows that the choice of fat causes epigenetic changes which in turn could contribute to differences in fat storage. The so-called "muffin study" received a lot of attention when it was published in 2014. In this study, the participants had eaten three muffins a day, on average, for a period of seven weeks. Half of the muffins had been baked using saturated fat (palm oil) and the other half using polyunsaturated fat (sunflower oil). The carbohydrate and protein content was the same in each muffin, the only difference between them was the type of fat. In a collaboration with the person in charge of the major muffin study, associate professor Ulf Risérus at Uppsala University in Sweden, professor Charlotte Ling at Lund University, Sweden, has now studied the epigenetic changes in the study participants' fat tissue, through biopsies taken before and after the project. The results show that the epigenetic pattern in more than 3 000 genes (out of approximately 25 000 that exists in a human being) had changed differentially, depending on whether the participants had eaten saturated fat or polyunsaturated fat. "We believe that the discovered epigenetic changes, depending on the type of fat they ate, could contribute to the difference in fat storage, in which saturated fat has a more negative impact", says Charlotte Ling. The epigenetic pattern consists of molecules known as methyl groups, which are placed on the genes and affect their function and gene expression. "We have previously shown that exercise can affect the epigenetic pattern in fat tissue. These findings support the fact that through diet and exercise, we can affect our health through epigenetic changes", says Charlotte Ling. Ulf Risérus also finds the results very interesting: "It is fascinating that polyunsaturated fat seems to have completely different molecular effects compared to saturated fat; effects which in turn could potentially have an impact on both the body's fat storage and metabolism", he says. "Compared to saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, which is the type found in sunflower oil, has recently been linked to an improved carbohydrate metabolism in the body. It would now be interesting to learn whether the epigenetic effects of polyunsaturated fat could be involved in an improved carbohydrate metabolism", concludes Ulf Risérus. The study is published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. It was conducted within the Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden (EXODIAB), a strategic collaboration between Lund and Uppsala university In addition to palm oil, saturated fat can be found in butter and other dairy products such as cheese and cream, but also in chocolate, coconut fat and prepared meat products such as sausage and bacon. Polyunsaturated fat can be found in oily fish (salmon, mackerel, herring) as well as in algae, nuts and oil made from rapeseed, corn and sunflower seeds. The increase in body fat and muscle mass, as well as the distribution of fat in the body, were measured using an MRI scanner, before and after the weight gain. Despite a comparable weight gain between the two dietary groups, the overconsumption of saturated fat caused a significant increase in the amount of fat in the liver and gut, compared to the overconsumption of polyunsaturated fat. Furthermore, among the people who consumed saturated fat, their total amount of body fat was subsequently higher, and their increase in muscle mass was three times lower, compared to those who consumed polyunsaturated fat. The study included 39 participants.
News Article | May 1, 2017
Only a decade ago, most scientists thought the gut was responsible for digestion. That was the beginning and end of the story. Turns out, there's much more to the tale. "We now know there are trillions of microorganisms in the large and small intestines, and 90 percent of our immune system is in the gut," says Dr. David A. Hafler, professor of neurology and immunobiology at Yale School of Medicine. "Because multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease, a chronic condition in which the body abnormally attacks parts of its own nervous system, scientists are looking into the role of bacteria in our guts ( microbiome) and how it might influence MS." "In MS, the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. Eventually, the disease can cause the nerves themselves to deteriorate or become permanently damaged," the Mayo Clinic website states. The National Multiple Sclerosis Society says signs and symptoms of MS vary widely and depend on the amount of nerve damage and which nerves are affected. Common symptoms of MS include fatigue, vision problems, difficulty walking, muscle weakness, stiffness and spasms, and bladder and bowel problems. Not all 400,000 people in the U.S. diagnosed with MS have the same symptoms, but researchers are finding they share one thing in common: different kinds of bacteria in their guts than people who don't have MS. Specifically, a 2014 study in the journal Neurology conducted by scientists at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston showed that patients with MS have more archaea (a microbe that triggers inflammation) and less butyricimonas (a microbe with anti-inflammatory properties) than people who don't have MS. Although researchers can't confirm the microbiome is linked to autoimmune diseases, mounting evidence is pointing in that direction. These findings can have broad implications. "Since gut bacteria influences inflammation and the immune system, MS isn't the only autoimmune disease that's affected by the amount or the type of bacteria in the gut," explains Dr. Augusto Miravalle, associate professor of neurology at the University of Florida College of Medicine. "Other autoimmune illnesses, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Type 1 diabetes, Crohn's disease, colitis and asthma are also affected by bacterial balance." But Hafler points out that this isn't the whole picture, either. "There are a number of other factors at work when it comes to the gut connection. We know that MS is caused by a combination of environmental and genetic influences. In order for gut bacteria to be a trigger, a person would also need a genetic predisposition to developing an autoimmune disease such as MS." The genetic component may be why the link between the gut and autoimmune attacks in MS begin early in life. A 2016 University of British Columbia study, reported in the journal BioMed Central, examined gut bacteria and immune markers in 15 children with MS and nine children without the disease. The researchers found certain types of gut bacteria and specific immune markers in the children with MS and not with the healthy children. [See: 11 Ways Rural Life Is Hazardous to Your Health.] Scientists have also discovered geography is in play when it comes to gut bacteria and multiple sclerosis. "For example, MS sufferers living in California have a different microbiome than patients living in New York," Miravalle says. "But that might be associated with the amount of sunlight and vitamin D. We still don't know." Still, the geographic-gut bacteria-MS connection appears so promising, the National MS society has funded the MS Microbiome Consortium, which brings microbiome and geographical data together in order to explore the relationship. Another gut factor influencing the development and frequency of relapse in MS appears to be salt intake. "There have been a few reports showing that salt can hasten MS-like disease by influencing the microbiome and autoimmune reaction,"Miravalle says, pointing to a study of 16 people published in the August 2014 Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. The study showed that people with MS who had higher sodium intake were at approximately three times higher risk for an increase in symptoms as well as disease activity, compared with those with lower sodium intake. Even though diets high in salt have been associated with high relapse rate in adults, this link has not been found in pediatric MS. However, high fat intake has been associated with increased relapse in children with multiple sclerosis, according to research presented at the 32nd Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in MS. A microbiome theory that affects both pediatric and adult MS is intestinal permeability, more commonly known as "leaky gut syndrome." The connection has been gaining steam in the MS research community for the past several years. "Leaky gut is a condition that allows harmful substances like toxins, microbes and waste to pass out of the intestines and into the body cavity," Hafler explains. In a 2014 study published in PLOS ONE, researchers at Lund University in Sweden found a link between increased permeability of the intestines and MS, but only in a lab setting. The scientists looked at intestinal tissue from mice infected with an MS-like disease and found not only was leaky gut involved, but there was also increased inflammation in the intestinal mucous membranes of the mice even before they showed symptoms of MS. "Inflammation plays a role in MS, as inflammatory T-cells attack the protective myelin coating of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord," Miravalle explains. [See: 5 Rare Diseases You've Never Heard of (Until Now).] For now, most of the research into gut bacteria and MS is still in a comparatively early stage, and for the most part, human studies are focusing on describing the microbiome of MS patients. "While these studies show a link,"Hafler says, "we still don't know if the bacteria are different because of MS or if the changes in types of bacteria can cause MS or contribute to relapses." Robin Westen is a freelance Health reporter at U.S. News. She's an award-winning journalist who has written for numerous national magazines, including AARP, Family Circle, Psychology Today, MORE, Health, Self, Parents, Glamour and Cosmopolitan, in addition to others. She has authored more than a dozen books on health and relationships, including "The Yoga-Body Cleanse," "The Complete A to Z for Your V," "Ten Days to Detox" and "808 Conversation Starters for Couples," among others. Westen also won an Emmy for her writing on the ABC show "FYI."
News Article | April 17, 2017
In the present study, researchers from Lund University in Sweden, together with colleagues from Vilnius University in Lithuania, have studied how molecules attach to each other using weak chemical bonds to form large structures. The aim of the study was to determine the smallest possible size of these molecules, in which they are still able to provide enough information to successfully attach and form a desired large structure. The researchers' strategy has been to use many weak hydrogen bonds which assemble themselves in a pre-programmed manner. "It took 20 years for us to discover the design of this molecule which resulted in molecular nanotubes", says Kenneth Wärnmark, chemistry professor at the Faculty of Science at Lund University. As a unique bonus, they also discovered that the molecule can construct different shapes, depending on its environment. The researchers are able to modify this environment, partly, through their choice of solvent and, partly, through their choice of a so-called "guest molecule". "The molecules can form a tube, but also change into the shape of a capsule or a molecular belt", Kenneth Wärnmark. Unlike the developed carbon nanotubes which are already on the market, the new molecular nanotubes can be regulated with regard to the diameter. Furthermore, the manufacturing process is both simpler and more environmentally friendly compared to that of the carbon nanotubes which are made from individual carbon atoms and are assembled using strong chemical bonds at high temperature. "Being able to regulate the diameter is importance if you, for instance, want to use the tubes to transport something inside", says Kenneth Wärnmark. One possible application is the transport of drugs through a cell membrane for which the molecular nanotube can serve as a channel. The diameter of the tube and the properties of its surface make it suitable for transporting substances that regulate nerve signals in the human body, such as acetylcholine. "People with Alzheimer's disease suffer from acetylcholine deficiency and hopefully, in the future, this could be a way to reduce the impact of the disease. However, it requires a lot more research as well as clinical studies before we know whether or not it works", says Kenneth Wärnmark. More information: Qixun Shi et al. Stimuli-controlled self-assembly of diverse tubular aggregates from one single small monomer, Nature Communications (2017). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14943
News Article | April 13, 2017
Researchers from Lund University in Sweden have succeeded in producing nanotubes from a single building block using so-called molecular self-recognition. The tube can also change shape depending on the surrounding environment. The results can contribute to the future development of transport channels for drugs through the cell membrane. In the present study, researchers from Lund University in Sweden, together with colleagues from Vilnius University in Lithuania, have studied how molecules attach to each other using weak chemical bonds to form large structures. The aim of the study was to determine the smallest possible size of these molecules, in which they are still able to provide enough information to successfully attach and form a desired large structure. The researchers’ strategy has been to use many weak hydrogen bonds which assemble themselves in a pre-programmed manner. “It took 20 years for us to discover the design of this molecule which resulted in molecular nanotubes,” says Kenneth Wärnmark, chemistry professor at the Faculty of Science at Lund University. As a unique bonus, they also discovered that the molecule can construct different shapes, depending on its environment. The researchers are able to modify this environment, partly, through their choice of solvent and, partly, through their choice of a so-called “guest molecule.” “The molecules can form a tube, but also change into the shape of a capsule or a molecular belt,” says Wärnmark. Unlike the developed carbon nanotubes which are already on the market, the new molecular nanotubes can be regulated with regard to the diameter. Furthermore, the manufacturing process is both simpler and more environmentally friendly compared to that of the carbon nanotubes which are made from individual carbon atoms and are assembled using strong chemical bonds at high temperature. “Being able to regulate the diameter is importance if you, for instance, want to use the tubes to transport something inside,” says Wärnmark. One possible application is the transport of drugs through a cell membrane for which the molecular nanotube can serve as a channel. The diameter of the tube and the properties of its surface make it suitable for transporting substances that regulate nerve signals in the human body, such as acetylcholine. “People with Alzheimer’s disease suffer from acetylcholine deficiency and hopefully, in the future, this could be a way to reduce the impact of the disease. However, it requires a lot more research as well as clinical studies before we know whether or not it works,” says Wärnmark.
News Article | April 17, 2017
Abstract: Researchers from Lund University in Sweden have succeeded in producing nanotubes from a single building block using so-called molecular self-recognition. The tube can also change shape depending on the surrounding environment. The results can contribute to the future development of transport channels for drugs through the cell membrane. In the present study, researchers from Lund University in Sweden, together with colleagues from Vilnius University in Lithuania, have studied how molecules attach to each other using weak chemical bonds to form large structures. The aim of the study was to determine the smallest possible size of these molecules, in which they are still able to provide enough information to successfully attach and form a desired large structure. The researchers' strategy has been to use many weak hydrogen bonds which assemble themselves in a pre-programmed manner. "It took 20 years for us to discover the design of this molecule which resulted in molecular nanotubes", says Kenneth Wärnmark, chemistry professor at the Faculty of Science at Lund University. As a unique bonus, they also discovered that the molecule can construct different shapes, depending on its environment. The researchers are able to modify this environment, partly, through their choice of solvent and, partly, through their choice of a so-called "guest molecule". "The molecules can form a tube, but also change into the shape of a capsule or a molecular belt", Kenneth Wärnmark. Unlike the developed carbon nanotubes which are already on the market, the new molecular nanotubes can be regulated with regard to the diameter. Furthermore, the manufacturing process is both simpler and more environmentally friendly compared to that of the carbon nanotubes which are made from individual carbon atoms and are assembled using strong chemical bonds at high temperature. "Being able to regulate the diameter is importance if you, for instance, want to use the tubes to transport something inside", says Kenneth Wärnmark. One possible application is the transport of drugs through a cell membrane for which the molecular nanotube can serve as a channel. The diameter of the tube and the properties of its surface make it suitable for transporting substances that regulate nerve signals in the human body, such as acetylcholine. "People with Alzheimer's disease suffer from acetylcholine deficiency and hopefully, in the future, this could be a way to reduce the impact of the disease. However, it requires a lot more research as well as clinical studies before we know whether or not it works", says Kenneth Wärnmark. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.
News Article | May 1, 2017
Tampa, Fla. (May 1, 2017) - At the 24rd Annual Conference of the American Society of Neural Therapy and Repair (ASNTR), held April 27-29 in Clearwater Beach, Florida, ASNTR awarded The 2017 Bernard Sanberg Memorial Award for Brain Repair to Li-Ru Zhao, PhD, MD, a tenured Associate Professor, Department of Neurosurgery, State University of New York (SUNY) Upstate Medical University and research scientist at the Syracuse (NY) Veterans Administration Medical Center. The award, presented to her on Saturday April 29, recognized her significant research contributions in acute and chronic stroke, vascular dementia, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and Alzheimer's disease. Dr. Zhao received her MD from Hebei Medical College in Shijizhaung China in 1982 and her PhD in neuroscience from the Wallenberg Neuroscience Center, Lund University, Lund, Sweden in 2004. She carried out postdoctoral work at the University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis. She subsequently served as a researcher and assistant at Northwestern University, and associate professor at Louisiana State University prior to coming to SUNY Upstate Medical University and the Syracuse VA Medical Center. Dr. Zhao's extensive investigation into potential treatments for the debilitating effects of stroke includes the first demonstration of the neuroprotective properties of stem cell factor (SCF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and SCF + G-CSF combinations in treating the effects of acute and chronic stroke. She discovered that these growth factors - naturally occurring substances capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation and healing - could be used alone or in combination to reduced brain damage from stroke and improve motor function. Her many studies into SCF and G-CSF used a variety of approaches, including molecular and cell biology as well as brain and cell imaging. Her contributions to Alzheimer's disease (AD) research have investigated how amyloid plaques in the brain (one of the causes thought to be behind the development of AD) might be cleared by injections of bone marrow-derived monocytes/macrophages (BMDMs) and SCF+G-CSF, all of which have been found to be low in the blood and bone marrow of AD patients. In her most recent stroke studies she is investigating Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), the most common yet rare form of hereditary stroke disorder. Using animal models, she found that neural stem cells were radically reduced in patients with CADSIL, causing cognitive impairment. Currently, there is no drug that can improve the functional or delay the progressive brain damage caused by CADASIL. Her laboratory is currently studying how the bone marrow stem cell factors (SCF and G-CSF) repair the brain in both AD and CADASIL and is working at determining how the bone marrow stem cell factors regulate neuronal process formation, synaptic generation, and stem cell growth and differentiation. "Dr. Zhao's studies have significantly advanced our understanding about the contribution of SCF and G-CSF in slowing the progression of Alzheimer's disease," said Dr. Barry J. Hoffer, MD, PhD, scientist emeritus at the National Institutes of Health and an adjunct professor at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. "She has also carried out exceptional service activities as a peer reviewer for grants for NIH, AHA, and Alzheimer's Association, as well as for a large number of scientific journals." According to Dr. Hoffer, she has successfully balanced her career and personal life, including raising an "exceptionally gifted" son who is currently a resident in neurosurgery at University Hospitals of Cleveland. The award Dr. Zhao received is named for Bernard Sanberg, father of Dr. Paul Sanberg (University of South Florida), a co-founder of the ASNTR. After Bernard Sanberg died of a stroke in 1999, the award bearing his name was established and is presented by the ASNTR annually to an individual who has made outstanding research contributions in the field of neural therapy and repair. The award, first presented in 2000, is presented every year at ASNTR's Annual Meeting. Recent past winners of the Bernard Sanberg Memorial Award for Brain Repair include: Mariana E. Emborg, PhD, MD, University of Wisconsin-Madison, John D. Elsworth, PhD, Yale School of Medicine, Douglas Kondziolka, MD, NYU Langone Medical Center; Mike Modo, PhD, University of Pittsburgh; Timothy Collier, PhD, Michigan State University; Donald Eugene Redmond, MD, Yale University; Shinn-Zong Lin, MD, PhD, China Medical University; Howard J. Federoff, MD, PhD, Georgetown University; Barry J. Hoffer, MD, PhD, National Institutes of Health ASNTR's 25th Annual Conference will be held April 25-29, 2018 in Clearwater Beach, Florida. For more information, email Donna Morrison email@example.com or visit the ASNTR website http://www. ASNTR is a society for basic and clinical neuroscientists using a variety of technologies to better understand how the nervous system functions and establish new procedures for its repair in response to trauma or neurodegenerative disease. Member scientists employ stem/neural cell transplantation, gene therapy, trophic factor and neuroprotective compound administration and other approaches.
News Article | May 4, 2017
The researchers marked common roaches, a widespread freshwater fish, and studied their personalities. After investigating which individuals then became food for cormorants, the biologists at Lund University were able to show that the bravest fish run twice the risk of being eaten compared to the shyest individuals. Common roaches, just like human beings, are individuals with different personalities and traits. One of these is courage—and not all common roaches are equally bold. For a long time, researchers have assumed that the inclination to expose oneself to risks is a compromise between the actual risk itself and any associated consequences on the one hand, and the potential reward on the other. Boldness and the willingness to take major risks are thus a strategy which can lead to something really tasty to eat or a partner with whom to mate. But it can also end badly. Until recently, there have only been a few research findings from wild populations to support this assumption. That is, until now, when the biologists studied personalities among common roaches in Krankesjön lake in southern Sweden. Captured common roaches were taken to a lab and placed in a dark concealed area. Then, the researchers measured how long it took each fish to swim out of the concealed area. The bolder the individual, the less time it took. Each common roach was subsequently implanted with a microchip and released in Krankesjön lake. At the lake, plenty of fish-eating cormorants ate the tagged common roaches. The birds then regurgitated fully functioning microchips on the small island where they rest between searches for food. By using a portable reader, the researchers were able to identify which common roaches had fallen victim to the cormorants—the bolder or the shyer individuals. Relating the behaviour of a certain individual to the risk of being killed by a predator is a major challenge. A number of previous studies have instead focused on how morphological characteristics (appearance and shape) are linked to the risk of being eaten by a predator. "Our study is unique in that we focus on an important behaviour and not morphology, but also because we allow the interplay between predator and prey to take place in their natural habitat, their home lake", says Kaj Hulthén, one of the researchers behind the study. More information: Kaj Hulthén et al. A predation cost to bold fish in the wild, Scientific Reports (2017). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-01270-w
News Article | May 5, 2017
Staphylococcus aureus, in yellow, interacts with a human white blood cell. Credit: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Researchers in dermatology at Lund University in Sweden believe they have cracked the mystery of why we are able to quickly prevent an infection from spreading uncontrollably in the body during wounding. They believe this knowledge may be of clinical significance for developing new ways to counteract bacteria. "Perhaps we don't need to kill them with antibiotics but simply gather them so that the body can better take care of the infection", say researchers Jitka Petrlova (lead author of the article) and Artur Schmidtchen, Professor in Dermatology and Venereology, Lund University. The study was conducted in close collaboration with their colleagues in Lund, Copenhagen and Singapore, and has been published in the scientific journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The researchers have discovered that fragments of thrombin - a common blood protein which can be found in wounds - can aggregate both bacteria and their toxins; something they did not see in normal blood plasma. The aggregation takes place quickly in the wound and causes bacteria and endotoxins not only to gather but also to be "eaten" by the body's inflammatory cells. "This way, the body avoids a spread of the infection. We believe this to be a fundamental mechanism for taking care of both bacteria and their toxins during wound healing", says Jitka Petrlova and continues; "Our discovery links aggregation and amyloid formation to our primary defence against infections - our innate immunity. It is well known that various aggregating proteins can cause amyloid disease, in skin or internal organs, such as the brain. Therefore, a mechanism that is supposed to protect us from infections, can sometimes be over-activated and lead to degenerative diseases." Artur Schmidtchen, who has conducted research in the field of innate immunity for over 20 years, is pleased with the results of the study. "I have always been fascinated by how nature has effectively created different defence mechanisms, and wound healing provides a rich source of new discoveries. The ability to effectively heal wounds is of evolutionary significance to our survival. Compared to antibiotics, innate immunity has been around for millions of years - and I think we should consider the application of these concepts in an era of increasing antibiotic resistance." More information: Jitka Petrlova et al. Aggregation of thrombin-derived C-terminal fragments as a previously undisclosed host defense mechanism, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2017). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619609114
News Article | March 15, 2017
Spiders around the world consume about 400 to 800 million tons of prey every year — a show of their contribution in keeping ecological balance in check. According to a team of zoologists from Switzerland’s University of Basel and Sweden’s Lund University, insects and springtails make up more than 90 percent of spider prey. Large tropical spiders also occasionally devour plants and small vertebrates such as lizards, frogs, fish, snakes, birds, and bats. “In concert with other insectivorous animals such as ants and birds, they help to reduce the population densities of insects significantly," said lead study author and University of Basel professor Martin Nyffeler in a statement. “Spiders thus make an essential contribution to maintaining the ecological balance of nature.” Spiders are some of the world’s most species-abundant and widespread predators at more than 45,000 species and a population density reaching 1,000 individuals for every square meter (11 square feet). They lead a largely secretive lifestyle of nocturnal activities or camouflaging in vegetation, which previously made it difficult to better illustrate their environmental role and impact. The team used two calculation techniques based on varying models, finding that the global spider population weighs around 25 million metric tons and wipes out up to 800 million tons of prey annually. Most spiders reside in forests, grasslands, shrublands, croplands, and deserts. Further calculations revealed that spiders living in forests and grasslands take up more than 95 percent of the yearly prey kill of its global community. This is likely because these areas are less frequently touched by agricultural or urban practices, therefore allowing the biomass to thrive. In comparison, spiders in deserts, the Arctic tundra, and annual crops kill fewer insects. Last January, a tarantula spider was documented eating a snake under the rock, a rare “dinner” that surprised scientists in Brazil. Compare this annual prey intake to those of humans and other animals: all humans eat about 400 million tons of meat and fish, while whales feed on up to 500 million tons of seafood. Seabirds, meanwhile, eat approximately 70 million tons of fish as well as other seafood. The team’s estimates prove important for both natural and semi-natural habitats. “Many economically important pests and disease vectors breed in those forest and grassland biomes,” added Nyffeler. Spiders, in turn, serve as an important prey population. Some 8,000 to 10,000 other predators and parasites consume spiders exclusively, while up to 5,000 bird species have made these crawlies a part of their diet. The findings were discussed in The Science of Nature journal. Researchers recently discovered three new species of hairy tarantula spiders from the genus Avicularia. These new finds survive in trees and feast on small mammals and birds. These three species are the A. caei, native only to Brazil; A. lynnae, spotted in Ecuador and Peru; and A. merianae, indigenous to Peru and was named after the naturalist Maria Sibylla Merian. Their genus has grown to include at least 50 species and has been tied to such an imposing size, tree-dwelling ways, and preferred prey of insects, bats, and birds. In February, experts also revealed that around 40 serious medical conditions including diabetic ulcers, antibiotic-resistant staph infection, and herpes have been and can be mistaken as a bite from a brown recluse spider. Here are ways to tell if it’s a spider bite or not. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
News Article | April 19, 2017
The first iron-containing molecule that shows iron-involved photoluminescence has been synthesized by researchers at Lund University in Sweden. This material might find applications in lower-cost and environment friendly materials for light sources and displays and even solar energy conversion. Chemists have worked on metal-based dye molecules for the best part of half a century for display technology and solar panels. Unfortunately, the best results are often achieved with relatively scarce or expensive metals. Ideally, such materials based on common metals would be optimal in terms of cost and environmental impact. Iron, for instance, is much more abundant and accessible than palladium say. Ruthenium and europium have proven useful, but again, they are not as useful as an iron-based metal dye or ones based on copper would be for many reasons, such as earth abundance, low cost, and lack of toxicity. Now, through a molecular design approach the Lund team has successfully manipulated the electronic properties of iron-based molecules so that they much better resemble the ruthenium-based substances. They have thus for the first time, created a low-spin, iron(III) -based dye molecule which can absorb light and then emit it at a different wavelength. In their proof of principle they can achieve emission of orange light from their iron compound. There are iron complexes that are photoluminescent however that is due to a photoluminescent ligand, in the present material the iron itself is involved in the photoluminescence. "Medieval alchemists tried to produce gold from other substances, but failed. You could say that we have succeeded in performing modern alchemy by giving the iron properties which resemble those of ruthenium," muses Kenneth Wärnmark. The team published detail of their research recently [Wärnmark, K et al. Nature (2017) 543, 695-699; DOI: 10.1038/nature21430]. The compound developed by the team is based on the ion [Fe(btz) ]3+ (where btz is 3,3'-dimethyl-1,1'-bis(p-tolyl)-4,4'-bis(1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene)). It shows room temperature photoluminescence and a long charge-transfer lifetime, 100 picoseconds, this lifetime is quite adequate for a range of applications. Indeed, the team explains, "The absence of intersystem crossing, which often gives rise to large excited-state energy losses in transition-metal complexes, enables the observation of spin-allowed emission directly to the ground state and could be exploited as an increased driving force in photochemical reactions on surfaces." The work was an international collaboration between Lund researchers and colleagues at and at the Ångström Laboratory at Uppsala University, Sweden, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, in Boulder, Colorado, USA, and the University of Copenhagen, Denmark. The researchers concede that much work remains to be done and it may be another five years before a commercial iron-based dye is marketed suggests Lund's Petter Persson. David Bradley blogs at Sciencebase Science Blog and tweets @sciencebase, he is author of the popular science book "Deceived Wisdom".
News Article | April 28, 2017
Autism, paralysis, and persistent, medication-resistant pain are among the challenges that emerging companies and organizations hope to alleviate through neuromodulation therapy. Neuromodulation therapy, sometimes referred to as bioelectric medicine or electroceuticals, is one of medicine's fastest-growing fields, driven by rising neurological disease in an aging population, and the need for non-pharmacological approaches to manage symptoms. The first use of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) to treat chronic pain of neuropathic origin was reported in 1967 by C. Norman Shealy, M.D., Ph.D. Neuromodulation devices, such as SCS and deep brain stimulation systems, leverage technology developed for cardiac pacemakers and cochlear implants to re-balance neural activity. Neuromodulation therapies help relieve chronic pain or restore function. Existing and emerging devices operate through targeted application of electrical, magnetic, chemical, or optical stimulation. Current or emerging neuromodulation therapies address deficits in vision, hearing, breathing, mobility, grasp or gait, motor function, mood, memory, and digestion. Three panels of innovators will present emerging therapies in a daylong preconference before the International Neuromodulation Society 13th World Congress in Edinburgh, Scotland. The Innovations Day preconference on May 28, 2017 also includes discussion by commercialization experts and financiers about capturing data to support reimbursement. BioInduction Ltd. CEO Ivor Gillbe and neurosurgeon Nik Patel, M.D. will present Picostim, a compact neurostimulator with a volume of 7 cc, designed for implantation in the skull in a single procedure. The device is awaiting clinical trial. The company plans for this neurostimulator to initially be used in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. The device is being designed to offer stimulation steering, local field potential recording and wireless charging. The privately held company is funded by its founders, angel investors and U.K. government grants. Winifred Wu, chief officer for translational research at the Clearly Present Foundation, will present its aim to accelerate discovery of non-invasive brain stimulation, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), to treat autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The founder, Kim Hollingsworth Taylor, formed the foundation in 2014 after her son, who she said has high-functioning ASD, participated in a 10-week clinical study of intermittent rTMS. She said he "exhibited remarkable improvements in ASD impairments such as work completion speeds, vastly reduced repetitive behaviors, and increased empathy and flexibility." However, the effect waned over a year. That experience, and the foundation, appear in a chapter of the book Switched On: A Memoir of Brain Change and Emotional Awakening by autism advocate John Elder Robison. Sjaak Deckers, CEO of G-Therapeutics, will present the Go-2 implantable spinal cord stimulation system that is being developed to improve functional recovery of people with spinal cord injury. The initial aim is to provide gait support for people with an incomplete paraplegic injury. Eight patients are being recruited for a feasibility study in Switzerland, under study co-chairs Grégoire Courtine, Ph.D., director of the Center for Neuroprosthetics and Brain Mind Institute at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, and Prof. Armin Curt, M.D., who is chairman of the Spinal Cord Injury Center at the University of Zurich and medical director of the Paraplegic Center at the Balgrist University Hospital. The clinical trial, called STIMO: Epidural Electrical Simulation (EES) With Robot-assisted Rehabilitation in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury, will combine stimulation with movement rehabilitation. Chi-Heng (Rex) Chang, GiMer Medical general manager, will present NeuroBlock, a wirelessly charged device that was spun out of the biomedical engineering labs at National Taiwan University. NeuroBlock is an ultra-high-frequency spinal cord stimulation (SCS) device entering its first-in-human pilot study. The initial application will be to address chronic pain through intermittent stimulation of the dorsal root ganglion. The small implantable pulse generator (11 cc in volume) operates without creating tingling sensations of paresthesia like conventional SCS. The development received two National Innovation Awards in Taiwan (in 2016 for best start-up, and in 2014, for outstanding academic research spinout). GiMer derives its name from a fictional Star Wars wooden cane that provided the aging character Yoda supplemental nutrition and pain relief. The company has received private seed funding from two publicly traded companies and a venture fund. Jonathan Sackier, chief medical officer at Helius, will discuss a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled study of the safety and effectiveness of the Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator (PoNS) 4.0 device for cranial nerve noninvasive neuromodulation (CN-NINM) training in subjects with a chronic balance deficit due to mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury. A clinical trial of CN-NINM began at 4 US and Canadian sites in 2015 to investigate if the PoNS therapy, Helius' investigational medical device and physical therapy regimen for relief of neurological symptoms of disease or trauma is effective. Data collection for the primary outcome measure is anticipated to be complete by July 2017. Helius is publicly traded on the Toronto Stock Exchange. Mainstay Medical president and CEO Peter Crosby will present the company's ReActiv8 implantable restorative neurostimulation system as a treatment for patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) of primarily nociceptive origin. ReActiv8 is designed to electrically stimulate the nerves of the muscles that dynamically stabilize the lumbar spine, to help restore muscle control and allow the body to recover from CLBP. ReActiv8 received CE mark in May 2016 and sales have begun in Germany. The current ReActiv8-B Trial is an international multi-center prospective randomized sham-controlled triple-blinded clinical trial designed to gather safety and efficacy data. Complete enrollment is anticipated in late 2017, with results available in 2018. Up to 27 centers will enroll 128 subjects who suffer from long-term disabling CLBP, are not candidates for and have not previously had spine surgery, are not candidates for SCS, and have failed conventional medical management such as drugs and physical therapy. Frank McEachern, MicroTransponder CEO, will present the company's Vivistim system that provides vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). The system is nearing the end of a U.S. clinical study in 17 patients who are undergoing rehabilitation for upper limb mobility after stroke. Previously, a safety-and-feasibility clinical trial of 20 stroke patients in Glasgow and Newcastle in the U.K. indicated rehabilitation was more successful with VNS than without. Pairing VNS with a specific movement strengthens motor circuits, which may help the patient regain upper limb function. Jens Schouenborg, Ph.D., a professor at Lund University, will present a new generation of matrix-embedded 3-dimensional, flexible neural interfaces. They are designed to be precisely implanted and spread out locally in target brain nuclei for deep brain stimulation (DBS). Preclinical studies indicate that by selecting appropriate biocompatible materials as the embedding matrix material, local injury including loss of neurons and immunological reactions can be minimized. The "3D Cluster Electrode" is intended to significantly improve stimulation specificity in DBS and widen its scope. Clinical studies are to commence during 2019. Daniel McDonnall, Ph.D., the president of Ripple, will present an implantable prosthetic device to restore eyelid motion to patients with unilateral facial paralysis. The wirelessly powered device is intended to prevent painful dry-eye complications and re-animate facial expression. After suffering paralysis due to tumor surgery, trauma, or disease, these patients do not currently have options for dynamic restoration of eyelid motion. The device would pair a detecting electrode on the healthy eyelid to detect the onset of a blink with a stimulating electrode on the paralyzed side to evoke a simultaneous blink. Proof-of-concept studies have been conducted, and component technologies have been developed. Preclinical testing is nearing completion. Sources of funding include the National Eye Institute's Small Business Innovation Research Phase I and II grant awards, as well as a grant from the U.S. Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program. WISE CEO Luca Ravagnan, Ph.D. will present the company's foldable, polymer-based electrode platform that can be applied to neuromonitoring and neuromodulation devices. The company is concluding the CE certification phase for its first product for acute use: cortical electrodes for intraoperative monitoring. The company is developing foldable paddles for SCS to combine the strengths of paddle leads with the ease of percutaneous leads to overcome trade-off between leads' performance and invasiveness of the surgery. Prior to becoming founding director of the Wyss Center in 2015, he coordinated the multidisciplinary team behind the groundbreaking prototype neural interface known as BrainGate while he was the founding chairman of the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University in Rhode Island. The Wyss Center tackles remaining challenges in brain-computer interfaces, such as development of a miniaturized wireless version of the existing BrainGate brain computer interface technology. The system should be suitable for long-term implantation and able to decode and transmit brain signals that signify intended movement. The Wyss Center works alongside collaborators of the next-generation BrainGate2 in a clinical trial to develop assisted communication and restore movement to people with neurologic disease, injury, or limb loss. In March, Donoghue and BrainGate collaborators reported that a paralyzed man in Cleveland used a BrainGate interface, connected to a functional electronic stimulation system, to move his hand and arm to feed himself, drink from a mug, and scratch his nose. The Wyss Center was established with funding from the Swiss entrepreneur and philanthropist Hansjörg Wyss. Guri Oron, CEO of BlueWind Medical, will present the company's miniature wireless and battery-less microstimulator, RENOVA iStim, which delivers targeted peripheral stimulation for a variety of clinical indications. BlueWind Medical, founded in 2010 by Rainbow Medical Group, has successfully completed several clinical studies and is focused on bringing its RENOVA platform to market.
Anttu N.,Lund University |
Xu H.Q.,Lund University |
Xu H.Q.,Peking University
Optics Express | Year: 2013
Vertical arrays of direct band gap III-V semiconductor nanowires (NWs) hold the prospect of cheap and efficient next-generation photovoltaics, and guidelines for successful light-management are needed. Here, we use InP NWs as a model system and find, through electrodynamic modeling, general design principles for efficient absorption of sun light in nanowire arrays by systematically varying the nanowire diameter, the nanowire length, and the array period. Most importantly, we discover the existence of specific band-gap dependent diameters, 170 nm and 410 nm for InP, for which the absorption of sun light in the array is optimal, irrespective of the nanowire length. At these diameters, the individual InP NWs of the array absorb light strongly for photon energies just above the band gap energy due to a diameter-tunable nanophotonic resonance, which shows up also for other semiconductor materials of the NWs. Furthermore, we find that for maximized absorption of sun light, the optimal period of the array increases with nanowire length, since this decreases the insertion reflection losses. © 2013 Optical Society of America.
Lau B.K.,Lund University |
Andersen J.B.,University of Aalborg
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2012
Compact arrays such as multiple antennas on a mobile terminal suffer from low efficiency and high correlation between antenna signals. In the present paper, a simple and rigorous procedure for decoupling two closely coupled antennas with a parasitic scatterer is proposed. The parasitic scatterer, which can be an additional antenna, acts as a shield between two active antenna elements. In contrast to previous studies involving the use of parasitic scatterer for decoupling antennas, we demonstrate using antenna impedances the underlying decoupling mechanism for two arbitrary antennas. By a proper choice of parameters, perfect matching and decoupling can be obtained for a given antenna spacing without extending the overall area used, and without introducing additional decoupling networks. The price to pay is a reduction of bandwidth relative to that of widely spaced antennas, which is the case for other decoupling methods as well. Simulation and experimental results are used to substantiate the effectiveness of the proposed design approach on a two-monopole array with an antenna spacing of 0.1 wavelength. Finally, several practical considerations of the proposal are also presented, including the extension of the approach for more than two active antennas and its implementation in mobile terminals. © 2011 IEEE.
Ainalem M.-L.,ESS AB |
Nylander T.,Lund University
Soft Matter | Year: 2011
The control of DNA condensation, i.e. packaging or compaction, is essential for the living cell, but also important in many applications. One example is gene therapy that often utilises vehicles with the ability to condense DNA and thereby protect DNA against degradation, transport DNA across membranes (which act as barriers towards gene delivery), and regulate gene expression. This review discusses the ability of poly(amido amine) dendrimers to condense DNA molecules via attractive electrostatic interactions, which in turn leads to self-assembled structures with a rich variety of morphologies. The process of condensation is cooperative and kinetically controlled, and the structure of the aggregates strongly depends on the size and charge of the dendrimer, and the salt concentration of the aqueous solution. While globular aggregates are formed by large dendrimers, rods and toroids are formed by smaller sized dendrimers with lower total charge per molecule. The globular aggregates appear to be disordered, but the smaller dendrimers give rise to high-ordered packing of the DNA in ordered arrays according to a square or hexagonal unit cell. The high-ordered packing also indicates that the dendrimers deform while inducing the DNA to condense. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Deng M.T.,Lund University |
Yu C.L.,Lund University |
Huang G.Y.,Lund University |
Larsson M.,Lund University |
And 3 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2012
Semiconductor InSb nanowires are expected to provide an excellent material platform for the study of Majorana fermions in solid state systems. Here, we report on the realization of a Nb-InSb nanowire-Nb hybrid quantum device and the observation of a zero-bias conductance peak structure in the device. An InSb nanowire quantum dot is formed in the device between the two Nb contacts. Due to the proximity effect, the InSb nanowire segments covered by the superconductor Nb contacts turn to superconductors with a superconducting energy gap ΔInSb ∼ 0.25 meV. A tunable critical supercurrent is observed in the device in high back gate voltage regions in which the Fermi level in the InSb nanowire is located above the tunneling barriers of the quantum dot and the device is open to conduction. When a perpendicular magnetic field is applied to the devices, the critical supercurrent is seen to decrease as the magnetic field increases. However, at sufficiently low back gate voltages, the device shows the quasi-particle Coulomb blockade characteristics and the supercurrent is strongly suppressed even at zero magnetic field. This transport characteristic changes when a perpendicular magnetic field stronger than a critical value, at which the Zeeman energy in the InSb nanowire is E z ∼ ΔInSb, is applied to the device. In this case, the transport measurements show a conductance peak at the zero bias voltage and the entire InSb nanowire in the device behaves as in a topological superconductor phase. We also show that this zero-bias conductance peak structure can persist over a large range of applied magnetic fields and could be interpreted as a transport signature of Majorana fermions in the InSb nanowire. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Chan H.S.,University of Toronto |
Zhang Z.,University of Toronto |
Wallin S.,Lund University |
Liu Z.,Peking University
Annual Review of Physical Chemistry | Year: 2011
Coarse-grained, self-contained polymer models are powerful tools in the study of protein folding. They are also essential to assess predictions from less rigorous theoretical approaches that lack an explicit-chain representation. Here we review advances in coarse-grained modeling of cooperative protein folding, noting in particular that the Levinthal paradox was raised in response to the experimental discovery of two-state-like folding in the late 1960s, rather than to the problem of conformational search per se. Comparisons between theory and experiment indicate a prominent role of desolvation barriers in cooperative folding, which likely emerges generally from a coupling between local conformational preferences and nonlocal packing interactions. Many of these principles have been elucidated by native-centric models, wherein nonnative interactions may be treated perturbatively. We discuss these developments as well as recent applications of coarse-grained chain modeling to knotted proteins and to intrinsically disordered proteins. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Heim S.,University of Oslo |
Mitelman F.,Lund University
Cancer Cytogenetics | Year: 2010
The preeminent book on cancer cytogenetics-now in a valuable new edition. Like its successful predecessors, Cancer Cytogenetics, Third Edition continues to offer authoritative coverage of neoplastic processes at the chromosomal level of genomic organization. Now updated and expanded, this new edition includes detailed information on the most recent advances in the field, incorporating a vast amount of new cytogenetic as well as molecular genetic data from the latest basic and clinical investigations. Edited by two leading authorities, who are now aided by a panel of internationalexperts, this new edition has been updated to include: Greatly expanded coverage of solid tumors. Enhanced coverage of acute and chronic myeloproliferative disorders. The latest findings on acute and chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. Cancer Cytogenetics, Third Edition is a valuable resource for researchers in a wide range of fields, including cytogenetics, medical and molecular genetics, cellular and molecular biology, oncology, and hematology. With its complete coverage of thecytogenetic mechanisms underlying neoplasia, and always with a keen eye on the clinical consequences of the various acquired genetic aberrations, this text will alsobe an indispensable reference for all clinicians involved in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer patients. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 5.76M | Year: 2010
Chemical Bioanalysis aims for retrieving selective information out of complex biological systems. Sensors, probes and devices are the future tools of medicinal diagnostics, environmental monitoring, food analysis and molecular biology. The ITN CHEBANA provides interdisciplinary research training for early stage and experienced researchers and focuses on the most important techniques in the field. These are based on fluorescence, electrochemistry and mass spectrometry. Eleven excellently qualified academic partners (with well documented expertise) along with one of Europes leading industrial companies in the diagnostic area will provide a network of research activities, short courses and classes that are complemented by skill training and career development events. In fact, we believe that we have unified Europes leading experts in these fields, many of which outperform their American and other colleagues. Moreover, joint research projects between the partners build the foundation of the training network. The research activities are divided into four overlapping areas: * sensor development for the detection of small analytes, * monitoring of biomolecular interactions, * analysis of cellular function, and * development of diagnostic tools. Interdisciplinary expertise and specialized techniques are mandatory in order to accomplish these challenges, and this cannot be provided at a single institution at the required level. Therefore, a European hub for research and training in the fast developing field of Chemical Bioanalysis is assembled by co-supervised PhD theses, postdoctoral training, workshops and summer schools bringing together the individual expertise of the partners from academia and industry. Eventually, this ITN will provide highly specialized experts that are urgently looked for by the respective European industry.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.1.1-2 | Award Amount: 16.31M | Year: 2008
ENGAGE (European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology) has, as its central objective, the translation of the wealth of data emerging from large-scale research efforts in molecular epidemiology into information of direct relevance to future advances in clinical medicine. ENGAGE will do this through the integration of very large-scale genetic and phenotypic data already available from a substantial number of large and well-characterised European (and other) sample sets of various types. The initial focus will be an integrated analysis of >80,000 genomewide association scans available to the consortium, thereby identifying the large number of novel disease-susceptibility variants undetectable in individual studies. Early studies will concentrate on metabolic and cardiovascular phenotypes, with subsequent expansion to apply the methods developed and lessons learned in other disease areas. The ENGAGE framework has been designed to be adaptable to advances that enable global analyses of other sources of genomic variation (eg structural and epigenetic variants), and to broadening of the phenotypic spectrum (to genomic endophenotypes in particular). The clinical and public health relevance of the novel disease- and trait-susceptibility variants we identify will be evaluated using the breadth and diversity of ENGAGE cohorts (DNAs and serum/plasma samples from over 600,000 individuals). The final step will be to effect responsible clinical translation of our major findings. As well as advances in the understanding of disease pathogenesis which may underpin novel therapeutic advances, we expect to provide clear proof-of-principle that genetic and genomic discoveries can be translated into diagnostic indicators for common diseases with the capacity to stratify risk, monitor disease progression and predict and monitor therapeutic response. ENGAGE has assembled the best researchers, clinical samples and statistical and technical expertise in Europe to realise these goals.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2009.4.1 | Award Amount: 5.06M | Year: 2011
Virtual Museums (VM) are a new model of communication that aims at creating a personalized, immersive, interactive way to enhance our understanding of the world around us. The term VM is a short-cut that comprehends various types of digital creations. Unfortunately, although its idea is not new,development and implementation researches have not, already, brought Europe to be the leader in this field, as expected.This sector has not reached a sufficient level of maturity, such as Cinema or Game sectors, as to be as much widespread as it should be. Moreover in Europe, unlike USA, we still face a disconnection between the research, that develop tools with little interest in their wide application, and the industry, that build ten-year plans addressing the market. VM domain is the perfect application area where all these problems NEED to be solved for the real benefit of community. Unfortunately there are no solutions ready to be developed through research. A NoE would be required at this point. V-MusT.net partners believe that Europe CAN be the leader in the worldwide panorama of VM. A large subset of the most important VMs are implemented by EU groups. Some of the most notable and excellent researches related to this field are developed in EU. This leadership can be achieved only by going beyond the actual research fragmentation, by soliciting a common effort in assessing limitations emerging from all VM experiences consolidated so far, finding proper solutions, assessing them through experimental activity and finally consolidating a transnational network dedicated to VMs. V-MusT.net will bridge technological domains, archival, social and cognitive sciences to advance the state-of-the-art of digital preservation, for VMs future persistence. It will finally create a virtual research area; identify researches for further development; identify the VM of the Future; increase competitiveness of the EU-ICT industry; create a quality evaluation procedure.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH-2010-1.2-1 | Award Amount: 9.98M | Year: 2011
The research programme will integrate diverse levels, methods and disciplinary traditions with the aim of developing a comprehensive policy agenda for changing the role of the financial system to help achieve a future which is sustainable in environmental, social and economic terms. The programme involves an integrated and balanced consortium involving partners from 14 countries that has unsurpassed experience of deploying diverse perspectives both within economics and across disciplines inclusive of economics. The programme is distinctively pluralistic, and aims to forge alliances across the social sciences, so as to understand how finance can better serve economic, social and environmental needs. The central issues addressed are the ways in which the growth and performance of economies in the last 30 years have been dependent on the characteristics of the processes of financialisation; how has financialisation impacted on the achievement of specific economic, social, and environmental objectives?; the nature of the relationship between financialisation and the sustainability of the financial system, economic development and the environment?; the lessons to be drawn from the crisis about the nature and impacts of financialisation? ; what are the requisites of a financial system able to support a process of sustainable development, broadly conceived?
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.3.7 | Award Amount: 3.37M | Year: 2008
A key socio-economic challenge for Europe is: how to deal with a climate change, while meeting rapidly increasing demand for energy and ensuring security of supply? Wind energy can be a significant part of the answer. The new frontier of the wind industry is large-scale offshore wind farms. While promising, considerable research and development tasks remain to be carried out before it reaches its full potential in terms of the efficient, stable, safe, predictable and controllable supply of energy. Closed loop control of wind power installations has historically been decentralized and a collection of wind turbines in farms is a highly complex system with interdependencies through the shared resource, the wind. Wind turbines are affected by the wind but they also changes the wind field within the farm through the control. To address objectives related to cost, quality of power and mechanical loads, models and control paradigms must be developed that allow wind resource allocation to individual turbines. Inspired by the industrial case of complex large-scale distributed offshore wind farms, the Aeolus project will research and develop models that allow real-time predictions of flows and incorporate measurements from a set of spatially distributed sensor devices. In Aeolus we will use the flow information as a basis for new control paradigms, centralized and distributed that acknowledges the uncertainty in the modelling and dynamically manages the flow resource in order to optimise specific control objectives. The model and control principles are used for control of a wind power farm to increase energy quality and reduce the fatigue loads. The usefulness of our techniques will be validated on a case study and by physical experiments on a scaled wind power farm.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-04-2015 | Award Amount: 6.83M | Year: 2016
Environmental heating is a growing challenge for our community and problems are already experienced by millions of Europeans during the summertime and aggravated during heat waves or occupational settings. In addition to the well-known health risks related to severe heat stress, a number of studies have confirmed significant loss of productivity due to hyperthermia. Even if countries adopt the EU proposal for limiting global CO2 emissions, climate change and its associated threat to public health will continue for many decades. Thus, it is crucial to develop strategies to mitigate the detrimental health and societal effects of these environmental changes. Stakeholders such as policy makers and the private sector usually lack the technical capabilities or facilities to conduct R&D activities at the level of excellence required for such development. European research institutes have the capacity to conduct the R&D necessary to develop solutions. However, they often lack the capacity to transform these solutions into policies and assess their health, economic and social benefits. The HEAT-SHIELD project will create a sustainable inter-sector framework that will promote health as well as productivity for European citizens in the context of global warming. The project will produce a series of state-of-the-art innovative outcomes including: (i) appropriate technical and biophysical research-based solutions to be implemented when the ambient temperature poses a health threat or impairs productivity (ii) a weather-based warning system with online open access service that anticipates the events that may pose a threat to workers health; (iii) scenario-specific policies and solutions aimed at health promotion and preventing loss of productivity (iv) implementation of the formulated policies and evaluation of their health, economic and social benefits. Consequently, the HEAT-SHIELD project provides a multi-sector approach to address the serious environmental challenge.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2011-1.1.19. | Award Amount: 10.91M | Year: 2012
LASERLAB-EUROPE III is the European Consortium of major Laser Research Infrastructures, forming a FP7 Integrated Infrastructure Initiative. Geographically it covers the majority of European member states, following recent efforts to include partners from all over Europe 27. Scientifically, it covers many areas of laser science and applications with particular emphasis on short-pulses and high-intensities. Recently this field has experienced remarkable advances and breakthroughs in laser technologies and beam parameters. Novel applications range from coherent x-ray generation, laser particle acceleration, laboratory astrophysics, and attosecond physics to fusion research, materials research, and biomedicine, to name only few. Consequently and also as a sign of its exceptional internal coherence - the European laser community has engaged in the worlds first truly international laser infrastructures, ELI and HiPER. Besides offering unprecedented research opportunities these infrastructures, together with the LASERLAB-EUROPE III Consortium, will substantially contribute to innovation and help addressing the grand societal challenges. The main objectives are: - To maintain a competitive, inter-disciplinary network of European national laser laboratories; - To strengthen the European leading role in laser research through Joint Research Activities, pushing the laser concept into new directions and opening up new applications of key importance in research and innovation - To engage in Transnational Access in a highly co-ordinated fashion for the benefit of the European research community. - To increase the European basis in laser research and applications by reaching out to neighboring scientific communities and assisting in the development of laser research infrastructures on both the national and the European level, particularly the Pan-European infrastructures ELI and HiPER.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.5.4 | Award Amount: 4.04M | Year: 2012
Early detection and adaptive support to changing individual needs related to ageing is an important challenge in today society. The Giraff\ project aims at developing a system that addresses such a challenge. The system consists of a network of home sensors that measure e.g. blood pressure or temperature, or detect e.g. whether somebody occupies a chair, falls down or moves inside a room. The data from these sensors are interpreted by an intelligent system in terms of activities, e.g. the person is going to bed, and health and wellbeing, e.g. the person is tired or well rested. These activities can then trigger alarms or reminders to the person or his/her caregivers, or be analysed over time by a health professional. The system should automatically adapt to perform specific services such as checking the persons sleeping patterns. There is also a telepresence robot, the Giraff, which can be moved around in the home by somebody connected to it over internet, e.g. a caregiver. The Giraff is effectively a mobile communication platform, equipped with video camera and display, and microphone and speakers, and it helps the user to maintain his/her social contacts. Particular emphasis is put on user evaluation outside the laboratories. The Giraff\ system will be installed and evaluated in at least 15 homes of elderly people distributed in three European countries (Sweden, Italy and Spain). These evaluations will drive the development of the system. The concept of useworthiness will be central in order to assure that the Giraff\ system provides services that are easy and worth using. In addition, by using existing and affordable components (besides the Giraff robot also sensors from two participating companies: Tunstall and IntelliCare) we strive to achieve a system that is affordable and close to commercialization.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 3.76M | Year: 2011
Protein aggregation is a hallmark of many late onset neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsons Disease (PD), Alzheimers Disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), prion diseases as well as the group of polyglutamine diseases (polyQ). The aim of this proposal is to create a network of European partners bridging important basic mechanisms involved in proteinopathies, research of model diseases and treatment approaches. The TreatPolyQ network will focus on two main representatives of the polyQ diseases: Huntingtons disease as the most common polyQ disease as well as spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) as the most frequent autosomal-dominantly inherited ataxia. Patients suffer from a multitude of neurological symptoms including movement abnormalities with late onset and in a progressive manner. Up to now, no treatment or cure is available. The network will be consisting of a rare combination of experts from basic and translational research, including a Nobel prize laureate, four industrial partners (two medium, and two small companies, all incorporated as full participants) and academic leaders of the field. The network not only focuses on one special aspect of a disease but spans several important disease-associated mechanism as well as promising treatment strategies for HD and SCA3 (protein transport, protein folding, protein degradation via both the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy), likely to be important across a range of neurodegenerative diseases. In order to implement these research projects, extensive collaborations and temporarily personnel secondments of the involved researchers will take place, enhancing interdisciplinary transfer of knowledge. Beyond the personalized local training plan for each employed researcher within the Network, there will be 4 structured courses covering aspects ranging from structural biology to protein degradation to model organisms and drug development, including soft skill training.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH-2007-3.4-5 | Award Amount: 1.96M | Year: 2009
FUTURAGE aims to produce the definitive road map that will guide European research on ageing and health for the next 10-15 years. It represents plans for the most extensive consultation ever conducted in this field and for the mobilisation of not only the leading scientists but also the stakeholders that will determine the fate of the road map. FUTURAGE combines all of the major coordination actions in the ageing field, including an ERA-Net and, on this basis, promises to produce the most comprehensive formally grounded and scientifically credible road map, as well as one that commands wide support. FUTURAGE represents a unique set of partnerships among leading scientists and between scientists and key stakeholders. It builds on and extends the existing ERA-AGE collaboration (12 existing partners) by (i) combining all of the key coordination actions and specific support actions on ageing of the past decade including: FORUM, ERA-AGE LINK-AGE and AGEACTION, (ii) extending the collaboration to new Member States, (iii) integrating scientists and programme managers, (iv) emphasising knowledge translation and policy impact and (v) engaging all key stakeholders. The resulting roadmap will not only represent the state-of-the-art in scientific terms but will also reflect the needs of a wide range of research users including funders, industry, policy makers, practitioners and older people.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.4.3-1 | Award Amount: 7.79M | Year: 2008
The earliest currently identifiable process in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the development of autoimmunity to islet beta cells in the form of autoantibodies. Hindering attempts to prevent autoimmune T1D, the aetiology and pathogenesis of the islet auto-immunization, including whether it is preceded by metabolic abnormalities and cell-mediated autoimmunity, is still poorly understood. To overcome this, DIAPREPP will focus on the early auto-immunization against islet antigens, in particular to disclose events preceding current autoantibody markers. The concept is that events prior to auto-immunization govern the likelihood and signature of immunization, which in turn determines progression to disease. The overall objective is to determine mechanisms of islet autoantigen immunization. In a truly collaborative manner, and through five S/T workpackages plus three dedicated to dissemination, training, and management, DIAPREPP will 1. provide a unique set of clinical material that includes a case-control cohort representative of the worlds largest studies of pre-T1D, with follow-up and samples from birth, and pancreatic islets and lymph nodes from patients; 2. investigate the effects of environmental exposure to infections on islet cells and immune cells; 3. perform extensive metabolomic analysis of pre-autoimmune samples and in relevant animal models to test mechanistic hypotheses of auto-immunization; 4. carry out detailed analyses of early autoimmune responses with a special focus on autoreactive CD8\ T cells; and 5. apply findings to ongoing prevention studies. The expected impact of DIAPREPP is new fundamental knowledge regarding how 1. immunization against islet autoantigens can occur; 2. signs of self-immunization can be exploited for prediction and monitoring of disease; and 3. the immunization or its progression to islet beta cell destruction and T1D development can be prevented.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 3.05M | Year: 2012
PEPMIP represents a joint European effort involving eleven partners aimed at the development of the next generation of dedicated separation materials, designed to recognize peptides and proteins, and the implementation of these materials in new high performance methods for peptide and protein analysis. Artificial receptors will be developed by various Molecular Imprinting techniques. This will be supplemented by a new class of generic peptide and protein fractionation tools that will be integrated in new formats to produce new protein/peptide separation and detection solutions. The research results will lead to technological advances having a major impact on 1) health care since it will profit from methods involving PEPMIPs for earlier, more reliable diagnosis of diseases, 2) drug discovery allowing a faster target or biomarker identification; and 3) biochemistry research laboratories in resulting in improved protein fractionation tools for revealing low abundant post translational modifications. The training will focus on 10 early stage researchers (ESRs) who, within four work packages, will develop a well-balanced spectrum of scientific, business and entrepreneurial skills that will be particularly attractive to European industry when the ESRs eventually leave PEPMIP.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2008.1.1.3.1. | Award Amount: 4.68M | Year: 2009
The aim of this project is to achieve an improved knowledge of the terrestrial carbon cycle in response to climate variability and extremes, to represent and apply this knowledge over Europe with predictive terrestrial carbon cycle modelling, to interpret the model predictions in terms of vulnerability of the terrestrial in particular soil carbon pools and give according advice to EU climate and soil protection policies. This objective will be achieved by integrating three major types of recent and new solid scientific carbon cycle data, from: (i) soil process studies, (ii) a network of established ecosystem manipulation experiments, and (iii) long-term observations spanning several times-scales (e.g. eddy covariance data, tree rings and growth, crop yields, long-term remote sensing data on soil moisture and vegetation activity and soil carbon inventories). The integration will be reached by establishing a consistent and harmonized data base and by confronting the terrestrial carbon cycle models with the multiple data sets within a Bayesian model identification and improvement procedure. Specific model development concerning processes affected by extreme events (e.g. soil carbon destabilization, tree growth response incl. lag effects and mortality) will be included and followed by model testing and improvement against the data made available in the project. The improved models will simulate terrestrial processes relevant to carbon balance and soil erosion at pan- European scale using regionalized climate scenarios with explicit inclusion of extreme climatic events. Since we are using several climate scenarios and an ensemble of models we will be able to characterize the uncertainties in prediction coming from models and climate scenarios. We will interpret the empirical evidence from the observational work and the model simulations in a framework of vulnerability assessment and disseminate and discuss results with stakeholders at EU level.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.89M | Year: 2016
Environmental microbial surveys have revealed a remarkable diversity of microeukaryotic life in most ecosystems, the majority of which had previously escaped detection. From an ecological point of view this work highlighted our ignorance of critical microbial players in natural environmental processes, including primary production, biogeochemical cycling and trophic interactions such as parasitism and grazing. Consequently, our understanding of community function is partial, limiting our ability to study environmental change. While, from an evolutionary perspective, we are missing major components of the Tree of Life giving rise to a fragmented understanding of how major cellular functions have evolved. Single cell genomics (SCG), including single cell transcriptomics, is an emerging technology that has the potential to retrieve genomic information from individual uncultured microbes recovered directly from natural environments and promises to provide new tools to investigate microeukaryotes in unparalleled detail. The aim of this ITN is therefore to train a new generation of scientists with the highest expertise, in SCG, from the initial stages of cell sorting to genome sequencing and gene annotation, to the full exploitation of the data obtained. Such progress will allow the European research community for the first time to address critical ecological and evolutionary questions. SINGEK will drive training through research by both local and network-wide activities, secondments, and workshops, and by establishing an environment that extends far beyond each partner team. This training environment will also provide the transferable skills essential for successful career development. This network of well connected and highly qualified scientists with expertise in eukaryotic SCG will be ready to implement this technology beyond ecology and evolution to other fields such as biomedicine or biotechnology driving innovation across the EU.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE.2011.3.5-01 | Award Amount: 7.78M | Year: 2011
The project aims at 1 providing baseline data on biodiversity in agro-ecosystems in the EU, 2 translating regional protection goals in measurable assessment endpoints, 3 defining lists of suitable bioindicators for various European regions, 4 improving knowledge on potential long term environmental effects of genetically modified plants (GMPs), 5 testing the efficacy of the EFSA Guidance Document (GD) for the Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of GMPs, 6 exploring new strategies for post market monitoring, 7 estimating the compatibility of GMPs with the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) principles implemented in the EU, 8 providing a systematic analysis of economical aspects of GMPs cultivation in the EU, and 9 setting a training and communication plan addressing public concerns about GMPs. The consortium includes 22 partners (Research institutes, Universities, State Agencies and SMEs) located in 15 EU countries and. An ICPC country (Argentina) will contribute in validating the monitoring methodology in areas where GM crops are cultivated on larger scales. A cornerstone is the application of the EFSA ERA GD, which is the basis for the update of the regulatory process of GMPs in the EU. The GD has provided ecologically sound principles for ERA, triggering the need of practically testing them. Partners of the consortium participated to the preparation of GD and 3 of them are senior authors of relevant chapters. The scientific activities will consist of case studies of maize and potato, the two GM crops currently approved for cultivation in the EU, and surveys in non-GM agro-ecosystems. The final outcome will include a network of EU representative sites for pre-market risk assessment and long-term monitoring studies, a set of standardised testing methods and a geographical information system integrating relevant datasets, protocols and tools to help EU decision-makers. To be implemented in 4 years, the project estimated costs are 7779852.15 , requested grant 5997963 .
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 5.18M | Year: 2009
New and recent developments have revolutionized the prostate cancer research and clinical arenas, requiring the next generation scientists to have comprehensive knowledge and expertise in basic, clinical and applied research. PRO-NEST offers young researchers a European integrated, multi-disciplinary training programme to become an independent and all-round scientist and team leader in (prostate) cancer research. This network is driven by recognised and experienced scientists from 17 academic and industrial partners. The joint PRO-NEST research programme focuses on the understanding of the molecular events responsible for the initiation and progression of prostate cancer as well as on the development of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets, with the ultimate goal to improve the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and prevention of this major European health problem. The fellows will strongly contribute to this programme by their individual research projects that will be carried out in a high standard and collaborative scientific infrastructure under the supervision of experts in the field. In this way, they will become technical specialists in a dedicated area of cancer research. The scientific and complementary skills of the fellows will be expanded and deepened by secondments and by theoretical and practical network-wide training courses on basic and clinical aspects of prostate cancer, biomarkers, technology, valorisation, scientific writing and presentation, project management, communication skills and job application skills. In an international conference entitled The European prostate cancer research floor on stage organised at the end of PRO-NEST, the fellows are given the opportunity to present themselves to potential coming academic and industrial employers. The expertise, state of the art tools and technological skills provided by each of the partners are competitive at the world scale, and form the comprehensive basis of top-level research and training in PRO-NEST. The available support from professional organizations and the existing collaborations in large research consortia ensures the successful realization of the PRO-NEST goals.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-3-2015 | Award Amount: 19.94M | Year: 2015
The science of materials has always been at the centre of scientific and technological progress in human development. The tools to understand materials that fashion them to meet our societal needs have been just as important. Thermal neutrons are one of the most powerful probes that look directly at the structure and dynamics of materials from the macro- to the microscopic scale and from nano-seconds to seconds. It is therefore natural that a group of 17 European Partner Countries have joined together to construct the worlds most powerful neutron source, the European Spallation Source (ESS). The importance of ESS has been recognised by ESFRI who have prioritised it as one of three Research Infrastructures (RIs) for this INFRADEV-3 call. However, simply constructing the most powerful spallation neutron source will not, by itself, ensure the maximum scientific or technological impact. What is needed is an integrated program that ensures that key challenges are met in order to build an ESS that can deliver high impact scientific and technological knowledge. With a timeline of 36 months, involving 18 Consortium Partners and a budget of 19.941.964, the BrightnESS proposal will ensure that (A) the extensive knowledge and skills of European companies, and institutes, are best deployed in the form of In-Kind Contributions to ESS for its construction and operation, (B) that technology transfer both to, and from, the ESS to European institutions and companies is optimised and, (C) that the maximum technical performance is obtained from the ESS target, moderators and detectors in order to deliver world class science and insights for materials technology and innovation.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-1.4-6 | Award Amount: 15.84M | Year: 2008
The NEuroStemCell consortium will foster collaboration between leading European experimental and clinical researchers in order to maximise the prospects for successful clinical trials of stem cell therapy for Parkinsons (PD) and Huntingtons (HD) Disease. The activities will be driven by a Clinical WorkPackage (WP), which will set the requirements, and monitor and guide advances in development of the most promising cells. The goal is to compare different stem cell sources with respect to their capcity to generate mesencephalic Dopaminergic and striatal GABAergic neurons suitable for neuronal cell replacement. The major sources will be neuralised Embryonic Stem (ES) cells, adherent Neural Stem (NS) cell lines and short term expanded Ventral Midbrain neural stem cells/progenitors grown as Neurospheres (VMN). Two exploratory WPs will use extrinsic cues to specify neuronal differentiation and compare rigorously the different human stem cell lines and their progeny in giving rise to authentic neurons. WP3 will integrate long-term assessements of functional (motor and cognitive) recovery in appropriate animal models of PD and HD, and WP4 will exploit non-invasive in vivo imaging to evaluate the survival, composition, integration and functional impact of the donor cells in host brain. These two WPs will also provide the elements necessary to standardise the extent of recovery as a function of cell replacement and integration. In WP5, three SMEs will generate the technologies for manufacturing and scale-up of safe, fully traceable, efficacious and banked stocks of cells ready for clinical use. Regulatory and ethical requirements will be considered in the Clinical WP which also incorporates training. Building on the successful experience of the FPVI EuroStemCell project, NEuroStemCell will provide a focal point for European researchers engaged in the translational aspects of stem cell-based strategies to develop cures for PD and HD
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: BIOTEC-6-2015 | Award Amount: 7.96M | Year: 2016
Biological sequence diversity in nowhere as apparent as in the vast sequence space of viral genomes. The Virus-X project will specifically explore the outer realms of this diversity by targeting the virosphere of selected microbial ecosystems and investigate the encoded functional variety of viral gene products. The project is driven by the expected large innovation value and unique properties of viral proteins, previously demonstrated by the many virally-derived DNA and RNA processing enzymes used in biotechnology. Concomitantly, the project will advance our understanding of important aspects of ecology in terms of viral diversity, ecosystem dynamics and virus-host interplay. Last but not least, due to the inherent challenges in gene annotation, functional assignments and other virus-specific technical obstacles of viral metagenomics, the Virus-X project specifically addresses these challenges using innovative measures in all parts of the discovery and analysis pipeline, from sampling difficult extreme biotopes, through sequencing and innovative bioinformatics to efficient production of enzymes for molecular biotechnology. Virus-X will advance the metagenomic tool-box significantly and our capabilities for future exploitation of viral biological diversity, the largest unexplored genetic reservoir on Earth.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.2.1 | Award Amount: 18.21M | Year: 2012
Over two-thirds of European workers in manufacturing are employed in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Their primary means of competition is to respond rapidly to changing production needs and to keep product quality at a very high level. While robots are able to carry out repetitive tasks to a high standard, they do not meet the demands of SMEs for high flexibility. Todays robots know only their nominal task, which limits their ability to deal with sudden changes in the manufacturing process.For the operation of robots in an SME environment, which is typically less structured and involves more uncertainties, the currently available solutions result in overly complex system integration. Instead, cognitive abilities should be included in the equipment and cognition should take place in both the robot and the human, such that the workers knowledge can be fully utilised and productivity demands can be met. Additionally, the concepts and symbols used in dialogues need to have a common grounding in order to guarantee ease of use.Therefore, we propose the SMErobotics work system, which covers all phases of the robot life-cycle and in which humans and robots can together deal with SME manufacturing uncertainties and are symbiotically able to learn from each other and to learn from the past handling of uncertainties. The SMErobotics vision is to deploy such robots on SME shop floors, with the benefit of long-term improvements in productivity.\nThe SMErobotics initiative pays careful attention to SME-related issues and scientific challenges, as is reflected by its strong industrial involvement supported by leading researchers and building on successful collaboration between industry and academia as well as on demonstration-driven research from the SMErobot project. Additional partners will be included in order to widen the initiatives impact by transferring project results to European pilot applications of SME-compatible cognitive robot systems.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 11.53M | Year: 2009
Europe has the largest and most advanced system of synchrotrons and free electron lasers (FELs): 17 operating facilities, several under construction, some 300 beamlines, 25,000-30,000 users per year from many disciplines (materials, chemistry, biology, medicine, physics, technology and others); this is also the worlds largest experimental network. The system is an open resource for all scientists based on merit, without national barriers. The network and its bottom-up approach to transnational access are major factors in the European competitiveness in science and technology. The European Commission had a major role in this accomplishment by providing through different channels resources for joint activities and transnational access. The present proposal is will enhance this role guaranteeing full exploitation of the research infrastructure by European scientists. The specific objectives are: (1) to provide resources for a concrete transnational access independent of the financial situation of the concerned users; (2) to support joint research activities to build new capacities in existing research infrastructures to even better serve the transnational user community and make European synchrotrons and FELs even more competitive with respect to the USA, Japan and others. In addition, (3) networking activities - schools, workshops, documentation, standards and public dissemination - will boost cooperation in the network and its positive effects in Europe and beyond. The requested financial support is much smaller than the overall funding of the network but its impact is major, benefiting some 10,000 scientists in Europe. Transnational access is crucial for researchers from less-favored countries new EU members in particular. The concrete access front-line instruments without emigration and brain drain is a key effect of the open access to the European synchrotrons and FELs. Similarly positive is the impact on junior researchers and women scientists.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2011.9.5 | Award Amount: 1.71M | Year: 2011
Guardian Angels (GA) are future zero-power, intelligent, autonomous systems-of-systems featuring sensing, computation, and communication beyond human aptitudes. GA will assist humans from their infancy to old age in complex life situations and environments. Zero-power reflects system-of-systems ability to scavenge energy in dynamic environments by disruptive harvesting techniques. The project prepares zero-power technologies based on future energy-efficient technologies, heterogeneous design, and disruptive energy scavengers.\nThree zero-power generations of GAs are foreseen: Physical Guardian Angels are zero-power, on-body networks or implantable devices that monitor vital health signals and take appropriate actions to preserve human health. Environmental Guardian Angels extend monitoring to dynamic environments, using disruptive scavengers, personalized data communication, and first thinking algorithms. They are personal assistants that protect their wearers from environment dangers. Emotional Guardian Angels are intelligent personal companions with disruptive zero-power, manmachine interfaces deployed at large scale. They sense and communicate using non-verbal languages playing an important role in health, education, and security worldwide. This project addresses the following scientific challenges for energy-efficient visionary Guardian Angel autonomous systems: (i) energy-efficient computing (down to E=10-100kT), (ii) and communication (approaching the limit of 1pJ/bit), (iii) low-power sensing, (iv) disruptive scavenging (bio-inspired, thermoelectric, etc, targeting energy densities of tens of mW/cm2), and (v) zero-power man-machine interfaces. A selection of emerging technologies based on energy efficiency is proposed. We will also develop design tools that integrate electrical, mechanical, optical, thermal, and chemical simulation tools over length and time scales currently not achievable.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.1.4-2 | Award Amount: 7.76M | Year: 2011
The BIOHYBRID consortium was build up with the overall aim to develop, in a preclinical perspective, an innovative biohybrid artificial nerve device for the regenerative treatment of traumatic injuries of peripheral nerves. This consortium consists of three active and well integrated SMEs as well as seven academic partners that are recognised leaders in the scientific areas of interest for this project. Furthermore, another partner has substantiated expertises to meet the regulatory work for ATMP development. Traumatic injuries of peripheral nerves represent a major cause for morbidity and morbility in Europe and their social impact is considerably high. It has been estimated that the incidence of peripheral nerve injuries derived from trauma is about 300,000 cases per year. Moreover, nerve injuries are an important component of traumatic limb amputations, with an incidence of 2/100,000 persons per year described for hand amputations. Therefore, repair and regeneration of peripheral nerve injuries represent a major field where clinical application of innovative therapies in regenerative medicine should be sought. Peripheral nerve fibers are able to regenerate and lead to functional recovery provided that an appropriate milieu and guide is available. However, the clinical outcome of neural repair after extended substance loss after nerve injury is often unsatisfactory and therefore innovative strategies for improving the outcome after neural damage are in demand. The main objective of the BIOHYBRID project is the development of a regenerative therapy using an innovative biohybrid artificial nerve device with the goal of repairing damaged nerve trunks. The work program includes an integrated experimental approach bringing together the main aspects of regenerative medicine: a) reconstructive microsurgery, b) regenerative scaffolds and c) transplantation. This approach will allow the biological pre-fabrication of biohybrid nerve devices, their transplantation into nerve gaps in various animal models and the comprehensive evaluation of the regenerative outcome. The SME involvement, for the first time in this biomedical field, will not be limited to production and supply of materials and services but includes also active participation in the conduction of the experiments for in vivo preclinical assessment and follow-up. Based on the extensive basic and clinical experience within this consortium a biohybrid artificial nerve device will be developed together with standardised application and evaluation parameters. A key objective of this study will be to generate, for the first time, a protocol that can serve as a template for future clinical trials in the regenerative therapy of damaged peripheral nerves. The BIOHYBRID project with its consortium partners combines excellent expertise to successfully reach the objectives and stands therfore on the front line of regenerative medicine approaches.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: ENERGY.2008.3.2.1 | Award Amount: 2.49M | Year: 2009
The project aims at developing the first cost-effective and industrially viable process for converting sugar cane bagasse and trash (i.e. sugar cane biomass) into fermentable sugars. Furthermore, the aim is to integrate such a process with existing production of 1st Generation ethanol based on sugar cane. In order to develop such a process, a deeper knowledge about the structural components of sugar cane biomass will be investigated with the aim of capturing the easier fraction of the cellulose sugars. Furthermore, the project will focus on developing a detailed understanding of the dynamic impact between pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in order to specifically design the process and enzymes for cost-effective cellulose conversion. The consortium, which builds on an already established partnership, involves leading industry and Academic partners within the relevant fields from Europe and Latin America. The main technical barriers in the project relate to the application of an integrated approach, achieving economically attractive production of 2nd generation ethanol based on sugar cane biomass as opposed to converting biomass into energy or other alternative use. Moreover, challenges are related to achieving process compatibility with existing plants and the accomplishment of a simple and cheap process. The proposed project will focus on the following RTD activities: - Detailed characterization of structural components in sugar cane bagasse and trash - Understanding the treatability of various fractions - Pretreatment of biomass with focus on integration with existing technology - Enzyme development for improved cellulose hydrolysis - Process simulation and cost estimation
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 4.00M | Year: 2015
The mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelength range is an emerging and important new topic for frontier research. Its general importance relates to a multitude of mid-IR industrial and biomedical sensor applications. Chemical finger prints of most complex molecules such as those found in food, tissue or catalytic compounds all have vibrational spectra in the mid-IR, thus identifiable through mid-IR spectroscopy. Incidentally also the fundamental absorption bands of gas molecules are located in the mid-IR enabling novel instrumentation for mid-IR gas spectroscopy at small concentrations relevant for applications like, leak-tests or remote sensing of greenhouse gases. The main obstacle for the exploitation of the mid-IR optical window has been a historical lack of efficient mid-IR excitation light sources and sensitive mid-IR detectors/imaging. In mid-TECH we have gathered the best European academic and industrial partners to show that in a combined effort both technological short comings can be overcome paving the way for novel instrumentation for industry and society. Key elements are novel semiconductor based Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs), rugged mid-IR Optical Parametrical Oscillators combined with novel, record low noise mid-IR upconversion detection and imaging. These two building blocks will be implemented for cancer diagnostics, for combustion analysis and absorption/DIAL spectroscopy. Since we are combining frontier research within different mid-IR areas we do not at present have the necessary skilled researchers knowing the combined mid-IR enabling components. It is a main goal of mid-TECH to train 15 ESRs to an outstanding level where they subsequently to their study can act as Europes new cross-sectorial technical experts in mid-IR technology at one hand and at the same time fill in a much needed link between academia and industry. This is realized through entrepreneurial courses and secondments between the mid-TECH partners.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.91M | Year: 2015
The interaction of matter with light is one of the most fundamental processes occurring in nature with countless scientific and technological applications. In recent years, the continuing development of intense, ultrashort, coherent light sources from the mid-infrared (mid-IR) to the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral range has opened new possibilities for the investigation of this interaction in new and complementary domains. In both the IR and XUV regimes, molecules and clusters of atoms interacting with light exhibit (correlated) multi-electron dynamics evolving on the few femtosecond (1 fs=10-15 s) to attosecond (1 as=10-18 s) timescale. Several experimental and theoretical investigations suggest that ultrafast multielectronic processes might be fundamental in determining the behaviour of molecules and clusters, and that understanding these phenomena might offer new perspectives on processes occurring on slower timescales, such as bond-breaking in complex molecules and Coulomb explosion in charged clusters. In this context, the main objectives of the MEDEA network are: 1) to advance attosecond and femtosecond XUV spectroscopy in molecules and clusters 2) to demonstrate the feasibility of nonlinear attosecond XUV spectroscopy, 3) to obtain benchmarks for the validation of attosecond tools and femtosecond XUV pulses for the time-resolved imaging of electron and nuclear dynamics in molecules, 4) to contribute to the development of new technological solutions that will increase the competiveness of the industrial partners 5) to train a group of early stage researchers (ESRs) and contribute to their career prospects, and 6) to increase the interest of young students in the networks core research field (Photonics) by introducing a dedicated experimental kit in several European secondary schools.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-25-2015 | Award Amount: 4.24M | Year: 2015
Overall objective: to enhance advanced CMOS RF and logic capability through the use of III-V heterostructure nanowires monolithically integrated on a silicon platform. INSIGHT will focus on: -Development and evaluation of the performance of silicon based, 94 GHz III-V nanowire MOSFET low-noise amplifiers. The technology opens a path for cost reduction of key mm-wave components for high bandwidth wireless applications. -Development of III-V nanowire MOSFETs on Si with breakdown voltage of 6 V, and evaluation of their performance in millimeter wave (90 GHz) power amplifier circuits. These devices will increase output power available from Si CMOS compatible mm-wave technologies with benefits for transceiver range and sensitivity. -Realisation of basic building blocks for future RF-circuits including mixers, Voltage-Controlled Oscillators, and frequency dividers for prescalers using silicon based III-V nanowire MOSFETS. -Development of science and technology for all-III-V nanowire CMOS on silicon targeting future technology nodes for 10 nm and below. This will be validated by the implementation and dynamic characterisation of a flip-flop as demonstration of the co-integration of III-V n- and p-type nanowire MOSFETs. INSIGHT is a strong consortium consisting of 7 partners with complimentary and well-documented experience in III-V MOS technology and millimeter-wave circuit design and implementation. Our main outcomes include : a)Technology toolbox including, materials, processes and integration for III-V n- and p-channel MOSFETs on a silicon platform, b) III-V nanowire MOSFET RF-transistor technology, c) Circuit design library, d) Circuit demonstrators with a clear technology path towards higher TRLs and commercialization. Our vision is to use III-V nanowire CMOS technology for millimeter-wave applications in a System-on-Chip approach, combining RF- and logic on one Si chip. Additionally, applications for logic at the 10 nm node and beyond are foreseen.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 4.00M | Year: 2016
BrainMatTrain focuses on a comprehensive understanding of Parkinsons disease (PD), from basics to translation, fully supported by 8 full partners partner organisation (4 research institutions, 2 hospitals, 2 SMEs) and one partner organisation (SME specialist in device design). This ETN will educate and train 15 Earlty Stage Researchers (ESRs) in functioanlised biomaterials, materials science, functionlisation strategies, molecular biology, stem cell biology, in vitro model systems, in vivo neuroimaging, animal models and prototype design. Recruited ESRs will receive compulsory discipline-specific, generic and complementary transferable skills training. BrainMatTrain will develop multi-modal collagen reservoir scaffolds incorporating moieties targetitng the neuroinflammatoiry and neuroprotective phases of the underlying pathology of Parkinsons disease. The researchers will undertake cross-disciplinary and intersectorial research projects, which when married together will deliver a novel, biomaterial-based, therapeutic device for the treatment of Parkinsons disease. The research training programme is designed to ensure high-calibre graduates, best placed to secure employment in the private or public sector. Fellows will experience both private and public sector research and development environments through a considered secondment plan.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2009.1.3.1.1 | Award Amount: 8.23M | Year: 2010
Fire regimes result from interactions between climate, land-use and land-cover (LULC), and socioeconomic factors, among other. These changed during the last decades, particularly around the Mediterranean. Our understanding of how they affected fire regime in the past is limited. During this century temperatures, drought and heat waves will very likely increase, and rainfall decrease. These and further socioeconomic change will affect LULC. Additional areas will be abandoned due to being unsuitable for agriculture or other uses. Fire danger and fire hazard are very likely to increase, affecting fire regimes. FUME will learn from the past to understand future impacts. Mod. 1 we will study how LULC and socioeconomics changed and how climate and weather affected fire in dynamically changing landscapes. Fires will be mapped throughout Europe to determine hazard burning functions for LULC types. Since climate has changed, an attempt to attribute (sensu IPCC) fire regime change to climate, differentiating it from socioeconomic change, will be made. Mod. 2 will produce scenarios of change (climate, including extremes, land-use land-cover, socioeconomics, vegetation) for various emissions pathways and three time-slices during this century. With these and results from Mod.1, models and field experiments projected impacts on fire-regime and vegetation vulnerabilities will be calculated, including climate extremes (drought, heat-waves). Mod. 3 will investigate adaptation options in fire- and land-management, including restoration. Fire prevention and fire fighting protocols will be tested/developed under the new conditions to mitigating fire risks. A company managing fire will be a key player. Costs and policy impacts of changes in fire will be studied. Research will focus on old and new fire areas, the rural interface, whole Europe and the Mediterranean, including all Mediterranean countries of the world. Users will be involved in training and other activities.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.3.4-02 | Award Amount: 8.00M | Year: 2012
BRIGIT aims to develop a cost-competitive and environmentally friendly continuous process to produce biopolymers (polyhydroxybutyrate, PHB, and succinate-based biopolyesters, PBS-Poly-Butylene-Succinate) from waste-derived lignocelullosic sugar feedstock liquor of wood sulphite pulping process based on in-situ fermentation process and new fermentation culture technology without alteration of the quality of current lignosulphonates (they have a high market demand as additive). Other non-wood plant waste, used nowadays in the pulp production, will be also considered as alternative sugar source in this project. In comparison with previous projects to obtain biopolymers from different sources, the main innovation in BRIGIT is the use of an existing sugar-rich waste stream and the process integration with the existing industrial operation, that will permit an overall reduction in resource consumption and in greenhouse gas emissions and a dramatic reduction of operational costs due to the use of non-sterile steps, without the need of intermediate discontinuous bioreactors and avoiding waste transport. BRIGIT aims to develop bio-based composites for high-tech fire-resistant applications. The use of these biopolymers in combination with natural fabrics (flax, hemp,...) will be mainly in the passenger and goods transport sector (aeronautics, train, buses, shipping, trucks,..) as an alternative to 3D sandwich panels made from thermoset resins reinforced with continuous glass fibres with high fire resistance. The new panels will be recyclable, lighter, with a broad processing windows, high production capacity (using a continuous compression moulding process) and low embodied energy in comparison with current panels that are heavy, non-recyclable, have narrow processing windows, low production capacity, dirty process with high production of waste and based on materials with high embodied energy.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 4.03M | Year: 2016
The main objective of Training4CRM is to train a new generation of 15 highly inter-disciplinary early stage researchers at the highest international level and quality, who will be immediately employable in both the academic and industrial sectors due to their highly sought after cross- and interdisciplinary insights and expertise. Training4CRM addresses existing gaps within Cell-based Regenerative Medicine for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders (e.g. Parkinsons, Huntingtons, Epilepsy), which occur as a result of progressive loss of structure, function and/or death of neurons in the brain. The disorders have a high prevalence and are associated with impairments and disabilities with high emotional, financial and social burden. New scientific discoveries and technologies are needed, and Training4CRM sets out with the ambition to educate and train students within and across different scientific disciplines to be able to master the design, fabrication and testing of completely new tools and materials within the fields of: Micro- and Nanoengineering (nano/microstructures, 3D scaffolds and 3D lab-on-a-chip devices of different materials, geometries, architectures and properties, wireless electronic components; Biotechnology (human stem cells, human induced pluripotent stem cells, optogenetics, tissue engineering; Pre-clinical studies for the purpose of investigating in vivo, in experimental animals, how the developed cells, materials, structures affect the animal at the physiological and behavioral levels, unravelling the therapeutic effects of the developed strategies.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.36M | Year: 2017
Mitigation of climate change is a key scientific and societal challenge and also a headline target of the EU2020 strategy. Strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are necessary to reach the global warming target agreed on at the 2015 United Nations Convention of Parties in Paris. Such emission reductions can only be achieved if sources are properly quantified and mitigation efforts are verified, but there are large discrepancies between official emission inventories and estimates derived from direct measurement of the air. MEMO2 will contribute to the EU2020 targets with a focus on methane (CH4), the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2 and one of Europes most important energy sources. CH4 emissions are a major contributor to Europes global warming impact, but they are also a good target for climate change mitigation because of a rather short lifetime of 10 years (policy-maker compatible) and several sources offering possibilities of no-regret emission reduction (landfills, gas leaks, manure). However CH4 emissions are not well quantified yet. MEMO2 will bridge the gap between large-scale scientific estimates from in situ monitoring programs and the bottom-up estimates of emissions from local sources that are used in the national reporting. MEMO2 will identify and evaluate CH4 emissions and support mitigation measures by I) developing new and advanced mobile methane measurements tools and networks, isotopic source identification, and modelling at different scales, and II) educating a new generation of crossthinking scientists, which are able to effectively implement novel measurement and modelling tools in an interdisciplinary and intersectoral context. The 9 beneficiaries and 13 non-academic partners of MEMO2 offer a wellstructured intersectoral training programme to equip young researchers with strong scientific and personal competencies, which will enhance their employability as well as European innovation capacity in the future.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.93M | Year: 2017
We propose a European Training Network that will provide a total of 540 ESR-months of training in Monte Carlo event generator physics and techniques, and related applications in experimental particle physics. Monte Carlo event generators are central to high energy particle physics. They are used by almost all experimental collaborations to plan their experiments and analyze their data, and by theorists to simulate the complex final states of the fundamental interactions that may signal new physics. We will build on the success of our current MCnetITN, by creating a European Training Network incorporating all the authors of current general purpose event generators, with the main purposes of: (a) training a large section of our user base, using annual schools on the physics and techniques of event generators and short-term studentships of Early Stage Researchers as a conduit for transfer of knowledge to the wider community; (b) training the next generation of event generator authors through dedicated PhD studentships; (c) providing broader training in transferable skills through our research, through dedicated training in entrepreneurship and employability and through secondments to non-academic partners. We will achieve these training objectives both through dedicated activities and through our research activities: (d) developing the next generation of higher precision event generators and supporting them for use throughout the LHC era and beyond; (e) playing a central role in the analysis of LHC data and the discovery of new physics there; and (f) extracting the maximum potential from existing data to constrain the modeling of the higher-energy data from the LHC and future experiments.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SST-2007-3.1-01 | Award Amount: 13.04M | Year: 2012
CIVITAS-DYN@MO is an ambitious project with strategic importance to sustainable mobility planning in four dynamic European cities. Aachen (DE), Gdynia (PL), Koprivnica (HR) and Palma (ES) will jointly develop Mobility 2.0 systems and services, implement city and citizen-friendly, electric mobility solutions and vehicles, and engage in a dynamic citizen dialogue for mobility planning and service improvement. CIVITAS-DYN@MO is targeting dynamic citizens, and especially the digital natives in response to an emerging new mobility paradigm. A considerable part of the younger population in the DYN@MO university cities will be challenged to use web 2.0 apps to find appropriate means of travelling within the city and to communicate with PT operators. A sound basis for mobility planning is a citizen-centred Sustainable Urban Transport Plan. The two leading cities Aachen and Gdynia will advance their planning culture, while Koprivnica and Palma will develop ambitious sustainable urban transport plans all involving extensively citizens and stakeholders via web2.0 applications. Clean public transport remains the backbone of urban transport systems, and the cities have strong commitment to enhance the environmental performance and energy efficiency of their fleets. Alternative fuels, such as CNG and hybrid buses, and the increased use of electromobility in public transport and car sharing schemes will help to accelerate the introduction of clean vehicles in the European market. Venturing in new technology and mobility options as well as promoting new life styles will increase the peoples acceptance for mobility without a private car. The cities propose complementing packages with a high degree of transferability across Europe. Profound evaluation and research with strong dissemination and mutual learning through SUTP Competence Centres will strengthen the strategic impact of the project.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.6.1 | Award Amount: 28.41M | Year: 2010
The interactIVe project addresses the development and evaluation of next-generation safety systems for Intelligent Vehicles, based on active intervention. Safety technologies have shown outstanding capabilities for supporting the driver in hazardous situations. Despite their effectiveness, currently available systems are typically implemented as independent functions. This results in multiple expensive sensors and unnecessary redundancy, limiting their scope to premium-class vehicles.\nThe project is based on the concept that by integrating applications together, vehicle components may be shared among the various safety systems. This is accomplished in interactIVe by discrete architectural layers that are common to all applications. These provide large amounts of knowledge about the driver, state of the vehicle, and the environment to all interested applications. The overall result is an optimal use of resources, lower implementation costs, and ultimately a much broader acceptance of the technology.\nAlthough application and sensor fusion is an active area of study, substantial amount of research is still required before its commercial feasibility. By building upon current state-of-the-art technologies, interactIVe will develop next-generation safety systems based on three pillar concepts, namely continuous driver support, collision avoidance, and collision mitigation.\nThe core activities of the project will address the design and development of the Intelligent Vehicle Systems, whose capabilities will be shown in demonstrator vehicles. The project will be conducted through a coordinated effort from leading automotive industries, suppliers, and research institutes.\nBy demonstrating these results, interactIVe will significantly enhance the feasibility and attractiveness of next-generation safety systems, strengthening the position of European industries in the area of Intelligent Vehicles and e-Safety.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2012-1.1.23. | Award Amount: 8.59M | Year: 2012
CALIPSO coordinates the European synchrotrons and FELs, including the three ESFRI roadmap projects European XFEL, EuroFEL and the ESRF Upgrade Programme, towards a fully integrated network. The consortium is characterised by common objectives, harmonised decisions, transnational open access based on excellence and joint development of new instruments. Innovative networking initiatives address user friendliness and a strengthened industrial interaction. CALIPSO proposes a single entry point (www.wayforlight.eu) to simplify access modalities, to coach potential users to find the best beamline for their experiment and to favour interactivity; in addition, targeted education actions will widen and strengthen the community. Transnational Access potentially benefits a community of 10,000 European users represented by the recently formed European Synchrotron User Organisation (www.ESUO.org). The pivotal EC funding in CALIPSO supports scientists to perform their research at the best facilities, thus promoting equal opportunities for all European researchers. This is particularly important for colleagues from less-favoured countries, early stage and female researchers. The European light sources represent a largely underexploited pool for European industry. To enhance light sourceindustry interactions, CALIPSO proposes a networking activity including specific events to involve industries both as users and instrumentation suppliers, a pan-European Industrial Advisory Board to orient these actions, in preparation for Horizon 2020, and a dedicated task to exploit the innovation potential of the Joint Research Activity. The CALIPSO joint research activity will focus on detectors development, one of the most significant joint challenges for present and future light sources. For Europe to succeed and remain a leader in detectors development, a coordinated action is necessary rather than individual efforts. A close collaboration of the CALIPSO JRA and the industrially-driven action will be setup with the recently signed Detector Consortium initiative, lending an important added dimension with pan-European impact.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.2.1-4 | Award Amount: 15.74M | Year: 2013
Epilepsy is a devastating condition affecting over 50 million people worldwide. This multidisciplinary project is focused on the process leading to epilepsy, epileptogenesis, in adults. Our main hypothesis is that there are combinations of various causes, acting in parallel and/or in succession, that lead to epileptogenesis and development of seizures. Our central premise and vision is that a combinatorial approach is necessary to identify appropriate biomarkers and develop effective antiepileptogenic therapeutics. The project will focus on identifying novel biomarkers and their combinations for epileptogenesis after potentially epileptogenic brain insults in clinically relevant animal models, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and status epilepticus (SE); explore multiple basic mechanisms of epileptogenesis and their mutual interactions related to cell degeneration, circuit reorganization, inflammatory processes, free radical formation, altered neurogenesis, BBB dysfunction, genetic and epigenetic alterations; and translating these findings towards the clinic by validating biomarkers identified from animal models in human post TBI brain tissue and blood samples, post-mortem brain tissue in individuals that died soon after SE, and human brain and blood samples from chronic epilepsy cases. The project will identify novel combinatorial biomarkers and novel disease-modifying combinatorial treatment strategies for epileptogenesis, create an Epilepsy Preclinical Biobank, and validate translational potential of results from animal models in human tissue. To adequately address the proposed goals, the project will develop technological breakthroughs, such as completely novel chemogenetic approaches, novel MRI techniques, novel multimodal organic recording devices for simultaneous recordings of EEG / cellular unit activity and biochemical measurements, novel bioluminescence for in vivo promoter activity analysis, and novel systems biology approaches.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2 | Award Amount: 3.59M | Year: 2010
Mycotoxins are naturally occurring secondary metabolites produced by certain moulds/fungi as a result of their organic processes. Unfortunately, most mycotoxins are known to hazardously contaminate crops and consequently animal feeds and animal products, causing significant economic losses associated with their impact on animal and human health, animal productivity and domestic and international trade. While the economic effects are not easily calculated due to the several participants in the grain sector, European Union is setting stricter and stricter limits of mycotoxin concentrations. Deoxynivalenol also known as DON or vomitoxin is one of about 150 related compounds known as the trichothecenes that are formed by a number of species of Fusarium and some other fungi. It is nearly always formed before harvest when crops are invaded by certain species of Fusarium such as F. graminearum and F. culmorum. Our goal would be twofold: -developing a new sampling technique guaranteeing a 95% bulk transparency, -adapting a biosensor technology for the detection of deoxynivalenol. The electrochemical detection was selected as the amperometric sensor technology using a special biorecognitive layer proved to be the most reliable, low-cost method to be used in an on-site operating device. Our proposed solution will provide an easy-to-use, environmentally friendly, continuously operating system to fight against the mycotoxin infection.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.17 | Award Amount: 9.41M | Year: 2010
EXPEER will bring together, major observational, experimental, analytical and modelling facilities in ecosystem science in Europe. By uniting these highly instrumented ecosystem research facilities under the same umbrella and with a common vision, EXPEER will form a key contribution to structuring and improving the European Research Area (ERA) within terrestrial ecosystem research. EXPEER builds on an ambitious plant for networking research groups and facilities. The joint research activities will provide a common framework and roadmap for improving the quality, interaction and individual as well as joint performance of these infrastructures in a durable and sustainable manner. EXPEER will provide a framework for increased use and exploitation of the unique facilities through a strong and coordinated programme for Transnational Access to the infrastructures. Extensive outreach and collaboration with related networks, infrastructures as well as potential funding bodies will ensure that EXPEER will contribute with its key experiences to the shaping and designing of future research networks and infrastructures, and that it has full support from all stakeholders in reaching its long-term objectives. The establishment of the EXPEER Integrated Infrastructure will enable integrated studies of the impacts of climate change, land use change and loss of biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems through two major steps: 1. Bringing together the EXPEER Infrastructures to enable collaboration and integration of observational, experimental and modelling approaches in ecosystem research (in line with the concept developed in ANAEE); 2. Structuring existing network of ecosystem observational, monitoring and experimental sites across Europe (LTER-Europe). Through its integrated partnership, uniting both the experimental, observational, analytical and modelling research communities, EXPEER has the multidisciplinary expertise and critical mass to integrate and structure the European long-term ecosystem research facilities providing improved services and benefits to the whole research community as well as the society in general.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-2.1.1-2 | Award Amount: 13.88M | Year: 2010
All cancers arise due to somatically acquired mutations in their genomes which alter the function of key cancer genes. Understanding these critical mutational events underlying cancer development is paramount for advancing prevention, early detection, monitoring and treatment of the disease. Breast cancer is the most common class of cancer diagnosed in women worldwide with more than one million cases diagnosed annually. It is responsible for >400,000 deaths per year making it the leading cause of cancer deaths in women and is the most common cause of all deaths in women aged >40yrs. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a number of subtypes. We propose here to generate complete catalogues of somatic mutations in 500 breast cancers, of the ER\ve HER2- subclass, under the International Cancer Genome Consortium model by high coverage, shotgun genome sequencing of both tumour and normal DNA. All classes of mutations are expected to be detected including base substitutions, insertions, deletions, copy number changes and rearrangements. These catalogues of mutations will afford us statistical power to identify cancer genes that are mutated at a frequency of greater than 3% in this class of breast cancer. Complementary catalogues of epigenomic changes (genome-wide DNA methylation) will be generated for the same cancer samples together with transcript expression profiles. Integrated analyses of these data will be carried out and compared to parallel datasets from other classes of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The potential clinical utility of these findings for detection and monitoring of minimal residual disease will be investigated. Finally, data will be made rapidly available to all scientific researchers with minimal restrictions. The results of this exhaustive and comprehensive set of studies will have an enormous impact on our understanding of the causes and biology of breast cancer and will lead to major advances in detection, prevention and treatment of breast cancer
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2007-2.2-02 | Award Amount: 1.84M | Year: 2008
As the objectives of the CAP shift from an agricultural-centred approach to wider rural development, the idea of multifunctionality of rural areas comes into play. This in turn brings the CAP into closer association with a wide range of sectoral policy regimes: regional policy, spatial planning, environmental management; social, energy policy, and others. Sectoral regimes interact in complex ways, and with a determining effect on the sustainable development of rural areas. RUFUS will provide policy makers and stakeholders with better theoretical and practical understandings of how CAP measures interact with other forms of public intervention in rural development; and how policy regimes can be combined to ensure more sustainable development. RUFUS will investigate how rural development policy can be targeted at the specific endogenous potential of rural regions to encourage multiple functionality which goes beyond physical landscape potentials to include social and economic activities and opportunities. An interdisciplinary methodology will build into the analysis a qualitative analysis of the social dimension and endogenous potentials, alongside economic and ecological variables. RUFUS will establish a transdisciplinary conceptual framework on policy integration and rural multifunctionality. It will create a rural typology incorporating social aspects and endogenous potentials. Scenarios of rural futures - the trajectory of policy interaction processes - will be generated. These quantitative findings will be tested against the reality of stakeholder experiences of regional development dynamics through case studies using visualisation techniques. The relevance of the findings for other regions will be examined with the help of an expert panel. Special emphasis is given to combining findings with other research, setting them in the context of political goals and policy problems, and transposing them into practical and meaningful recommendations for action.
HarmonicSS - HARMONIzation and integrative analysis of regional, national and international Cohorts on primary Sjgrens Syndrome (pSS) towards improved stratification, treatment and health policy making
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-04-2016 | Award Amount: 10.19M | Year: 2017
HarmonicSS vision is to create an International Network and Alliance of partners and cohorts, entrusted with the mission of addressing the unmet needs in primary Sjogren Syndrome; working together to create and maintain a platform with open standards and tools, designed to enable secure storage, governance, analytics, access control and controlled sharing of information at multiple levels along with methods to make results of analyses and outcomes comparable across centers and sustainable through Rheumatology associations. The overall idea of the HarmonicSS project is to bring together the largest well characterized regional, national and international longitudinal cohorts of patients with Primary Sjgrens Syndrome (pSS) including those participating in clinical trials, and after taking into consideration the ethical, legal, privacy and IPR issues for sharing data from different countries, to semantically interlink and harmonize them into an integrative pSS cohort structure on the cloud. Upon this harmonized cohort, services for big data mining, governance and visual analytics will be integrated, to address the identified clinical and health policy pSS unmet needs. In addition, tools for specific diagnostic procedures (e.g. ultrasonography image segmentation), patient selection for clinical trials and training will be also provided. The users of the HarmonicSS platform are researchers (basic/translational), clinicians, health policy makers and pharma companies. pSS is relevant not only due to its clinical impact but also as one of the few model diseases to link autoimmunity, cancer development (lymphoproliferation) and the pathogenetic role of infection. Thus, the study of pSS can facilitate research in many areas of medicine; for this reason, the possibility for sustainability and expandability of the platform is enhanced. Moreover, pSS has a significant impact on the healthcare systems, similar to that of rheumatoid arthritis.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 3.60M | Year: 2009
Worldwide there is great excitement about two new ultrafast XUV/x-ray sources that are presently coming available. Attosecond XUV pulses by high-harmonic generation (HHG) will now allow for the first time to make movies of ultrafast electron motion, and thereby to investigate photo-chemical processes beyond the Born-Oppenheimer limit. At the same time, XUV/x-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs) based on self-amplification of spontaneous emission (SASE) of relativistic electrons moving through an undulator structure will allow for the first time to track structural changes in (bio-)molecules using femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction. In this context, the objectives of ATTOFEL are six-fold: 1) by establishing a framework for collaborative research on attosecond science, the potential is created for major breakthroughs in our understanding of the role of ultrafast electron dynamics in atomic physics, molecular physics and materials science. 2) by bringing together groups who recently have combined research in attosecond science with research efforts at the FLASH-FEL in Hamburg, an effective channel is created for knowledge transfer between the HHG/attosecond laser community and the FEL-community, which have historically been separate. 3) a generation of young scientists is trained that can shape the future of attosecond and FEL science, or that can embark on successful careers in industry. 4) the competitive advantage that European attosecond science and European XUV/x-ray FEL facilities currently have is significantly aided. 5) the competitive position of European industrial partners in the very demanding high-end ultrafast lasers market is strengthened. 6) the structuring of the international research community in this field will be consolidated, strengthened and expanded.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.3.2-4 | Award Amount: 3.87M | Year: 2013
In developing countries, most of the 11 million deaths per year of children under the age five years occur in areas where adequate medical care is not available. In Malawi the under-five mortality rate is 133 per 1,000 live births. First-level health facilities - the closest health care services available to most sick children in developing countries are generally run by local medical physicians. The WHO and UNICEF developed the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) as a strategy to improve childhood survival and disease control. The IMCI strategy uses simple signs and symptoms to assess and classify illness, thus allowing health workers at first-level facilities to identify which children have minor illnesses that need symptomatic treatment. Our proposal addresses the objectives of this call by assisting health care workers through the utilisation of established technologies to circumvent the absence of health infrastructures. It achieves this by utilising the cellular network, patient sensor technologies and decision support systems. Proposed is the Supporting Low-cost Intervention For disEase control (Supporting LIFE) project. It is designed to run in rural settings as a platform for delivering community level interventions to improve and manage disease control. This project has a target age group of children under the age of 5 years. Supporting LIFE targets disease control in a multi-target intervention. It helps to ensure accurate diagnosis for those most affected by malaria/infantile diarrhoea (children under 5 years) and helps to ensure accurate and prompt treatment thus providing accurate real time disease statistics in an area by monitoring symptom trends (e.g. fever/diarrhoea) centrally. It targets other common disease entities which are major causes of morbidity and mortality such as pneumonia thereby increasing its utility. It reduces barriers to care by providing expert systems at low cost to people at their closest point of contact.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2008-4.0-1 | Award Amount: 12.25M | Year: 2010
Based on the clinical unmet needs and recent research in biomarkers on Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and Osteoarthritis (OA) the main objective of the project is to develop a nanotechnology based novel diagnostic tool for easy and early detection of biomarkers in inflammatory diseases especially RA and OA by using modified superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPION) for (A) bioassay (ex-vivo application) and (B) MRI (in-vivo detection). A new technology based on multiple functionalized single nanoparticles specifically entering/attaching to cells, to enzymes in serous fluids or organelles in living cells will be used to detect, separate and identify low abundance biomarkers. Newly identified biomarkers will be used to decorate SPION with binding moieties which are specific to the biomarker(s) and can be used diagnostically such as in contrast agents (MRI). A sensitive micro-immunoassay will be developed for special use of these particles in biochemical tests for arthritis. This project is driven by the high clinical need to identify early arthritis and then segment RA and OA patients into progressors/responders or non-progressors/-responders to various treatment options. Inflammatory disorders like RA inducing the destruction of cartilage in 1% of the population which is accompanied by significant pain, morbidity and mortality leads to reduced capacity to work. OA, a degenerative arthritis is the leading cause of disability among the elderly population. As there is no cure for RA and finally the replacement of e.g. the knee in OA, early diagnostic tools for the detection of the disease progression and the ability to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic interventions are necessary u.a. for drug development. Existing diagnostic methods often do not permit an early definite diagnosis, so new nanoparticle based diagnostic techniques targeting to the detection of molecular events (based on MRI) with higher sensitivity/specificity will be developed to satisfy the urgent need.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2008.2.1.4.4. | Award Amount: 10.33M | Year: 2009
Our capacity to effectively sustain biodiversity across spatial and temporal scales is an essential component of European environmental sustainability. Anthropogenic and environmental pressures on biodiversity act differently at different scales. Consequently, effective conservation responses to these threats must explicitly consider the scale at which effects occur, and therefore it is crucial that administrative levels and planning scales match the relevant biological scales. The SCALES project will provide the scientific and policy research needed to guide scale-dependent management actions. It will assess and model the scaling properties of natural and anthropogenic processes and the resulting scale-dependencies of the impacts of these pressures on various levels of biodiversity from genes to ecosystem functions. To facilitate these assessment methods for upscaling and downscaling biodiversity data will be reviewed and improved. SCALES will further evaluate the effectiveness of management and policy responses to biodiversity loss in terms of their scale-relevance and will develop new tools for matching their scales to relevant biological scales. Finally, a resulting methodological and policy framework for enhancing the effectiveness of European biodiversity conservation across scales will be developed and tested. This framework focuses on networks of protected areas and regional connectivity. This framework will be disseminated to a wide range of relevant users via a web based support tool kit (SCALE-TOOL) and by means of further dissemination channels, such as conferences, publications, and the mass media.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-IRSES | Award Amount: 577.10K | Year: 2011
Fundamental trends in the European Union and the world at large provide an increasingly important policy agenda for financing sustainable energy in terms of energy efficiency, innovation in energy exploitation and development of renewable resources. The long-range forecasts for investments and energy market are determined by highly interconnected environmental, geological and technological research despite scientific differences in modelling the scenarios and interpreting the data. The medium-range forecasts for investments and energy market largely depend on geopolitical considerations and internal pressure by public opinion and stakeholders. States, firms and other actors play their game within the current legal framework at the international, regional and national level. Accordingly, the proper policy design for the sustainable energy needs to be complemented by research on the legal, regulatory and geopolitical side. However, the characteristics of social sciences which drive their approach to such issues are determined by their fragmentation into sectoral domains and national traditions. It is commonly agreed that there are great benefits in overcoming the disciplinary divisions combining scientific, social and economic considerations in order to assess the policy impact of sustainable energy. The evaluation of the policies for sustainable energy investments requires to connect several national approaches on such topics, not only in Europe, where the fragmentation of social sciences into national traditions is a matter of fact. In turn, the global nature of the questions addressed by the project needs to be implemented through an IRSES programme in order to strengthen the research partnerships between European research organisations and research organisations from crucial world regions as far as European interests for energy matters are concerned.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2009.1.1.6.1 | Award Amount: 4.16M | Year: 2010
CLIMSAVE will develop and apply an integrated methodology for stakeholder-led, climate change impact and vulnerability assessment that explicitly evaluates regional and continental scale adaptation options, and cross-sectoral interactions between the key sectors driving landscape change in Europe (agriculture, forests, biodiversity, coasts/floodplains, water resources, urban development and transport). A range of sectoral meta-models will be linked within a common assessment platform that is user-friendly, interactive and web-based to allow the rapid reproduction of climate change impacts by stakeholders themselves. The meta-models will be derived from detailed state-of-the-art models which represent the latest results on impacts of, and vulnerability to, climate change and which are appropriate for multi-scale spatially explicit impact studies. Indicator metrics, which translate the outputs from the integrated models into ecosystem services outcomes, will create a standardised approach across sectors ensuring comparability in quantifying impacts and vulnerability. The integrated assessment platform will use these metrics to identify hotspots of climate change vulnerability and provide the ability to assess adaptation strategies for reducing these vulnerabilities, in terms of their cost-effectiveness and cross-sectoral benefits and conflicts. Methods for reducing uncertainties and increasing the transparency of model and scenario assumptions will be implemented to inform the development of robust policy responses. A series of professionally facilitated workshops will identify stakeholder needs and test an innovative methodology for participatory scenario development specifically geared towards interactive climate change impact and adaptation assessment. Two sets of three workshops at two levels (European and regional) will ensure that the CLIMSAVE methodologies work at different scales and provide for continuity of engagement and mutual learning.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.2.4.1-7 | Award Amount: 7.74M | Year: 2011
Over the last 40 years, treatment for childhood and adolescent cancer has improved greatly; 5- year survival after childhood cancer is now 80% in developed countries. Approximately 1 individual in 750 of young adults is now a childhood cancer survivor. Epidemiologic data on the number of European childhood cancer long-term survivors are not available, but estimates suggest a number between 300,000 and 500,000. However, significant differences in both survival and services for long-term follow-up exist across Europe. Recent research from North America has shown that the frequency of late complications continues to rise as the length of follow-up increases with, so far, no evidence of a plateau of incidence. Some late complications of treatment lead to chronic ill health or disability, and thereby constitute a significant burden both on individuals and families, and on health services and society. However, there is considerable opportunity for early identification and appropriate management of complications to improve the survivors health and quality of life, and to maximise efficient use of health services. PanCareSurFup proposes an integrated group of research and service projects to meet these needs. PanCareSurFup will, through cooperation with existing registries and databases, collect data on the risks of complications of cancer treatments to create a retrospective European cohort. Using this cohort research will centre on cardiac toxicity, second cancers and late mortality, with service projects based on a study of models of follow-up and transition to adult care. PanCareSurFup will describe risks of complications of treatment received. Risk prediction and guidelines for care and education will be based on our research and existing evidence, and tailored for each country. The expected benefit is to provide every European childhood cancer survivor with better access to care and better long-term health.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.4.4-1 | Award Amount: 7.84M | Year: 2012
Objective--The project aims to develop an anti HPA-1a immunoglobulin (IgG), Tromplate that can prevent post delivery immunisation of the mother against the Human Platelet Antigen-1a (HPA-1a). This prophylactic treatment will prevent Fetal/Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) in the fetus/newborn in subsequent pregnancies. FNAIT--FNAIT is a rare but potentially serious condition which affects about 4,000 fetuses and newborns a year in EU-27 and which may result in severe bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, fetal death or lifelong disability. FNAIT may develop when the mother and the fetus have different platelet surface antigens, most commonly HPA-1a. Transferral of HPA-1a antigen from the fetus may cause immunisation of the mother and the anti-HPA-1a antibodies she develops may in turn destroy the platelets of subsequent HPA-1a positive fetuses/newborns and cause FNAIT. Today, no good treatment of FNAIT exists. Rationale--Previously, it was believed that the pregnant woman develops antibodies early in the first pregnancy with the implication that FNAIT could not be prevented. However, a study conducted by the applicants of more than 100,000 pregnancies revealed that HPA-1a antibody formation most often takes place in association with or after delivery. Therefore, anti-HPA-1a IgG given to the mother shortly after birth should prevent her immune system from generating harmful anti-HPA-1a antibodies. This concept is analogous to the use of anti(D) for Rhesus D prophylaxis. Activities--The project elements: manufacturing of Tromplate using the process for producing anti(D); screening for HPA-1a negative and pregnant women and clinical Phase II/III studies investigating the efficacy and safety of Tromplate. Relevance to the work programThe prophylactic Tromplate treatment has obtained orphan drug status in Europe. FNAIT represents a significant health care expense for the society and a great burden for the affected children and their families.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.65M | Year: 2012
ENTITLE will train 17 researchers in the emerging supra-disciplinary field of Political Ecology, giving them the theoretical, analytical and complementary skills that will make them employable in jobs related to environmental policy analysis and advocacy. Research and training are framed around five key cluster sub-programmes concerned with the analysis of: environmental conflicts; environmental movements; natural disasters; changes in the commons; and environmental justice and democracy. Research is based on a series of empirical-based investigations of a geographically and thematically diverse set of case-studies. The researchers of the network will collaborate to offer a theoretical and methodological framework for the empirical research and will synthesise the results of the individual cases in a series of publishable outputs. Research will be action and policy-oriented culminating in a series of Action and Policy Briefs targeting civil society organizations and policy-makers. Training includes an integrated curriculum of local and intensive network courses, summer schools, secondments and training through work. Researchers will be seconded to and recruited by one SME and two NGO partners of the project, building bridges between academia and practice. ENTITLE builds on an on-going collaboration in training between the participating institutions, manifested in a series of successful summer schools. It brings together some of the worlds top scholars in the field, and overcomes the fragmentation of existing political ecological research in Europe, offering a critical mass of research and training. It is integrated with a number of related FP7 research projects, and builds on a network of reliable and capable partners with considerable experience in EU project management. The researchers trained in the network will be employable in academia, public administration, NGOs and the consultancy sector
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2011-1.1.20. | Award Amount: 12.58M | Year: 2012
The Project promotes the access to five European Research Infrastructures, and it is structured into nine Networking Activities, plus the Management of the Consortium, and fourteen Joint Research Activities. The Project will profit of the success of the previous HadronPhysics project in FP6 and the current HadronPhysics2 in FP7, and originates from the initiative of more than 2.500 European scientists working in the field of hadron physics. Hadron physics deals with the study of strongly interacting particles, the hadrons. Hadrons are composed of quarks and gluons. Their interaction is described by Quantum Chromo Dynamics, the theory of the strong force. Hadrons form more complex systems, in particular atomic. Under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature, hadrons may loose their identity and dissolve into a new state of matter similar to the primordial matter of the early Universe. The Networking Activities are related to the organization of experimental and theoretical collaborative work concerning both ongoing activities at present Research Infrastructures and planned experiments at future facilities. In hadron physics the close interaction between experimentalists and theoreticians is of paramount importance. The Joint Research Activities concentrate on technological innovations for present and future experiments. Applications in material science, medicine, information, technology, etc., represent natural fall-outs. The main objective of this Integrating Activity is to optimize the use and development of the Research Infrastructures existing in Europe working in the field of hadron physics. The Project aims as well at structuring, on European scale, the way Research Infrastructures operate, and at fostering their joint development in terms of capacity and performance. The approach used is the bottom up approach, to respond to the needs of the scientific community in all fields of science and technology.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SPA.2012.1.3-01 | Award Amount: 2.60M | Year: 2013
The fundamental objective of the ICOS-INWIRE project is to enhance the capabilities of the ICOS infrastructure and fill in critical gaps for monitoring fluxes and concentrations of greenhouse gases, in order to meet the needs of operational users in the GMES program. It will achieve this by: Developing and testing autonomous sensors systems for greenhouse gas fluxes and concentration, enhancing the data processing operational capabilities of the ICOS concentration and flux measurement network and developing inter-operability between ICOS and other in-situ GHG monitoring networks while assuring the convergence with space systems and the harmonization of exchange mechanisms. These activities will contribute to Europes capacity to set up pan-European and global networks.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.00M | Year: 2015
LASERLAB-EUROPE is the European consortium of major national laser research infrastructures, covering advanced laser science and applications in most domains of research and technology, with particular emphasis on areas with high industrial and social impact, such as bio- and nanophotonics, material analyses, biology and medicine. Recently the field of advanced lasers has experienced remarkable advances and breakthroughs in laser technologies and novel applications. Laser technology is a key innovation driver for highly varied applications and products in many areas of modern society, thereby substantially contributing to economic growth. Through its strategic approach, LASERLAB-EUROPE aims to strengthen Europes leading position and competitiveness in this key area. It facilitates the coordination of laser research activities within the European Research Area by integrating major facilities in most European member states with a long-term perspective and providing concerted and efficient services to researchers in science and industry. The main objectives of LASERLAB-EUROPE are to: promote, in a coordinated way and on a European scale, the use of advanced lasers and laser-based technologies for research and innovation, serve a cross-disciplinary user community, from academia as well as from industry, by providing access to a comprehensive set of advanced laser research installations, including two free-electron laser facilities, increase the European basis of human resources in the field of lasers by training new users, including users in new domains of science and technology and from geographical regions of Europe where laser user communities are still less developed, improve human and technical resources through technology exchange and sharing of expertise among laser experts and operators across Europe, and through coordinated Joint Research Activities enabling world-class research, innovations and applications beyond the present state-of-the-art.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 11.76M | Year: 2015
NFFA-EUROPE will implement the first open-access research infrastructure as a platform supporting comprehensive projects for multidisciplinary research at the nanoscale extending form synthesis to nanocharacterization to theory and numerical simulation. The integration and the extension of scope of existing specialized infrastructures within an excellence network of knowledge and know-how will enable a large number of researchers from diverse disciplines to carry out advanced proposals impacting science and innovation. The full suite of key infrastructures for nanoscience will become, through the NFFA-EUROPE project, accessible to a broader community extended to research actors operating at different levels of the value chain, including SMEs and applied research, that are currently missing the benefits of these enabling technologies. NFFA-EUROPE sets out to offer an integrated, distributed infrastructure to perform comprehensive nanoscience and nanotechnology projects from synthesis and nanolithography (with nanofoundry installations) to advanced characterization and theoretical modellization/numerical simulation (with experimental installations including analytical large scale facilities and a distributed theoretical installation including high-performance computing). Coordinated access will be given to complementary facilities co-located in nine well distributed main sites in Europe, ensuring the optimal match between user proposal and technical offer. The research activity of the Consortium will realize innovative solutions on key bottlenecks of nanoscience research, therefore upgrading the facility quality and uniqueness.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.1.1-1 | Award Amount: 39.64M | Year: 2011
In response to the call for a high impact initiative on the human epigenome, the BLUEPRINT Consortium has been formed with the aim of generating at least 100 reference epigenomes and studying them to advance and exploit knowledge of the underlying biological processes and mechanisms in health and disease. BLUEPRINT will focus on distinct types of haematopoietic cells from healthy individuals and on their malignant leukaemic counterparts. Reference epigenomes will be generated by state-of-the-art technologies from highly purified cells for a comprehensive set of epigenetic marks in accordance with quality standards set by IHEC. This resource-generating activity will be conducted at dedicated centres to be complemented by confederated hypothesis-driven research into blood-based diseases, including common leukaemias and autoimmune disease (T1D), by epigenetic targets and compound identification, and by discovery and validation of epigenetic markers for diagnostic use. By focussing on 100 samples of known genetic variation BLUEPRINT will complete an epigenome-wide association study, maximizing the biomedical relevance of the reference epigenomes. Key to the success of BLUEPRINT will be the integration with other data sources (i.e. ICGC, 1000 genomes and ENCODE), comprehensive bioinformatic analysis, and user-friendly dissemination to the wider scientific community. The involvement of innovative companies will energize epigenomic research in the private sector by creating new targets for compounds and the development of smart technologies for better diagnostic tests. BLUEPRINT will outreach through a network of associated members and form critical alliances with leading networks in genomics and epigenomics within Europe and worldwide. Through its interdisciplinarity and scientific excellence combined with its strong commitment to networking, training and communication BLUEPRINT strives to become the cornerstone of the EU contribution to IHEC.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.4.2-2 | Award Amount: 7.95M | Year: 2012
EPIC-CVDs overarching goal is to provide clinicians and policy-makers with a menu of evidence-based options for cost-effective individualised risk assessment that enables the EUs increasingly resource-constrained economies to achieve more personalised predictive medicine in harmony with Europes diverse cultures and healthcare systems. We will achieve this through developing and validating innovative risk scores and efficient screening strategies by studying 75 high priority soluble biomarkers and 215,000 carefully selected genetic variants in the most powerful population-based prospective study ever conducted of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes across 10 diverse European countries. EPIC-CVD will provide the first consideration across Europe of risk scores with information on the interplay of nature and nurture together with biomarkers of lifestyle, biological pathways, vascular injury, and ageing. Our multidisciplinary consortium involves world-leading expertise in population health science, laboratory science (including VITAS, an SME partner, renowned for nutritional biomarker assays), translational science, and implementation science. This rare combination of expertise will enable systematic consideration of the implications of risk scores and screening strategies for predictive accuracy, feasibility, safety, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness. The impact on clinical decision making and clinical outcomes will be demonstrated in a new randomised trial of risk scores in relation to patient-centred outcomes that assess attitudes, behaviours, and biological risk factors. Key stakeholders (eg, healthcare professionals, regulators, industry) will be closely engaged by the project. Policy recommendations mindful of the broader societal implications of targeted screening will be tailored to Europes diverse needs and systematically disseminated to various audiences. This initiative will derive major synergy from related efforts.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 1.47M | Year: 2013
The current fire testing and classification systems based on prescriptive building codes have severe limitations, restricting innovation and cost-efficiency in companies supplying materials/components for buildings and in the construction sector in general. This is creating a growing need for more flexible performance-based fire engineering, and calls for the development of appropriate methods/tools to support that change. Despite scattered efforts in Academia and Industry for progress in the area of fire properties simulation, there is a strong lack of appropriately trained human resources to push the research base in the field further and building the proper environment for shifting paradigms in technological as well as regulatory terms. The FIRE TOOLS consortium comprises the Danish Institute of Fire and Security Technology (DBI) and the Department of Fire Safety Engineering and Systems Safety from Lund University (ULUND) in Sweden as level 1 participants, and nine Associated Partners (1 university and 8 private companies, namely 4 SMEs). It aims at providing a training network for five Early-Stage Researcher (ESRs) which will carry out research with focus on creating computing simulation methodologies, tools and models to increase the usability of fire tests conducted on building products and constructions (i.e. real fire tests in laboratory or pilot facilities) by fire properties simulations. More specifically, they will address the determination of the fire properties of building products, content and barriers, in order to assist companies, based on advanced computational models and predictions, to simulate and predict the fire performance of materials, products and structures earlier in their product development processes. The successful implementation of FIRE TOOLS will benefit DBI when providing fire testing services, as well as manufacturers and suppliers of materials/components to buildings, and support innovation in the construction industry in general.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2007-6.4-01 | Award Amount: 2.38M | Year: 2008
EERQI will build an advanced framework for relevance assessment of research documents in educational research based on formal mechanisms including citation analysis and linking, semantically-based full text analysis and co-occurrence of information items in open access and non-open access repositories, as well as in online journal articles, books, and other freely available scholarly publications. Educational research is chosen as an example of socially- and politically-embedded research fields within the humanities and social sciences. The resulting prototype framework of quality indicators and methods will provide the base toolset for a European information service for the observation and evaluation of educational research publications. The toolset can be applied to other social sciences and humanities fields. Complementary to traditional measurements of scientific quality (citation analysis, journal impact factor), new methods and indicators of quality assessment will be tested (usage assessments, versions available, other statistical methods, as well as by means of advanced, semantics-based detection of linking, correlations and referral contexts). The project will also address the complex role of the diversity of scientific languages in Europe. Different mother tongues are a barrier to the international flow of communication while also being fundamental to expressing complex scientific ideas which are often embedded in a certain cultural back-ground. Thus the project will also address the challenge of effectively dealing with multilingualism and specific cultural heritage of research traditions in the European countries. EERQI results will also raise visibility and competitiveness of European researchers and contribute to new policy bases for funding, hiring, and evaluation decisions in European academic and research institutions.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-4-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 7.47M | Year: 2015
Advanced optical laser light sources and accelerator-based X-ray sources, as well as their technologies, scientific applications, and user communities, have developed independently over more than five decades. Driven by the developments at each optical laser and free-electron laser research infrastructures (RIs) in recent years, the gap between the optical laser and accelerator-driven light sources has diminished significantly. Both communities operate, implement, or plan advanced laser light source RIs, combining high-power optical and high-brightness X-ray light sources operated as dedicated user facilities. Operational and technical problems of these RIs have become very similar, if not identical. In specific cases, joint projects by the two communities have been initiated, but a closer and more structured collaboration of the corresponding communities and light sources is urgently required and shall be developed through this project. The present proposal for a European Cluster of Advanced Laser Light Sources (EUCALL) is the first attempt to create an all-embracing consortium of all (optical and X-ray) advanced laser light source RIs in Europe. Besides addressing the most urgent technical challenges, EUCALL will develop and implement cross-cutting services for photon-oriented ESFRI projects, will optimize the use of advanced laser light sources in Europe by efficient cross-community resource management, will enhance interoperability of the two types of light sources, will ensure global competitiveness, and will stimulate and support common long-term strategies and research policies for the application of laser-like short-wavelength radiation in science and innovation. The EUCALL consortium includes the three ESFRI projects ELI, European XFEL, and ESRF(up), several national RIs, and the LASERLAB-EUROPE and FELs OF EUROPE networks as representatives for the nationally operated optical laser and free-electron laser RIs.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.93M | Year: 2015
Reduction of soot emissions from Diesel engines will be explored by utilising simultaneously (a) injection pressure between 2000-4500bar, (b) engine operation at supercritical conditions relative to the injected fuels critical point and (c) additives that improve atomisation and reduce pollutant formation. The detailed processes of nozzle flow cavitation/boiling, atomisation, phase-change and mixing, combustion and soot emissions under such conditions will be explored both experimentally and computationally. Experimental techniques include fuel property measurements, optical/laser diagnostics, high speed imaging, micro CT and high energy X-rays. Tests will be performed in CVC, optical engines, single-cylinder and production engine test beds. Identification of nozzles internal geometry and testing of clean and aged injectors with internal deposits build-up is central to the programme. Simulation tools to be developed include molecular-structure-based equation of state for the properties of surrogate, summer Diesel and low quality Diesel fuels enriched with additives at elevated pressures/temperatures, DNS for bubble dynamics, cavitation and fuel atomisation, and soot oxidation in LES/RANS models coupling the in-nozzle flow with the macroscopic fuel spray development, mixing and pollutant formation in engines. The validated simulation models will be used as design tools to industrial development of fuels, fuel injection systems and Diesel engines. The 15 EU-funded ESRs plus 1 ESR funded independently by industry, will be recruited/seconded by universities, research centres and multinational engine, fuel injection system, fuel and fuel additives manufacturers from the EU, US, China, Japan and S.Korea. The new tests and the developed simulation tools, currently missing from the literature, will allow for an environmental assessment of the tested technologies at real-world operating conditions, underpinning the forthcoming 2020 EU emission reduction directives.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 13.00M | Year: 2015
Particle physics is at the forefront of the ERA, attracting a global community of more than 10,000 scientists. With the upgrade of the LHC and the preparation of new experiments, the community will have to overcome unprecedented challenges in order to answer fundamental questions concerning the Higgs boson, neutrinos, and physics beyond the Standard Model. Major developments in detector technology are required to ensure the success of these endeavours. The AIDA-2020 project brings together the leading European infrastructures in detector development and a number of academic institutes, thus assembling the necessary expertise for the ambitious programme of work. In total, 19 countries and CERN are involved in this programme, which follows closely the priorities of the European Strategy for Particle Physics. AIDA-2020 aims to advance detector technologies beyond current limits by offering well-equipped test beam and irradiation facilities for testing detector systems under its Transnational Access programme. Common software tools, micro-electronics and data acquisition systems are also provided. This shared high-quality infrastructure will ensure optimal use and coherent development, thus increasing knowledge exchange between European groups and maximising scientific progress. The project also exploits the innovation potential of detector research by engaging with European industry for large-scale production of detector systems and by developing applications outside of particle physics, e.g. for medical imaging. AIDA-2020 will lead to enhanced coordination within the European detector community, leveraging EU and national resources. The project will explore novel detector technologies and will provide the ERA with world-class infrastructure for detector development, benefiting thousands of researchers participating in future particle physics projects, and contributing to maintaining Europes leadership of the field.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: KBBE.2012.2.2-02 | Award Amount: 2.25M | Year: 2012
Europe is facing major challenges in promoting health and reducing the disease burden of age- and diet-related NCDs by means of lifestyle, food and nutrition. Research collaboration, innovation, and capacity building are essential to efficiently benefit from the mainly public research resources. To realise this, EU-wide Research Infrastructures (RIs) are essential. The aim of EURO-DISH is to provide advanced and feasible recommendations on the needs for RIs to ESFRI and other stakeholders. EURO-DISH will focus on needs for integration of existing and the development of new food and health RIs that are relevant for innovations in mechanistic research and public health nutrition strategies across Europe. Building upon available projects and mappings, we will systematically map existing RIs and needs for integration of existing and new RIs, and supporting governance structures throughout Europe. Food and health research comprises multiple disciplines and a broad research area. To assure a balanced attention for the area as a whole, the mapping will be organised around the DISH model: Determinants, Intake, Status, and Health, which represents four key building blocks of the research area as well as different stages of RI development. To go beyond existing mappings, we will synthesize the results by integrating the needs for hard & soft RIs as well as governance; moreover as this may identify newly emerging gaps and needs, it will define larger entities of required RIs. We will develop a conceptual design and roadmap for implementing the most important RIs. It will include links with basic and human science infrastructures, as well as integration and collaboration with industry, third countries and feasibility. Two case studies on RIs, identified as highly relevant by the JPI HDHL for 2012-2015, will enrich the project by designing and testing of pilot RIs that feed the overall conceptual design and roadmap, which will be aligned with on-going activities.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2007-2.2-01 | Award Amount: 5.69M | Year: 2008
The ICOS project will build an infrastructure for co-ordinated, integrated, long-term high-quality observational data of the greenhouse balance of Europe and of adjacent key regions of Siberia and Africa. Consisting of a centre for co-ordination, calibration and data in conjunction with networks of atmospheric and ecosystem observations, ICOS is designed to create the scientific backbone for a better understanding and quantification of greenhouse gas sources and sinks and their feedback with climate change. The overarching objectives of ICOS are: To provide the long-term observations required to improve understanding of the present state and future behavior of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions, and the factors that control the changing atmospheric composition in greenhouse gases. To monitor and assess the effectiveness of carbon sequestration and/or greenhouse gases emission reduction activities on global atmospheric composition levels, including attribution of sources and sinks by region and sector at atmospheric and ecosystem level. These objectives will be achieved by: Establishing a central facility, the ICOS-centre, which is responsible for co-ordination, calibration and data handling. Maintaining a co-ordinated, integrated, long-term high-quality network of atmospheric and ecosystem observations. Improving access to existing and future atmospheric and ecosystem data for research, and forpolitical decisions. Improving access to state-of-the-art facilities for ecosystem measurements for the European research community. Providing European terrestrial ground-truth data for the validation of emerging remotely sensed datasets on atmospheric composition and land cover as provided e.g. by GMES. Contributing the European share to a global greenhouse gas observation network under IGCO and UNFCCC. (Total characters: 1843)
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: INFRA-2007-3.0-06 | Award Amount: 2.53M | Year: 2008
LASERLAB-EUROPE, an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in FP6, combines the majority of the largest national laboratories in the area of laser-based inter-disciplinary research at the European level. Together they represent a comprehensive collection of modern laser technologies and laser research, and pursue applications in sciences and life sciences through in-house research and services to the relevant communities. They are complemented within the Consortium by selected laboratories with special expertise and equipment which are crucial for the further development of the field. LASERLAB-EUROPE combines 17 laser infrastructures from 9 European countries, including new EU member states. The present Continuation Project will be called LASERLAB-EUROPE CONTINUATION (LLEC). It is in its composition and goals largely identical with LASERLAB-EUROPE. The overall concept of LLEC is the continuation of the activities defined under the Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) activity of FP6, using the methods and objectives described below, and aiming at the integration of national laser infrastructures to form a powerful and effective virtual infrastructure of Pan-European dimension. Objectives Networking and Integration: The integration process among the participating European Laser Infrastructures will be strengthened and continued during the continuation period of LLEC, using the functionalities of the present internet platform as well as other means. Networking activities include management, publicity and dissemination of results, equipment and staff development strategies, User relations, and strategic foresight activities. Trans-National Access: The LLEC Consortium will continue to engage in the trans-national Access Programme in a highly co-ordinated fashion, providing essential services to the community. Specifically, it will provide more than 700 days of Access during the project period.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2007-2.2-01 | Award Amount: 8.04M | Year: 2008
The successful demonstration of single-pass free electron lasers (FEL) around the year 2000 triggered a number of research centres in Europe, the United States and Asia to initiate the construction of new research infrastructures. These projects are based on strong science cases put forward by interested research communities. The new FEL sources combine the wide and continuously tunable wavelength range of synchrotron radiation with ultra-short pulses and coherence of lasers, but at much higher peak and average power, offering completely new research opportunities in different areas of science for a large research community. Several European countries are supporting the construction of national FEL facilities which are now combining their forces and coordinating their activities to build and operate a distributed European facility, the IRUVX-FEL. This facility will be able to offer a suite of complementary sources and instrumentation that is unsurpassed in the world. The main objective of the IRUVX-FEL Preparatory Phase is the integration of the national FEL facilities into a distributed European FEL facility in order to fully exploit the complementary features and expertise of the individual member facilities and to maximise the benefits for both the member facilities and the users. This includes the agreement and implementation of structures and methods that allow efficient construction and operation of the IRUVX-FEL facility, and the preparation of critical technology ensuring that all member facilities will be exploited with highest efficiency. The access to this world-class facility will be facilitated by transparent and coordinated access policies and procedures agreed by the IRUVX-FEL consortium. The present proposal includes all the necessary preparatory work to build this consortium with the goal to offer world-class service in response to the needs formulated by the research community.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2007.3.3 | Award Amount: 5.77M | Year: 2008
The ArtistDesign NoE is the visible result of the ongoing integration of a community, that emerged through the Artist FP5 Accompanying Measure and that was organised through the Artist2 FP6 NoE.\nThe central objective for ArtistDesign is to build on existing structures and links forged in Artist2, to become a virtual Center of Excellence in Embedded Systems Design. This will be mainly achieved through tight integration between the central players of the European research community. Also, the consortium is smaller, and integrates several new partners. These teams have already established a long-term vision for embedded systems in Europe, which advances the emergence of Embedded Systems as a mature discipline.\nArtistDesign will become the main focal point for dissemination in Embedded Systems Design, leveraging on well-established infrastructure and links, such as a web portal and newsletter. It will extend its dissemination activities, including Education and Training, Industrial Applications, as well as International Collaboration. ArtistDesign will establish durable relationships with industry and SMEs in the area, especially through ARTEMISIA/ARTEMIS.\nArtistDesign will build on existing international visibility and recognition, to play a leading role in structuring the area.\nThe research effort aims to integrate topics, teams, and competencies, grouped into 4 Thematic Clusters: Modelling and Validation, Software Synthesis, Code Generation, and Timing Analysis, Operating Systems and Networks, Platforms and MPSoC. Transversal Integration covering both industrial applications and design issues aims for integration between clusters.\nArtistDesign has defined a four-year workprogramme, with a strong commitment to integration and sustainability. To achieve the aims, the estimated support from the EC is approximately 4.5 MEuros. This support is a very small proportion of the overall investment by the core partners.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE-2007-3-2-06 | Award Amount: 8.10M | Year: 2009
The NEMO project provides novel efficient enzymes and microbes for 2nd generation bioethanol production. It generates through metabolic engineering and mutagenesis & screening approaches robust yeast strains that have a broad substrate range and can (co-)ferment C6 and C5 sugars to ethanol with high productivity (rate and yield), and that are significantly more stress tolerant, i.e. inhibitor, ethanol and thermotolerant than the current S.cerevisiae strains used in ethanol production. The NEMO project also identifies and improves enzymes for hydrolysis of biomasses relevant for Europe. Novel enzymes are identified and improved through various approaches, based on screening, broad comparative genomics analyses, and protein engineering. These efforts will generate more thermostable enzymes for high temperature hydrolysis, more efficient enzymes for hydrolysis of the resistant structures in lignocellulose such as crystalline cellulose and lignin-hemicellulose complexes, enzymes with reduced affinity on lignin, and efficient thermo and mesophilic enzyme mixtures that are optimised and tailor-made for the relevant biomasses for Europe and European industry. These novel biocatalysts are tested in an iterative manner in process relevant conditions, including also pilot-scale operations, which ensure that the novel enzymes and microbes will be superior in real process conditions. Furthermore, optimal enzyme, microbe and process regime combinations are identified, providing basis for the development of the most economic and ecoefficient overall processes. The impact of the NEMO project on 2nd generation bioethanol production is significant because it provides most realistic but widely applicable technologies that could be exploited broadly by European industry. Its impact goes also much beyond bioethanol because NEMO provides technology improvements that are directly applicable and crucial for efficient and economic production of also other biofuels and bulk chemicals.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.4.1-11 | Award Amount: 16.70M | Year: 2009
The overarching goal of COGS is to identify individuals with an increased risk of breast, ovary and prostate cancer. Furthermore, we will evaluate the effect of inherited genetic variation on tumour characteristics and clinical outcome. We will do this through quantifying the role of genetic and environmental/lifestyle risk in the largest data set ever generated. In all, we will include over 200,000 individuals in the COGS project. We will use detailed knowledge of the architecture of genetic susceptibility and interactions with environmental/lifestyle factors which will result in much more accurate individual risk prediction and improved intervention strategies. We are taking advantage of a unique possibility by incorporating seven existing consortia into one large project COGS. Members of these consortia have collaborated successfully over the past years and results have been presented in world leading scientific journals such as Nature, Nature Genetics and Journal of the National Cancer Institute. These papers reflect that collaboration has been ongoing and that is has so far been very successful. We will also build on an existing European Commission project, TRANSBIG, thus adding value to already spent money. Results generated through COGS will lead to an improved understanding of the biological processes that underlie carcinogenesis, that in turn could guide new therapeutic strategies. Results will also lead to the development of new tests for risk prediction for breast, ovarian and prostate cancer.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRASUPP-6-2014 | Award Amount: 1.70M | Year: 2015
This CREMLIN proposal is to foster scientific cooperation between the Russian Federation and the European Union in the development and scientific exploitation of large-scale research infrastructures. It has been triggered by the recent so-called megascience projects initiative launched by and in the Russian Federation which is now very actively seeking European integration. The proposed megascience facilities have an enormous potential for the international scientific communities and represent a unique opportunity for the EU to engage in a strong collaborative framework with the Russian Federation. The CREMLIN proposal is a first and path finding step to identify, build and enhance scientific cooperation and strong enduring networks between European research infrastructures and the corresponding megascience facilities to maximize scientific returns. The proposal follows the specific recommendations of an EC Expert Group by devising concrete coordination and support measures for each megascience facility and by developing common best practice and policies on internationalisation and opening. CREMLIN will thus effectively contribute to better connect Russian RIs to the European Research Area.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EINFRA-1-2014 | Award Amount: 19.05M | Year: 2015
EUDAT2020 brings together a unique consortium of e-infrastructure providers, research infrastructure operators, and researchers from a wide range of scientific disciplines under several of the ESFRI themes, working together to address the new data challenge. In most research communities, there is a growing awareness that the rising tide of data will require new approaches to data management and that data preservation, access and sharing should be supported in a much better way. Data, and a fortiori Big Data, is a cross-cutting issue touching all research infrastructures. EUDAT2020s vision is to enable European researchers and practitioners from any research discipline to preserve, find, access, and process data in a trusted environment, as part of a Collaborative Data Infrastructure (CDI) conceived as a network of collaborating, cooperating centres, combining the richness of numerous community-specific data repositories with the permanence and persistence of some of Europes largest scientific data centres. EUDAT2020 builds on the foundations laid by the first EUDAT project, strengthening the links between the CDI and expanding its functionalities and remit. Covering both access and deposit, from informal data sharing to long-term archiving, and addressing identification, discoverability and computability of both long-tail and big data, EUDAT2020s services will address the full lifecycle of research data. One of the main ambitions of EUDAT2020 is to bridge the gap between research infrastructures and e-Infrastructures through an active engagement strategy, using the communities that are in the consortium as EUDAT beacons and integrating others through innovative partnerships. During its three-year funded life, EUDAT2020 will evolve the CDI into a healthy and vibrant data-infrastructure for Europe, and position EUDAT as a sustainable infrastructure within which the future, changing requirements of a wide range of research communities are addressed.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-4-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 15.00M | Year: 2015
ENVRIPLUS is a cluster of research infrastructures (RIs) for Environmental and Earth System sciences, built around ESFRI roadmap and associating leading e-infrastructures and Integrating Activities together with technical specialist partners. ENVRIPLUS is driven by 3 overarching goals: 1) favoring cross-fertilization between infrastructures, 2) implementing innovative concepts and devices across RIs, and 3) facilitating research and innovation in the field of environment to an increasing number of users outside the RIs. ENVRIPLUS organizes its activities along a main strategic plan where sharing multi-disciplinary expertise will be most effective. It aims to improve Earth observation monitoring systems and strategies, including actions towards harmonization and innovation, to generate common solutions to many shared information technology and data related challenges, to harmonize policies for access and provide strategies for knowledge transfer amongst RIs. ENVRIPLUS develops guidelines to enhance trans-disciplinary use of data and data-products supported by applied use-cases involving RIs from different domains. ENVRIPLUS coordinates actions to improve communication and cooperation, addressing Environmental RIs at all levels, from management to end-users, implementing RI-staff exchange programs, generating material for RI personnel, and proposing common strategic developments and actions for enhancing services to users and evaluating the socio-economic impacts. ENVRIPLUS is expected to facilitate structuration and improve quality of services offered both within single RIs and at pan-RI level. It promotes efficient and multi-disciplinary research offering new opportunities to users, new tools to RI managers and new communication strategies for environmental RI communities. The produced solutions, services and other project results are made available to all environmental RI initiatives, thus contributing to the development of a consistent European RI ecosystem.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.00M | Year: 2015
Structural biology provides insight into the molecular architecture of cells up to atomic resolution, revealing the biological mechanisms that are fundamental to life. It is thus key to many innovations in chemistry, biotechnology and medicine such as engineered enzymes, new potent drugs, innovative vaccines and novel biomaterials. iNEXT (infrastructure for NMR, EM and X-rays for Translational research) will provide high-end structural biology instrumentation and expertise, facilitating expert and non-expert European users to translate their fundamental research into biomedical and biotechnological applications. iNEXT brings together leading European structural biology facilities under one interdisciplinary organizational umbrella and includes synchrotron sites for X-rays, NMR centers with ultra-high field instruments, and, for the first time, advanced electron microscopy and light imaging facilities. Together with key partners in biological and biomedical institutions, partners focusing on training and dissemination activities, and ESFRI projects (Instruct, Euro-BioImaging, EU-OPENSCREEN and future neutron-provider ESS), iNEXT forms an inclusive European network of world class. iNEXT joint research projects (fragment screening for drug development, membrane protein structure, and multimodal cellular imaging) and networking, training and transnational access activities will be important for SMEs, established industries and academics alike. In particular, iNEXT will provide novel access modes to attract new and non-expert users, which are often hindered from engaging in structural biology projects through lack of instrumentation and expertise: a Structural Audit procedure, whereby a sample is assessed for its suitability for structural studies; Enhanced Project Support, allowing users to get expert help in an iNEXT facility; and High-End Data Collection, enabling experienced users to take full benefit of the iNEXT state-of-the-art equipment.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: MG-4.1-2014 | Award Amount: 25.11M | Year: 2015
The project HERCULES-2 is targeting at a fuel-flexible large marine engine, optimally adaptive to its operating environment. The objectives of the HERCULES-2 project are associated to 4 areas of engine integrated R&D: Improving fuel flexibility for seamless switching between different fuel types, including non-conventional fuels. Formulating new materials to support high temperature component applications. Developing adaptive control methodologies to retain performance over the powerplant lifetime. Achieving near-zero emissions, via combined integrated aftertreatment of exhaust gases. The HERCULES-2 is the next phase of the R&D programme HERCULES on large engine technologies, which was initiated in 2004 as a joint vision by the two major European engine manufacturer groups MAN and WARTSILA. Three consecutive projects namely HERCULES - A, -B, -C spanned the years 2004-2014. These three projects produced exceptional results and received worldwide acclaim. The targets of HERCULES-2 build upon and surpass the targets of the previous HERCULES projects, going beyond the limits set by the regulatory authorities. By combining cutting-edge technologies, the Project overall aims at significant fuel consumption and emission reduction targets using integrated solutions, which can quickly mature into commercially available products. Focusing on the applications, the project includes several full-scale prototypes and shipboard demonstrators. The project HERCULES-2 comprises 4 R&D Work Package Groups (WPG): - WPG I: Fuel flexible engine - WPG II: New Materials (Applications in engines) - WPG III: Adaptive Powerplant for Lifetime Performance - WPG IV: Near-Zero Emissions Engine The consortium comprises 32 partners of which 30% are Industrial and 70% are Universities / Research Institutes. The Budget share is 63% Industry and 37% Universities. The HERCULES-2 proposal covers with authority and in full the Work Programme scope B1 of MG.4.1-2014.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2012.1.3-3 | Award Amount: 49.52M | Year: 2013
The innovative and economic potential of Manufactured Nano Materials (MNMs) is threatened by a limited understanding of the related EHS issues. While toxicity data is continuously becoming available, the relevance to regulators is often unclear or unproven. The shrinking time to market of new MNM drives the need for urgent action by regulators. NANoREG is the first FP7 project to deliver the answers needed by regulators and legislators on EHS by linking them to a scientific evaluation of data and test methods. Based on questions and requirements supplied by regulators and legislators, NANoREG will: (i) provide answers and solutions from existing data, complemented with new knowledge, (ii) Provide a tool box of relevant instruments for risk assessment, characterisation, toxicity testing and exposure measurements of MNMs, (iii) develop, for the long term, new testing strategies adapted to innovation requirements, (iv) Establish a close collaboration among authorities, industry and science leading to efficient and practically applicable risk management approaches for MNMs and products containing MNMs. The interdisciplinary approach involving the three main stakeholders (Regulation, Industry and Science) will significantly contribute to reducing the risks from MNMs in industrial and consumer products. NANoREG starts by analysing existing knowledge (from WPMN-, FP- and other projects). This is combined with a synthesis of the needs of the authorities and new knowledge covering the identified gaps, used to fill the validated NANoREG tool box and data base, conform with ECHAs IUCLID DB structure. To answer regulatory questions and needs NANoREG will set up the liaisons with the regulation and legislation authorities in the NANoREG partner countries, establish and intensify the liaisons with selected industries and new enterprises, and develop liaisons to global standardisation and regulation institutions in countries like USA, Canada, Australia, Japan, and Russia.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.1-1 | Award Amount: 13.24M | Year: 2012
Recent advances in our understanding and forecasting of climate and climate change have brought us to the point where skilful and useful predictions are being made. These forecasts hold the potential for being of great value for a wide range of decision-makers who are affected by the vagaries of the climate and who would benefit from understanding and better managing climate-related risks. However, such climate information is currently under-used, mis-used, or not used at all. Therefore there exists the opportunity to develop new technologies to properly exploit emerging capability from the climate community, and more importantly, to engage with the users of such technologies to develop useful and useable tools. The EUPORIAS project will develop and deliver reliable predictions of the impacts of future climatic conditions on a number of key sectors (to include water, energy, health, transport, agriculture and tourism), on timescales from seasons to years ahead. The project will do this through a strong engagement with the forecast providers and the users/decision-makers, who are both represented within the project. EUPORIAS will develop climate services and tools targeted to the needs of the users, and will share knowledge to promote the technologies created within the project. EUPORIAS will also improve the users understanding of their vulnerability to varying climatic conditions as well as better prepare them to utilise climate forecasts, thereby reducing risks and costs associated with responding to varying climatic conditions. As a result businesses, governments, NGOs, and society in general will be able to better manage risks and opportunities associated with varying climatic conditions, thus becoming more resilient to the variability of the climate. The project will provide the basis for developing a strong climate service market within Europe, offering the opportunity for businesses to capitalise on improved management of weather and climate risks.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.86M | Year: 2016
European societies face rapid social changes, challenges and benefits, which can be studied with traditional tools of analysis, but with serious limitations. This rapid transformation covers changes in family forms, fertility, the decline of mortality and increase of longevity, and periods of economic and social instability. Owing to population ageing across Europe, countries are now the experiencing the impact of these rapid changes on the sustainability of their welfare systems. At the same time, the use of the space and residential mobility has become a key topic, with migrations within the EU countries and from outside Europe being at the center of the political agenda. Over the past decade research teams across Europe have been involved in the development and construction of longitudinal population registers and large research databases, while opening up avenues for new linkages between different data sources (ie administrative and health data) making possible to gain an understanding of these fast societal transformations. However, in order to work with these types of datasets requires advanced skills in both data management and statistical techniques. LONGPOP aims to create network to utilize these different research teams to share experiences, construct joint research, create a training track for specialist in the field and increase the number of users of these large possibly underused - databases, making more scientists and stakeholders aware of the richness in the databases.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.85M | Year: 2013
ECCO-MATE aims to create a research and training platform for the development and implementation of novel fuel mixture preparation, injection profiling, air management and staged/low temperature combustion technologies both in marine and light-duty automotive diesel engines. The marine (slow speed, large-sized, two-stroke engines) and land-transport (high speed, small-to-medium-sized, four-stroke engines) sectors share essentially the same strategic challenges, namely the implementation of energy efficient and fuel flexible combustion technologies, in order to improve efficiency and meet stringent emission standards. However, there is little established training and academic communication between the two sectors, despite the common problems relating to the fuel injection, ignition and combustion methodologies and potentialities of new more environmentally friendly fuels. ECCO-MATE bridges this gap by creating a platform for research output exchange between the two sectors on diesel engine combustion by coupling state-of-the-art flow physics and combustion chemistry with CFD tools and advanced optical diagnostics. The consortium comprises 16 key partners - 6 Universities, 5 major key-stakeholders from the marine and automotive engine industries and 5 associate partners - from 7 EU countries and Japan. The consortium processes multi-disciplinary expertise, strong interests and tradition in both sectors and the necessary critical mass to achieve the research and ensuing training activities that highlight synergies, complementarities and provide solutions to the addressed common problems of the two sectors. The comprehensive training program (academic and professional training, focussed dissemination activities, trans-national and trans-sectoral mobility) exploits the multi-disciplinarity of the consortium creating high level skills for the participating researchers and ensuring continuation of the research activities after the project completion.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2013.1.3-1 | Award Amount: 3.14M | Year: 2014
The AGENTA project aims at explaining the past and forecasting the future of taxes and public transfers and services in the light of demographic change in the European Union. Conceptually AGENTA puts a special emphasis on - the links between the public and the non-public sector (particularly households) in providing resources in the dependent periods of the life cycle; - the links between the different components of the public budget (current investments in the health and other human capital of children shape the need for services and the size of the public budget in the future); - the definition of stages of the life cycle, such as childhood, active age and old age, in particular the age of becoming old, and how they interrelate to impact both economic activity during the life-cycle and the timing of, and circumstances surrounding, the retirement decision. In other words, we emphasize that trends in the public sector cannot be fully understood without taking non-public institutions into account and doing so over the life cycles of successive cohorts of the population. The guiding principle of the AGENTA project is to provide evidence based policy proposals to ensure long-term sustainability of public finances in Europe. The acronym of the project, AGENTA, has a double reference. We will use the new method of National Transfer Accounts (NTA, see www.ntaccounts.org) to analyse the increasing average AGE that constitutes the ageing of European societies. In addition, the output of the project will be strongly policy oriented, offering an AGENDA for preparing for long-life societies.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-24-2015 | Award Amount: 5.16M | Year: 2016
This project addresses the scientific, technological and clinical problem of recovery of hand function after amputation. Despite decades of research and development on artificial limbs and neural interfaces, amputees continue to use technology for powered prostheses developed over 40 years ago, namely myoelectric prostheses controlled via superficial electrodes. These devices do not purposely provide sensory feedback and are known for their poor functionality, controllability and sensory feedback, mainly due to the use of surface electrodes. The consortium has pioneered the use of osseointegration as a long-term stable solution for the direct skeletal attachment of limb prostheses. This technology aside from providing an efficient mechanical coupling, which on its own has shown to improve prosthesis functionality and the patients quality of life, can also be used as a bidirectional communication interface between implanted electrodes and the prosthetic arm. This is today the most advanced and unique technique for bidirectional neuromuscular interfacing, suited for the upper limb amputees, which was proven functional in the long term. The goal of the DeTOP project is to push the boundaries of this technology made in Europe to the next TRL and to make it clinically available to the largest population of upper limb amputees, namely transradial amputees. This objective will be targeted by developing a novel prosthetic hand with improved functionality, smart mechatronic devices for safe implantable technology, and by studying and assessing paradigms for natural control (action) and sensory feedback (perception) of the prosthesis through the implant. The novel technologies and findings will be assessed by three selected patients, implanted in a clinical centre. DeTOP bridges several currently disjointed scientific fields and is therefore critically dependent on the collaboration of engineers, neuroscientists and clinicians.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2011.1.6 | Award Amount: 5.99M | Year: 2011
The goal of EINS is coordinating and integrating European research aimed at achieving a deeper multidisciplinary understanding of the development of the Internet as a societal and technological artefact, whose evolution is increasingly interwined with that of human societies. Its main objective is to allow an open and productive dialogue between all the disciplines which study Internet systems under any technological or humanistic perspective, and which in turn are being transformed by the continuous advances in Internet functionalities and applications. EINS will bring together research institutions focusing on network engineering, computation, complexity, security, trust, mathematics, physics, sociology, game theory, economics, political sciences, humanities, law, energy, transport, artistic expression, and any other relevant social and life sciences.\nThis multidisciplinary bridging of the different disciplines may also be seen as the starting point for a new Internet Science, the theoretical and empirical foundation for an holistic understanding of the complex techno-social interactions related to the Internet. It is supposed to inform the future technological, social, political choices concerning Internet technologies, infrastructures and policies made by the various public and private stakeholders, for example as for the far-ended possible consequences of architectural choices on social, economic, environmental or political aspects, and ultimately on quality of life at large.\nThe individual contributing disciplines will themselves benefit from a more holistic understanding of the Internet principles and in particular of the network effect. The unprecedented connectivity offered by the Internet plays a role often underappreciated in most of them; whereas the Internet provides both an operational development platform and a concrete empirical and experimental model. These multi- and inter-disciplinary investigations will improve the design of elements of Future Internet, enhance the understanding of its evolving and emerging implications at societal level, and possibly identify universal principles for understanding the Internet-based world that will be fed back to the participating disciplines. EINS will:\nCoordinate the investigation, from a multi-disciplinary perspective, of specific topics at the intersection between humanistic and technological sciences, such as privacy & identity, reputation, virtual communities, security & resilience, network neutrality\nLay the foundations for an Internet Science, based i.a. on Network Science and Web Science, aiming at understanding the impact of the network effect on human societies & organisations, as for technological, economic, social & environmental aspects\nProvide concrete incentives for academic institutions and individual researchers to conduct studies across multiple disciplines, in the form of online journals, conferences, workshops, PhD courses, schools, contests, and open calls
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-04-2015 | Award Amount: 6.00M | Year: 2016
The BlueHealth Consortium brings together a multi-disciplinary team of experts reaching across all 28 European Union countries. The proposed 4.5 year BlueHealth Project takes an international, interdisciplinary and multi-sector approach to health promotion and disease prevention by investigating the relationship between the EUs blue infrastructure and the health and well-being of its citizens. Blue infrastructure refers to the network of natural and man-made aquatic environments providing a range of multi-sectorial services (e.g. transportation, fresh water provision). There has been no systematic attempt to detail the potential impacts of our blue infrastructure on health promotion and disease prevention, nor to develop guidelines on how health should be considered when developing blue infrastructure interventions, particularly across sectors. BlueHealth will address this gap. The majority of Europeans live in cities built on inland waterways, lakes, or the coasts. BlueHealth will focus on urban blue infrastructures. The EUs blue infrastructure offers significant health and well-being related opportunities and benefits (eg urban cooling, recreation), but also challenges and stressors (eg flooding, microbial/chemical pollution). BlueHealth will investigate these trade-offs, with the aims of quantifying the impacts on population health and well-being of interventions and policy initiatives connected to blue infrastructure, and identifying success factors and obstacles of inter-sectorial collaborations. Assessments of health and environment benefits, risks and costs will improve our understanding of the role of urban blue infrastructures on across-sector health promotion and disease prevention. The Partners have collaborations across the Environment, Health, and Climate sectors, and extensive experience with inter-institutional, multi-sectorial, interdisciplinary research programmes employing innovation, stakeholder engagement, dissemination, and policy impact.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2008.1.2.1.2. | Award Amount: 3.18M | Year: 2009
The research project investigates the possible impact of global climate change on reproductive health in one Arctic and two European populations. The key questions to be addressed are, firstly, how may climate change influence human exposure to widespread environmental contaminants and, secondly, how may contaminants impact occurrence of reproductive disorders as sensitive indicators of health? To provide affirmative answers to these questions the proposal will as a first step identify and describe mechanisms by which a changing climate may affect the exposure of Arctic and other human populations to contaminants through change in chemical use and emissions, delivery to the arctic ecosystem as well as processing within the arctic physical environment and human food chain. This work relies on modelling of existing data. Secondly, the project will expand the existing knowledge database on human exposure to polybrominated biphenylethers, perfluorinated surfactants and phthalates by analyses of 1000 biobanked serum samples collected in a EU FP5 project. Thirdly, the project will increase the limited knowledge on links between human exposure to contaminants and reproductive health. This work relies on a large existing parent-child-cohort, where a follow-up survey provide new data that are fed into risk assessment. Furthermore we will perform reviews of experimental and epidemiological literature to identify critical reproductive effects and exposure-response data for selected compounds as input to the risk assessment. Finally the project will integrate data on climate induced changes in contaminant mobility and distribution and links between contaminant exposure and reproductive health into a risk evaluation providing insight into possible future risk scenarios related to global climate change. The project draws upon a network of experts in climate modelling and in experimental, epidemiological and risk assessment methodologies and builds upon three established cohorts in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 4.04M | Year: 2010
Cement is the primary binding phase of concrete. It is millennia old and ubiquitous worldwide. As a building material, it is unrivalled in terms of tonnage used, price per tonne, and CO2 production per tonne. Yet its very success means that cement production account for about 5% of global man-made CO2 emissions. The cement industry urgently requires more sustainable cement based products with equal or better performance to current materials over the life time of buildings and infra-structure (~100 years). Most of the CO2 associated with cement manufacture comes mainly from the breakdown of limestone into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. Therefore improvements must come from better materials with different chemistries. If the construction industry is to embrace new materials, then it must trust them. Water transport underpins almost all degradation. Degradation must be understood to ensure durability, which is the major obstacle to the introduction of new, more sustainable cementitious materials. Hence the industry is calling urgently for the researchers with the ability to predict water transport in concretes. Without this, there can be no confidence in the introduction and use of new materials; the status quo based on years of experience but relatively little scientific understanding will prevail for decades to come. Through the TRANSCEND Initial Training Network we will provide the trained personnel who can. (i) Enable the construction industry to predict water transport in cements and concretes and hence design appropriate tests to predict concrete degradation. (ii) Provide a basis for user confidence which enables the cement industry to introduce new more sustainable cements. The network will closely integrate the academic and private sectors. The later will directly employ 4 of the 15 fellows. The formal training programme will provide the basis for a European doctoral school in Cement and Concrete Science and technology.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2013.3.2 | Award Amount: 4.65M | Year: 2013
The aim of SSL-erate is to accelerate the uptake of high-quality SSL technology in Europe by means of open innovation with and by bringing validated information to all relevant stakeholders. A coordinated European effort is required to address the European societal challenges (in particular health & quality of life in an ageing society, energy consumption and resource efficiency), to resolve the specific challenges of the Lighting industry as noted in the results of the Green Paper Lighting the Future consultation (notably: poor SSL quality, lack of information and awareness among citizens) and to enable lighting solutions with a societal and environmental sustainability perspective, leading to a future in which Europe evolves to the global leadership in SSL systems and solutions. The lighting industry is highly fragmented. As a consequence of this the innovation speed and success rate have been too low and the benefits that we all expect from better lighting solutions, do not sufficiently materialize. To overcome this fragmentation, a collaborative way-of-working, using open-innovation and smart specialization principles, will be taken as the guiding approach. The active involvement of various stakeholders will be realized through workshops, but also through the creation of a web-based SSL-erate Innovation platform, which is planned to continue beyond the duration of this project. Relevant (lighting and non-lighting) companies, but also other stakeholders (like e.g. public authorities, property owners, research institutes, (lead) users/citizens, entrepreneurs, architects, installers) will become active contributors to this accelerated innovation process by applying validated insights on green business development and lighting effects on health & well-being in SSL business experiments.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2010.2.1.4-4 | Award Amount: 9.99M | Year: 2011
The strategic goal of EcoFINDERS is to provide the EC with tools to design and implement soil strategies aimed at ensuring sustainable use of soils, including: i) Characterisation of European soil biodiversity; ii) Determination of relations between soil biodiversity, soil functions and ecosystem services; iii) Design of policy-relevant and cost-effective indicators for monitoring soil biodiversity. The project will: i) Develop and standardise tools and procedures to measure microbial and faunal diversity; ii) Describe the diversity of soil organisms (microbes and fauna), iii) Decipher the interactions among soil organisms and with plants through foodwebs and iv) Determine the role played by soil organisms in soils ecosystem services (nutrient cycling, carbon storage, water retention, soil structure regulation, resistance to pests and diseases, and regulation of above-ground diversity); iii) Establish cost-effective bioindicators for measuring sustainability of the microbial and faunal diversity and their associated functions (using a combination of metrics and meta-analysis); iv) Evaluate the economic value of ecosystem services, the added value of these bioindicators; v) Develop and implement effective communication strategies to engage the European public around issues associated with the sustainability of soil biodiversity. The overall concept of the project is to develop and integrate the following activities: i) Decipher the links between soil biodiversity, activities, functioning and ecosystem services; ii) Combine three types of approach: observation, experimentation, and computation; iii) Assess the impact of environmental conditions; iv) Integrate information on microbes, fauna and plant communities and analyse how these compartments interact. The general hypotheses are: changes in soil biodiversity indicate the direction and rate of changes in soil functions and associated ecosystem services; application of cost-effective bioindicators brings an economic added value to sustainable soil management.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.62M | Year: 2012
The proposed ITN (NanoS3) have assembled eight academic groups with complementary expertise in synthesis, modeling and characterization. They are joined by two full industrial partners active in the development of novel luminescent materials (LuminoChem), and in the home and personal care sectors (Procter and Gamble). Two associated partners will contribute to the work of our proposed network: BioTalentum is an SME in the field of stem-cell research and the Institute for Surface Chemistry (YKI) is a world-leading research institute in applied surface chemistry. Our work will focus on three priority areas of research: 1: Organizing Soft Nanoparticles 2: Dynamics of Soft Nanoparticles 3: Soft Nanoparticles at Interfaces These S&T objectives are combined with the ambitious objectives to train and promote qualified research project managers in the field of soft matter nanoscience, capable to work in research or industry together with experts in different disciplines and in different countries. We will accomplish our goal by training early stage researchers in a wide variety of modern bulk and surface techniques, as well as in modelling and synthetic methods. We will organize a series of tutorial courses on specialized topics, organize network workshops, and implement secondments and visits. To develop the complementary skills needed to start a successful career either in academia or in R&D we will organize trainings in e.g. Project management, Proposal writing, Presentation skills, IP and patent rights and Innovation.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2011-1.1.10.;INFRA-2011-1.1.11. | Award Amount: 10.44M | Year: 2011
InGOS will support and integrate the observing capacity of Europe for non-CO2 greenhouse gases (NCGHG: CH4, N2O, SF6, H2 and halocarbons). The emissions of these gases are very uncertain and it is unknown how future climate change will feedback into the land use coupled emissions of CH4 and N2O. The NCGHG atmospheric abundances will increase further in the future and the emissions of these gases are an attractive target for climate change mitigation policies. InGOS aims to improve the existing European observation system so that this will provide us insight into the concentration levels and European and extra-European emissions of the NCGHGs. The data from the network will enable to better constrain the emissions of NCGHGs within the EU and show whether emission reduction policies are effective. The data from the network is designed to allow to detect the spatial and temporal distribution (hotspots) of the sources and to detect changes in emissions due to mitigation and feedbacks with climate change. To strengthen the European observation system, the project has several objectives: Harmonize and standardize the measurements. Provide capacity building in new member states and countries with inadequate existing infrastructure. Support existing observation sites and transfer of selected sites into supersites. Integrate and further integrate marine observations of the NCGHGs with land-based observations Improve measurement methods by testing new innovative techniques and strategies. Test advanced isotope techniques for application in the network to enable attribution of the atmospheric fractions to source categories Integrate data for network evaluation by using inverse modeling and data-assimilation methods and developments in bottom up inventories Link the network to remote sensing data of column abundances from in-situ and satellite observations Prepare for the integration of the NCGHG network with the Integrated Carbon Observation System
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.2.4.1-6 | Award Amount: 3.90M | Year: 2011
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) causes 34000 deaths in the EU every year. Conventional cancer treatments have close to no impact on this disease. As a result, almost all patients diagnosed with PDAC develop metastases and eventually die. Given this poor outlook, the search for new therapeutics is mandatory. These will have to target relevant cancer pathways and be designed based on the available knowledge on the genetic alterations that characterize this malignancy. We propose to build a team composed of clinicians, translational cancer researchers, chemists, and two pharmaceutical enterprises, to synthesize and implement new drugs for PDAC. The focus of the participants in this project will be on pathways and cellular functions broadly involved in PDAC metastasis and immune escape. These drugs are meant to work through diverse and novel modes of action and will be validated using genetically engineered PDAC mouse models that we have established at the Center for Integrated Oncology in Bonn. By creating and exploring diverse classes of compounds capable of arresting tumor growth and of interfering with its metastatic spread, this project will deliver a high number of new molecules with potential as anticancer therapeutics. In particular, our consortium will produce new indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO2) inhibitors, galectin-3 inhibitors, edelfosine analogues, inhibitors of the Hippo signaling pathway, alpha-mannosidase inhibitors, SIRT6 inhibitors, and therapeutics acting by synthetic lethality. For compounds with strong proof-of-concept activity, our consortium will perform the Investigational New Drug (IND)-Enabling Studies, with the goal of delivering a new drug ready to be tested clinically by the end of the project. The PANACREAS project is meant to help find better treatments for PDAC, boost research on this form of cancer in the EU, and open new avenues for scientific and technological innovation.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: SST.2013.3-3. | Award Amount: 4.91M | Year: 2013
The mission of CIVITAS CAPITAL is to contribute significantly to the goals of the EUs Transport White Paper by capitalising systematically on the results of CIVITAS and creating an effective value chain for urban mobility innovation. CAPITAL will initiate and support a mainstreaming process of CIVITIAS principles based on a strengthened community of stakeholders. CAPITAL will help CIVITAS to build the bridge towards a more advanced identity within Horizon 2020. It will help to create a more structured link with large-scale deployment in support of Transport White Paper goals. The CAPITAL strategic goals are: 1. To consolidate existing knowledge and lessons learnt and to provide recommendations for successful continuation of CIVITAS, 2. To create a dynamic knowledge centre as a means of structured dialogue and exchange among CIVITAS stakeholders, 3. To facilitate a structured transfer of CIVITAS measures based on practical experiences, 4. To establish and manage national/ regional CIVITAS networks serving as delivery channels and activation mechanism of stakeholders, 5. To deliver a quality project. A well-networked and highly experienced consortium has developed a methodology building on the successes of CIVITAS and on lessons learnt through previous support activities. Tangible results are clearly defined and include - cooperation platform for a dynamic CIVITAS community, and a knowledge centre, - integrated trainings/ placements and take-up activities based on strong experience, focusing on quality, - continuation of 5 existing and creation of 5 new regional networks, - deep involvement of all networks in the capitalising process (as delivery and as activation mechanism) and - a flexible, well-managed activity fund of 625.000. The total cost is 5 m, requested EC funding is 4m. An Advisory Board will provide strategic advice and quality control. Practitioners are involved as subcontractors. The proposal was supported by 124 cities/ institutions.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE.2010.3.3-01 | Award Amount: 3.55M | Year: 2011
The aim of the AMYLOMICS project is to develop novel, robust enzymes for the starch and carbohydrate industries. The novel enzymes should enable the formation of new primary products, such as oligosaccharides of defined sizes, composition and degree of branching, new types of linkages, cyclic or more complex polysaccharides and an increased digestive resistance, as well as secondary sugar derivatives such as substituted starches, rare sugars or novel isomers. Fundamental to the success of the project will be the development of an efficient metagenomic platform technology for enzyme screening based on massive parallel 454 sequencing and microarray sequence capture. This platform will enable genome walking of complex metagenomic DNA and greatly facilitate the access to the largely unexplored wealth of genes in the environment. The starch industry is the most developed sector of the polysaccharide industry and European companies play a leading role in the world market. The industry is in a constant need for a range of robust enzymes that can be used for the synthesis, fractionation and/or modification of carbohydrates. It actively searches for sustainable and more economical alternatives to existing techniques, both for the production of novel higher value products and for the improvement of older processes. The metagenomic mining platform developed in the project is expected to provide a large number of robust thermophilic starch and carbohydrate modifying enzymes and lead to new and improved biocatalytic process technologies. Lead users of the projects results will be companies like the project partners Roquette Frres, a world leader in starch processing, Roche Molecular Systems, a leading providers of new tools, technologies and services in the genomic industry, and SME companies like Prokazyme who through the improvement of sequence based metagenomic bioprospecting platform can expand their product range of speciality products.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: MG-3.4-2014 | Award Amount: 4.96M | Year: 2015
The InDeV project addresses the second bullet point of the topic MG.3.4. i.e. in-depth understanding of road accident causation. The main objective of the project is to develop a tool-box for in-depth analysis of accident causation for Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) based on a combined use of accident databases, in-depth accident investigations, surrogate safety indicators, self-reported accidents and naturalistic behavioural data. The tool-box will help to link accident causation factors to VRUs accident risk, and provide a solid basis for developing preventive countermeasures and a better input for socio-economic cost calculations of VRU accidents. The proposed approach is to reveal the causational factors by focusing on the process of accident development, thus overcoming the main weakness of the traditional accident data based approach that might find correlations between various factors and accident frequency, but not show the causation chains. It will also employ, to a larger extent, observation of critical traffic events that are similar in process to real accidents, but are relatively more frequent and easier to collect in sufficient quantities. The InDeV project includes the following steps: i) review of methods and identification of the critical sites and road user groups; ii) observation studies at the selected sites; iii) development of technical tools for automated behaviour data collection; iv) analysis of the socio-economical costs; v) compilation of the project results and development of the safety analyst tool-box. The project has a clear focus on VRUs and the course of events in accidents they get injured in. It will provide solid knowledge, help to avoid a skewed view on the problem of VRUs safety, and facilitate the proposed tailor-made countermeasures for these groups. Moreover, with the use of surrogate safety indicators, there will be no need to wait for accidents to happen in order to learn how to prevent them from happening.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENERGY.2009.9.2.1 | Award Amount: 2.46M | Year: 2010
The three year coordinating action THINK will improve the knowledge support to policy making by the European Commission in the context of the Strategic Energy Technology Plan. THINK is organized around a multidisciplinary group of 24 experts covering five dimensions of energy policy: science and technology, market and network economics, regulation, law, and policy implementation. The Think Tank will respond to the European Commissions evolving needs on a semester basis and produce 12 dossiers and a book. Each semester, two projects will go through the quality process of the Think Tank, including an expert hearing to test the robustness of the work, a discussion meeting inside the Think Tank, and a public consultation to test the public acceptance of different policy options by involving the broader community. Each Think Tank dossier will therefore include four chapters: 1) the Think Tank assessment of the energy policy options with clear recommendations for policy makers from the drafting team under guidance of the Project Leader, 2) a report including the comments from two Think Tank Advisors, 3) the expert hearing summary, and 4) the public consultation conclusions. The coordinating action THINK will reduce the costs related to the implementation of the ambitious EU energy policy targets by assessing the impacts of policy options using an innovative organisational and analytical frame. With a core group of about 15 nationalities, this coordinating action will also help counter the fragmentation of research in Europe and bridge the gap between Member States and the European Commission by creating a common knowledge base for decision making in energy policy.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2011.2.1-2;SSH.2011.5.2-2 | Award Amount: 3.47M | Year: 2012
Private tenancy law is existentially affecting the daily lives of European citizens, as about one third of them depend on rental housing. That notwithstanding, it constitutes a nearly blank space in comparative and European law. This is due to its national character, its political nature and its embeddedness in widely diverging national housing policies, which ultimately reflect different welfare state models. At the same time, however, different parts of EU law and policy do affect tenancy law significantly, albeit indirectly. Thus, EU social policy against poverty and social exclusion extends to selected issues of housing policy. EU non-discrimination rules extend to the provision of housing, and several consumer law directives apply to tenancy contracts, too. Moreover, if the Common Frame of Reference were one day to develop into an optional instrument, tenancy law issues now regulated by national general contract law might be covered as well - though without any legislator having co-ordinated the ensuing juxtaposition of European contract law and national tenancy regulation. Against this background, this project sets out to provide the first large-scale comparative and European law survey of tenancy law. In a first step, it analyses national tenancy laws and their embeddedness in, and effects on, national housing policies and markets. In a second step, the effect of EU legislation on national housing policy in general and national tenancy law in particular will be analysed in a comparative perspective. In a third step, a proposal for a better co-ordinating role of the EU in tenancy law and housing policy, in particular through an OMC process developing common principles of good tenancy regulation, will be designed. This research matches well several priorities of the Stockholm programme given tenancy laws intimate relation to social human rights and a system of law and justice working for the benefit of European citizens, in particular vulnerable groups.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 4.25M | Year: 2011
Gaia is the ESA cornerstone mission set to revolutionise our understanding of the Milky Way. This proposal will shape a critical mass of new expertise with the fundamental skills required to power the scientific exploitation of Gaia over the coming decade and beyond. The GREAT-ITN research theme is Unravelling the Milky Way focused on four fundamental problems: unravelling the origin and history of our home galaxy; tracing the birth place and understanding the astrophysical properties of the stellar constituents of our galaxy; deepening the understanding of planetary systems by linking the study of exoplanets to the origins of the solar system; take up the grand challenges offered by Gaia in the domains of the distance scale and the transient sky. The GREAT-ITN will deliver a training programme structured around these research themes to a core of new researchers, equipping them with the skills and expertise to become future leaders in astronomy or enter industry. These skills are relevant across many of the key challenges facing us now from climate change to energy security. These require well trained people, people which this GREAT-ITN will deliver. The 12 GREAT-ITN partners in Europe, and 1 in China, each have world leading expertise. 19 additional associate partners provide access to complementary expertise and facilities. The network includes three associates from the Information Technology industry: Microsoft, InterSystems and The Server Labs, each driving the new global on-line agenda. The European Space Agency provides the vital interface to the Gaia project, and exposure to the Space industry. This powerful combination of expertise, from industry and academia, will lead to a new cluster of expertise in the area of Galactic astronomy, deliver powerful and effective training to a large pool of Early Stage Researchers, and cement a sustainable research community adding impact to Europes leadership in this fundamental area of astrophysics.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-4-14 | Award Amount: 2.90M | Year: 2008
The proposed project will provide EU policy makers with information, data, quantitative instruments (economic models) and empirical expertise on cost of production for various types of agricultural products using the FADN data. More specifically, the purpose is to offer first a general cost of production model that could be used to estimate cost of production for key agricultural commodities produced in the European Union. This model will be implemented and validated for a wide range of EU-member countries. Further, additional applications estimating costs of production in EU agriculture, using FADN data and based on different analytical tools, will be developed in this research project. The expected outputs include: (a) a review of experiences of estimating cost of production in the EU and other major agricultural producing countries; (b) the development of a general cost of production model for EU agriculture, (c) the application of the former model to several agricultural products (crop products, milk and pigs) and to several EU member countries using FADN data, (d) an operational computer tool with user-friendly interface that can be used by relevant services of the EU Commission to estimate costs of production, (e) extensions and further applications aimed at studying farm performance and analysing environmental aspects, and (f) an evaluation of the impact of agricultural policy measures on farm income and return to capital and labour using FADN data.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.2.1-5 | Award Amount: 8.03M | Year: 2013
Amputation of a limb may result from trauma or surgical intervention. The amputation traumatically alters the body image, but often leaves sensations that refer to the missing body part. In 50-80% amputees, neuropathic pain develops, also called phantom limb pain (PLP). Both peripheral and central nervous system factors have been implicated as determinants of PLP. Also, PLP may be triggered by physical (changes in the weather) and psychological factors (emotional stress). Recent evidence suggests that PLP may be intricately related to neuroplastic changes in the cortex, and that these changes may modulated by providing sensory input to the stump or amputation zone. However, the understanding of why PLP occurs is still poor, the basic research results have not been tested on a large scale in the clinic, and there are no fully effective, long-term treatments readily available on the market. We aim to challenge the status-quo of PLP therapy by offering technological solutions that will invasively or non-invasively induce natural, meaningful sensations to the amputee to restore the neuroplastic changes in the cortex and thereby control and alleviate PLP. We will assess the effect of cortical neuroplastic, psychological and cognitive components of pain and integrate the knowledge into clinical guidelines. The proposed work directly targets the HEALTH.2013.2.2.1-5 topic. The consortium will build solutions based on existing technologies emerging from previous EU funded research which are presently only available in experimental settings. We believe that implementation of proposed work will be the cornerstone needed to exploit, validate and translate the basic research results into clinical applications and provide long-term, patient-specific solutions to a large group of patients suffering from PLP. The work will assist to improve the quality of life for amputees suffering from phantom limb pain and is of high socio-economic relevance to the EU.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2007.1.2.1.1. | Award Amount: 3.61M | Year: 2008
Healthy housing and good indoor air quality are important goals of public health. However, biological indoor pollution due to dampness, moisture and mold is an emerging environmental health issue, as recognized in EU indoor air policy documents. Prevalence of dampness is remarkable, and may still increase due to demands of energy savings and extreme weather periods and floods associated with climate change. The exposure may lead to long-term impacts such as asthma. The documentation is strong on association between building mold and health, but the causative agents and disease mechanisms are largely unknown, which impedes recognition of a mold-affected patient in health care. Efficient control and regulation are hampered by the insufficient understanding of these causalities. Understanding of the links between building practices and health is lacking. There is an urgent need for European-wide knowledge to form a basis for establishing building-associated criteria for healthy indoor environments. The aim of this proposal is to clarify the health impacts of indoor exposures on children and adults by providing comprehensive exposure data on biological and chemical factors in European indoor environments, and by combining this information with extensive health data obtained from a field study and from existing population cohorts. Modern microbiological, toxicological and immunological techniques will be used that allow the revealing of the links between the harmful exposures and long term impacts on health, and the mechanisms behind. Data on determinants and distributions of indoor microbial agents will be provided for development of avoidance measures and other dissemination for stakeholders. The study networks experts on environmental epidemiology, microbiology, immunology, toxicology and building sciences. They cover the multidisciplinary field needed for adequate risk assessment. This approach has been successfully applied in the previous research.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IRSES | Award Amount: 145.90K | Year: 2014
Modern viticulture and oenology were born in the last century responding to the need to innovate in traditional technologies. However, current economic, ecological and social changes require new strategies for wine production that take an integrated view of the entire wine production chain to ensure sustainability. Current management systems of vineyards and fermentations are indeed not economically or environmentally sustainable. The present proposal will approach this topic from both an environmental, focusing on the theme of biodiversity and its protection, and from an economic/social point of view. Optimization will promote the use of yeasts to reduce pests in pre/post-harvesting and to produce low-alcoholic and/or sulphite wines. In particular, the identification of fermentative yeasts isolated from ancient (Italy, Georgia, and Slovenia) and new (Sweden, Canada, and South Africa) vine-growing areas will allow the selection of species/strains that could be useful to evaluate both the possible interaction between genomes and phenotypes and the interplay of wine-related organisms in the oenological environment. Finally, the network aims to produce non-GMO yeasts for the participative selection of strains by the wineries. The consortium research units possess complementary competencies and are all working with success in wine research; partners have consolidated expertise in chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, physiology, genetics, bioinformatics, and taxonomy. The level of quality of the involved institutions and the appropriate staff exchange scheme (early and experienced researches) will allow an efficient transfer of knowledge during three years and for long-term collaborations. The expected impact of the consortium will be to contribute to the wine research field and to transfer its know-how to wine-makers.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH-2007-1.1-01 | Award Amount: 4.28M | Year: 2009
The proposed research project will study the interactions between knowledge, economic growth and social wellbeing in Europe. It focuses on knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship as a necessary mechanism and an agent of change mediating between the creation of knowledge and its transformation into economic activity. Knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship is perceived herein as a core interface between two interdependent systems: the knowledge generation and diffusion system, on the one hand, and the productive system, on the other. Both systems shape and are shaped by the broader social context including customs, culture, and institutions thus also pointing at the linkage of entrepreneurship to that context. The project has three main objectives (research thrusts). At the micro level, it purports to study in depth the very act of knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship, its defining characteristics, boundaries, scope and incentives. At the macro level, it will study the link between knowledge entrepreneurship, economic growth and social wellbeing, also extending to the socio-economic processes that help transform the animal spirits (John Maynard Keynes) into a self-reinforcing process for broader societal prosperity. The way the broader socio-economic environment stokes animal spirits and benefits from them will be studied within the contexts of various shades of capitalism in Europe and elsewhere, expanding beyond the growth accounting and endogenous growth approaches and issues to novel concepts of knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship in growth and, further, into the underlying issues of social wellbeing such as inclusion, cohesion, equity, opportunities, and social care. Finally, at the policy level, the project will take a systemic approach aiming at an organic integration of diverse sets of policies that influence the creation and growth of innovative entrepreneurial ventures based on knowledge generation and diffusion.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENERGY-2007-3.2-03 | Award Amount: 4.09M | Year: 2008
The transport sector represents a growing share of the total fossil fuel usage in the world. In order to fulfil the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol, the world usage of fossil oil in transport sectors must be reduced. One important approach to achieving this goal is to increase the share of renewable sources such as feedstocks in conversion routes. These biomass conversion routes involve a number of difficulties that should be attended to first by a suitable process configuration to avoid catalyst poisoning in production of syngas. Second, a major problem in the production of syngas-derived fuel from renewable sources is the presence of contaminates in the product gas from biomass gasifiers. These impurities that cause catalytic poisoning should be completely removed prior to the entry in catalytic systems that utilize in upgrading steps. With the evolution of these advanced uses of biomass derived syngas, it becomes necessary to develop progressively more stringent gas cleaning systems. Therefore, the projects key goal is development of a novel gas cleanup in order to reduce impurities from the gasifiers product gas to limits required for upgrading to syngas using as a feedstock in production of vehicle fuels. To accomplish this target that biomass conversion should preserve high energy efficiency in the subsequent synthesis steps and prevent catalytic poisoning, an alternative product route and more efficient gas cleaning systems are required. Nevertheless, biomass conversion processes offer many economical and environmental benefits, but it is clear that conversion technology should be able to compete with other conversion routes, for example via methane. Therefore, this RTD programme combines European expertise in the field of gasification, different proficiencies in cleaning technologies, high ranking catalyst expertise, catalyst company, and two research companies with R&D activities in the fields to expedite the development and commercialization of research outcomes.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2011-1.1.6. | Award Amount: 10.57M | Year: 2011
The BioStruct-X consortium has 19 partners from 11 EU member and associated states, who lead in facility provision and research in structural biology using high brilliance X-rays, provided by state-of-the art synchrotrons and a free electron laser. BioStruct-X will provide integrated transnational access via 42 installations in four key areas: macromolecular X-ray crystallography, small angle X-ray scattering, X-ray imaging, protein production and high-throughput crystallisation. All installations provide on-line data analysis tools and remote experiment control. Transnational access will be critically enhanced by four targeted joint research activities: a) new data processing tools, to the benefit of access to applications in macromolecular X-ray crystallography; b) an integrated on-line sample characterisation system, to the benefit of the access to small angle X-ray scattering, c) correlated fluorescence light microscopy components that will enhance X-ray imaging applications offered for access; d) a toolbox for mammalian cell line expression, to the direct benefit of the access to protein production facilities. The BioStruct-X project will offer a central Batch Allocation Group proposal mechanism to promote project excellence by combining different methods and encouraging multi-site applications. The networking activity integrates all activities and combines them with those of other I3 actions under the ESFRI project INSTRUCT for future coordinated infrastructure activities in structural biology. The efficient management structure has four transparent layers: the coordinator, a six-member executive board, three work package coordinators and the general assembly comprising three user representatives and all partners. Thus, BioStruct-X will establish a state-of-the-art coordinated and multi-site infrastructure for current and emerging key methods in 21st century structural biology, thus advancing the European Research Area in biomedical sciences.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH.2010.1.2-3 | Award Amount: 2.25M | Year: 2011
EuroGentest is an FP6 European network for the harmonization of genetic testing and for the further improvement of quality in genetic services across Europe. This proposal is to support EuroGentest2, a Coordination Action that will cover the different aspects of quality assurance of genetic practice and has all the ingredients to fulfil the needs. EuroGentest2 will be concerned with setting the targets for laboratory and health professional accreditation, by contributing to guidelines and standards, and actively interacting with the professional organizations and the policy makers. EuroGentest2 will also assist the diagnostic and clinical community and the individual laboratories and counselling units in reaching those aims by providing tools for quality management and by coordinating training activities. EuroGentest2 will extend its activities from postnatal diagnostic and predictive testing to prenatal testing, thereby building on the achievements of the FP6 SAFE network, and to direct to consumer testing. A major aim of the Coordination Action will be the creation of a European association of genetic diagnostic centres that will guarantee the future of the network. The Coordination Action will lead to the further harmonization and quality assurance of genetic practice. The patients will benefit by the improvement of the analytical and clinical quality and validity of the testing, and from improved trans-border services and information. The European diagnostics industry will benefit through a faster access of innovations to the market through the validation for diagnostic use. It will enable countries and regions with less developed health care infrastructure to develop standards for best practice of provision of clinical genetic service. The Coordination Action will also identify research needs and have the capacity to set a research agenda that corresponds to the needs of the human genetics community
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.30 | Award Amount: 9.70M | Year: 2011
The central objective of this ESMI proposal is to create a top-level interdisciplinary research infrastructure available to a broad European materials research community. This is of crucial importance to the EU in view of the European strategy for nanosciences and nanotechnology and its implementation report that identifies a lack of leading interdisciplinary infrastructures. ESMI offers the most important experimental and synthesis techniques and combines world-class infrastructures with cutting edge scientific expertise through a sophisticated networking programme. The anticipated JRA will further improve the existing infrastructure. Computer simulations being of increasing importance for the understanding and prediction of complex materials, ESMI offers access to simulation groups and their advanced tools. The availability of such an infrastructure will provide soft matter scientists with a broad choice of techniques to address their scientific objectives. It will result in a quantum leap in research opportunities and assure that European scientists have a world-class collaborative capability for their frontier research. ESMI will strongly contribute to a fundamental understanding, allowing the development of new, tailored smart materials. ESMI follows the FP6 experience of the NoE SoftComp. A key feature developed within SoftComp is the highly successful Research Platforms offered to its members, anticipating the spirit of the EU Integrated Infrastructure Initiative. ESMI will promote the SoftComp experience to the European materials community, reflecting the EU recommendations that FP6 collaborative projects may well lead to new European infrastructures. Together with a platform for disseminating the results and educating a new generation of young soft matter scientists, ESMI represents an important added value to the European Research Area in nanoscience, nanotechnology and materials science
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.3-2 | Award Amount: 3.01M | Year: 2012
The aim of SPREE project is to identify potential Servicizing Policies and simulate their effect on absolute decoupling of economic growth and resource use, while achieving societal benefits. Servicizing Systems facilitate the transition from selling products to providing services. Except for ICT, these are still quite rare. SPREE is dedicated to promote the implementation of Servicizing Systems in 3 different sectors: water, mobility and agri-food. We propose to use an advanced Agent Based Modelling (ABM) approach to structure and test options for Servicizing Systems and Policies. This provides a generic framework that allows exploring short and long term effects, and assessment of the 3 sectors in different countries. Based on the models results and complementary qualitative analysis we will construct Servicizing Policy Packages that take into account the environmental, economic and social dimensions and trade-offs between them. Thus, SPREE results will help to realize EU strategies particularly in the framework of EUROPE 2020. Based on conceptualization of Servicizing Systems, we use existing instruments and develop new tools that fit into the evaluation of emerging Servicizing Systems and policies effects. We define more suitable dynamic tools needed for ex-ante assessment of newly created supply chains that can emerge out of Servicizing activities. Using ABM, we demonstrate how Servicizing Systems develop and test outcomes of proposed policies on the creation of successful Servicizing opportunities leading to absolute decoupling. The SPREE consortium consists of 10 partners from 7 different countries, and includes public bodies and research institutes to provide a sound base for both Servicizing Systems and Policy. The key deliverable is Servicizing Policy Packages that exploit existing synergies to achieve a truly sustainable EU economy where economic growth is decoupled from environmental impact, society prospers and a global example is set.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE.2010.2.3-02 | Award Amount: 12.29M | Year: 2011
The present proposal sees the development of business and value creation models as central to the development of personalised nutrition and thus it is intended to engage in a series of interviews with key stakeholders, which will generate a number of scenarios to be considered by these stakeholders. Parallel to that we will run some focus groups with consumers and develop a tool to ascertain consumer attitudes to personalised nutrition in 8 EU countries (1,000 per country) representing a breadth of gastronomic traditions. Within these 8 countries, we will recruit 1,280 subjects and offer 3 levels of personalised nutrition: 1 Personalised dietary advice alone; 2: personalised dietary advice based on biochemical phenotypic data; 3: the latter to include genomic data. These will be compared with a control group, which will be offered non-personalised dietary advice. All of the data on dietary intake and all of the advice will be Internet delivered and will last 6 months. Within each of the 3 levels of personalised nutrition groups, half will receive their feedback at months 0, 3 and 6 while the other half will have continuous feedback on demand with intensive coaching. The overall outcome measurement will be changes in a healthy eating index. The data gathered in this study will feed into the development of algorithms to provide automated feedback for future services delivering personalised advice on food choice. We will bring together an international group of experts to develop best practice in the application of all aspects of nutrigenomic research to personalised nutrition. We will also scope out existing and future technologies, particularly those involving biofeedback, which will help the development of personalised nutrition. Finally we develop position papers on the ethical and legal aspects of personalised nutrition. Permeating all of this work will be a wide-ranging communications programme aimed at all stakeholders of relevance to personalised nutrition.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2013.1.2-2 | Award Amount: 10.45M | Year: 2013
Resistance to traditional antibiotics is a rapidly increasing problem that in a few years could make infections impossible to treat and bring the state of medical care back to the pre-antibiotic era from the beginning of the last century. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have a huge potential as new therapeutics against infectious diseases as they are less prone to induce resistance due to their fast and non-specific mechanism of action. The aim of FORMAMP is to explore a number of innovative formulation and delivery strategies based on nanotechnology in order to improve the efficiency and stability of AMPs in clinical development. Functional delivery systems that can be applied directly on the infected site will be developed for treatment of infections in skin and burn wounds, as well as lung infections caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Formulation and delivery strategies to prevent and treat biofilm formation related to these conditions will be developed. Different nanoformulation platforms, particularly promising for peptide delivery, controlled release strategies and technologies against proteolytic degradation of peptides will be evaluated in the project. These include lipid-based systems such as lipidic nanocapsules, polymer-based structures such as dendrimers and microgels as well as nanostructured mesoporous silica. The possibility to formulate the nanostructured materials into efficient drug delivery systems such as a topical spray or gel and pulmonary aerosol will be evaluated. The effect of nanoformulated AMPs will be evaluated with state-of-the art in vitro models and in vivo models. The results of this interdisciplinary project will generate efficient treatment strategies combatting one of the largest threats to our health care system today, reducing healthcare costs and expand the growth of European enterprises within the field of pharmaceutics and nanomaterials.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2008.1.2.1.4. | Award Amount: 4.86M | Year: 2009
This project concerns the first large-scale application of the full range of omics technologies in a population study aiming at a) the discovery and validation of novel biomarkers predictive of increased risks of a number of chronic diseases, b) the exploration of the association of such biomarkers with environmental exposures, including high-priority pollutants and emerging exposures, and c) the discovery and validation of biomarkers of exposure to the above and other high-priority environmental exposures. The project will utilise three existing prospective cohorts. Cancer-related -omics biomarkers will be developed using a case-control study nested within 2 cohorts which contain biosamples collected prior to disease diagnosis, exposure and followup health information. Biomarkers will be compared in 600 breast cancer cases, 300 NHL cases and equal numbers of matched controls, to evaluate their risk predictivity. Biomarkers of chronic diseases which establish themselves in early childhood but persist into adult life will be evaluated using a mother-child cohort. Biosamples collected from 600 children at birth and at ages 2 and 4 years will be analysed and results compared with clinical indices obtained at age 4. Thanks to the availability of repeat samples, collected over a wide range of time intervals, the intra-individual variation of biomarkers and their relationship with disease progression will be evaluated. Biomarker search will utilize state-of-the-art metabonomics, epigenomics, proteomics and transcriptomics, in combination with advanced bioinformatics and systems biology tools. It will also include technical validation of -omics technologys utilisation with biobank samples. Exposure assessment will utilize exposure biomarkers, questionnaires, modelling and GIS technology. Additional data on exposure, biomarkers (including SNP data) and health indices, available through other projects, will be utilised, thus generating substantial added value.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.4.5-11 | Award Amount: 4.04M | Year: 2008
Incontinence affects almost 66 million people in the European Union. The Over Active Bladder (OAB) symptom complex is one of the major causes for incontinence, with a large number of affected persons and immense associated health care costs. The causes for the over active bladder contractions, underlying the urinary urgency of OAB are unknown, and current treatments are only partially effective. This collaborative and translational project, involving interaction between experimental and clinical urology scientists will focus on OAB and will characterize the different interacting cellular components and signaling systems in the wall of normal urinary bladders and OAB. The release of local mediators in the bladder wall, the properties of a newly described cell type (the interstitial cells, which may play a role in bladder over activity), the sensory signaling pathways (TRPV1-receptors), the receptor interaction and cellular communication are considered in order to create an integrated view on the mechanisms of bladder over activity. A strong emphasis is put on interaction between basic science and clinical applications, using a translational approach involving both specific animal models and human tissue from patients with defined urodynamic information. Several ethical and logistic issues with the use of human tissue are specifically addressed. An important further aspect of the experiments on human tissue is a direct analysis of the links between genetic and the urodynamic data of the patients, using unique biobanks. This will allow us further insight into the mechanisms of disease and possibly to identify new therapeutic targets. In close collaboration with a small company, we will develop an innovative potential physical therapy to affect bladder function. We will develop novel pharmacotherapeutic strategies and diagnostic tools, based on the characterization of cell properties, gene expression, receptors signaling systems of the bladder wall.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH-2009-4.1-2 | Award Amount: 848.43K | Year: 2010
The European Consortium for Communicating Stem Cell Research, EUROSTEMCELL, brings together the major current FP6 and FP7 stem cell projects, the European Clinical Research Infrastructure Network, and four internationally recognized European stem cell centres to develop a comprehensive, coordinated platform for collation, dissemination and archiving of information on stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Our aims are to address the urgent need for trusted, high quality information on stem cells by citizens and stakeholders across Europe, and further to establish a model for large-scale dissemination of Framework-funded research outputs to European publics. Dissemination of key advances will be achieved through a structured approach aimed at reaching European citizens and stakeholders at all educational levels. We will focus on three major dissemination routes: the worldwide web; resources for direct public engagement; and resources for educators. Emphasis will be placed on clear exposition of the potential applications and benefits for citizens of existing knowledge and new developments in stem cell research. To ensure continuous development of best practice, we will iteratively evaluate and refine all activities throughout the project. The project centrepiece will be a multi-lingual website, the European Stem Cell Information Portal www.eurostemcell.org, which we will create and develop as the premier European reference site for stem cell information and discourse. The consortium comprises the principal stem cell laboratories across Europe, including new member states, and additionally offers outstanding expertise in ethical and societal concerns and in evaluating clinical outcomes. This coalition provides unparalleled expertise across the field of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine, and is uniquely placed to achieve the vision of a trusted and accessible European stem cell information resource that promotes and facilitates public dialogue.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2010.10.2-1 | Award Amount: 2.53M | Year: 2010
The European Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan has identified fuel cells and hydrogen among the technologies needed for Europe to achieve the targets for 2020 - 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; 20% share of renewable energy sources in the energy mix; and 20% reduction in primary energy use as well as to achieve the long-term vision for 2050 towards decarbonisation. The objective of QuasiDry is to develop innovative fuel cell electrolyte membranes for the next generation of fuel cells, satisfying the long-term automotive targets for cell temperatures at ca. 120 C. Recent work in the partner laboratories convincingly demonstrates that phosphonic acid functionalised polymers are a viable alternative to sulfonic acids for high temperature operation. Their potential as membrane materials having high proton conductivity that demonstrates little variation with temperature and relative humidity will be shown in the QuasiDry project, and they will be validated by integrating them into membrane electrode assemblies with properties appropriate to automotive fuel cell operation. The increase of proton conductivity with temperature, including at low relative humidity, will allow continuous increase in fuel cell performance with temperature, rather than the drop in performance for all sulfonic acid functionalised membranes above ca. 80-90 C. Catalysts adapted to phosphonic protogenic functions and high temperature operation will be developed. QuasiDry membranes will be validated within the project by elaboration of electrodes and membrane electrode assemblies, to the scale of small-scale (50 cm2) single cell demonstrators. The end result will be a step-change in the properties of the materials, as is required to underpin the future of European fuel cell research. Such long-term innovation is beyond the scope of the Joint Technology Initiative on Fuel Cells and Hydrogen and yet corresponds fully to the FET remit for future emerging technologies for energy applications.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.3.3-03 | Award Amount: 7.40M | Year: 2012
BIOINTENSE is directed at addressing the challenges of low productivity and process intensity frequently hampering the implementation of bioprocesses in industry. For the future of the next generation of chemical processes in Europe it provides the opportunity not only to address intensification but also to enable this in a rapid manner. BIOINTENSE will make use of -technology to develop economically feasible intensified processes by integration of separation and process control, and to create tools to speed up the characterization and assessment of different process options and technologies and biocatalysts for increased process intensity. A strong focus lies in increasing the scale of biocatalytic and cascade reactions and to improve the fundamental factors that affect the economic feasibility. Both numbering up and scale-up methodologies will be tested. The BIOINTENSE consortium is ideally suited to address the challenges in KBBE.2012.3.3-03 and to meet the objectives, as it spans across disciplines, academia and industry: SMEs with a strong technology base in the areas of integrating separation in bioprocessing, biocatalyst development, immobilization, -reactor fabrication, and on-line monitoring will ensure top of the line industry focused research with a strong focus on scale-up and implementation. There is an urgent need for these challenges to be overcome to move towards a European Knowledge Based BioEconomy to exploit the environmental savings and economic potential if such bioprocesses were in place. Building on the recent advances in molecular biology, the time is now right to develop the necessary process engineering methodologies and implementation strategies to unlock the full potential of bioprocesses.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-05-2014 | Award Amount: 6.46M | Year: 2015
Breast cancer affects more than 360,000 women per year in the EU and causes more than 90,000 deaths. Identification of women at high risk of the disease can lead to disease prevention through intensive screening, chemoprevention or prophylactic surgery. Breast cancer risk is determined by a combination of genetic and lifestyle risk factors. The advent of next generation sequencing has opened up the opportunity for testing in many disease genes, and diagnostic gene panel testing is being introduced in many EU countries. However, the cancer risks associated with most variants in most genes are unknown. This leads to a major problem in appropriate counselling and management of women undergoing panel testing. In this project, we aim to build a knowledge base that will allow identification of women at high-risk of breast cancer, in particular through comprehensive evaluation of DNA variants in known and suspected breast cancer genes. We will exploit the huge resources established through the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and ENIGMA (Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles). We will expand the existing datasets by sequencing all known breast cancer susceptibility genes in 20,000 breast cancer cases and 20,000 controls from population-based studies, and 10,000 cases from multiple case families. Sequence data will be integrated with in-silico and functional data, with data on other known risk factors, to generate a comprehensive risk model that can provide personalised risk estimates. We will develop online tools to aid the interpretation of gene variants and provide risk estimates in a user-friendly format, to help genetic counsellors and patients worldwide to make informed clinical decisions. We will evaluate the acceptability and utility of comprehensive gene panel testing in the clinical genetics context.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.6.5 | Award Amount: 24.19M | Year: 2014
AdaptIVe will enhance the performance and improve the acceptance of automated driving of cars and trucks. The project develops new and integrated automated functions to improve traffic safety by minimizing the effects of human errors and to enhance traffic efficiency by smoother flows and reduced congestion.The approach is based on a shared control concept, assuring proper collaboration between the driver and the automation system. This is realised using cooperative vehicle technologies, advanced obstacle sensors and adaptive schemes where the level of automation dynamically responds to the situation and driver status.The project will demonstrate and evaluate eight advanced vehicles seven cars and one truck with various combinations of automated functions. These implementations will be based on the needs of different environments and levels of traffic complexity, including motorways, urban scenarios and close-distance manoeuvres. Several common features developed in these vehicles will establish fundamental building blocks for the future exploitation of automated driving, in terms of architecture, fault-tolerance, and human factors. Communication technologies will be employed as a key enabler of highly automated schemes supporting cooperative traffic and improving road safety.In addition to the technological and ergonomic aspects, AdaptIVe will address important legal issues that might impact on the successful market introduction of automated systems; in particular product liability and road traffic laws. It will identify the legal implications for manufacturers and drivers and examine the need for corresponding changes in regulation.By demonstrating these results, AdaptIVe will significantly improve the knowledge base for automated driving and strengthen the position of European industries in the area of Intelligent Vehicles and road safety.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2011.1.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 10.93M | Year: 2011
CLAIRE investigates the ways in which climate change alters the threat of air pollution on European land ecosystems including soils. Based on field observations, experimental data and models, it establishes new flux, concentration and dose-response relationships, as a basis to inform future European policies. Starting with biosphere-atmosphere exchange measurements, CLAIRE quantifies how global warming and altered precipitation will affect emissions of key European primary pollutants (NOx, NH3, VOCs), including interactions with increasing aerosol and hemispheric O3 background concentrations, modifying atmospheric transport and deposition. An ensemble of chemistry transport models will be applied to assess uncertainty in response to harmonized scenarios for climate, emissions and land-use, while high resolution studies will investigate how climate change alters local patterns of pollutant exposure and threshold exceedance. A network of European experiments for contrasting ecosystems and climates, combined with meta-analysis of unpublished datasets, will quantify how climate change alters ecosystem vulnerability to tropospheric O3 and N deposition, including interaction with increased CO2. Combined with special topics on interactions with N form (wet/dry, NHx/NOy), aerosol-exacerbated drought stress and BVOC self-protection of O3 effects, novel threshold and dose-response approaches will be developed. These will be combined with regional atmospheric and biogeochemical models to estimate interactions and feedbacks on plant/soil carbon stocks, greenhouse gas balance and plant species change. The new risk assessment chain to be developed will be applied at the European scale, quantifying how projected climate change will alter damage estimates. Combined with economic valuation of ecosystem services, improved integrated assessment modelling will allow a cost-benefit analysis to inform future mitigation and adaptation strategies on air pollution and climate change.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ICT-SEC-2007-1.0-03 | Award Amount: 4.37M | Year: 2009
The aim of the proposal is to design, assess and promote an ICT-based system, exploiting distributed and local sensors, for non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring in order to achieve the critical transport infrastructures more reliable and safe. This has the overall aim to developing a high situation awareness in order to provide real time and detailed information and images of the infrastructure status to improve decision support for emergency and disasters stakeholders. The system exploits an open network architecture that can accommodate a wide range of sensors, static and mobile, and can be easily scaled up to allow the integration of additional sensors and interfacing with other networks. It relies on heterogeneous state-of-the-art electromagnetic sensors, enabling a self-organizing, self-healing, ad-hoc networking of terrestrial sensors, supported by specific satellite measurements. The integration of electromagnetic technologies with new ICT information and telecommunications systems enables remotely controlled monitoring and surveillance and real time data imaging of the critical transport infrastructures. The proposal will be based on several independent non-invasive imaging technologies based on electromagnetic sensing. Sensor cross validation, synergy and new data fusion and correlation schemes will permit a multi-method, multi-resolution and multi-scale electromagnetic detection and monitoring of surface and subsurface changes of the infrastructure . The architecture will be based on web sensors and service-oriented-technologies that comply with specific end-user requirements, including economical convenience, exportability, efficiency and reliability. The system will adopt open architectures and will make efforts to achieve full interoperability. The system will be tested on very challenging test beds such as: a highway-bridge and a railway tunnel.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-1.4-4 | Award Amount: 14.73M | Year: 2009
For many disabling or fatal diseases, there is pre-clinical or clinical evidence of the potential therapeutic efficacy of gene therapy and, yet, the limitations of current gene transfer technologies have prevented success or even caused serious adverse events leading to termination of trials. PERSIST will explore the use of highly innovative gene-modifying and delivery technologies and capitalize on recent discoveries in gene expression control to develop radical solutions to the problem of precisely controlling the fate and expression of exogenous genetic information in gene therapy with applications in these and other deadly diseases. Our proposal combines 20 of Europes outstanding experts from 8 countries in the field of genetic engineering for persisting gene expression. Partners have pioneered the use of Zinc Finger Nucleases, engineered recombinases and transposases for gene targeting, synthetic promoters, epigenetic switches and micro-RNA for regulating gene expression, developed state-of-the-art gene delivery platforms based on lentiviral, AAV and gutless adenoviral vectors, conducted front-line clinical trials, and productively collaborated in previous FP projects. PERSIST includes 16 work packages of which 6 focus on vector innovations (part A: emerging technologies), 6 on applications & evaluation (part B), 1 on process development and the remaining 2 on training/dissemination and project management including IPR issues. Targeting deadly diseases, such as inherited immunodeficiencies, storage disorders and haemophilias, PERSIST is in line with the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) of the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) and will result in: faster discovery and development of better medicines; more attractive professional environment for scientists; better European expertise and know-how to attract biomedical R&D investment in Europe; and a stronger competitive advantage for SMEs, spin-offs and start-ups to enhance Europes economy.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2009.3.5 | Award Amount: 4.94M | Year: 2010
ICT developments both enable and also enforce large-scale, highly-connected systems in society and industry. Knowledge to cope with these emerging systems is lacking. HYCON2 will stimulate and establish the long-term integration of the European research community, leading institutions and industry in the strategic field of control of complex, large-scale, and networked dynamical systems. It will interconnect scattered groups to create critical mass and complementarity, and will provide the necessary visibility and communication with the European industries. HYCON2 will assess and coordinate basic and applied research, from fundamental analytical properties of complex systems to control design methodologies with networking, self-organizing and system-wide coordination. HYCON2 has identified several applications domains to motivate, integrate, and evaluate research in networked control. These domains are ground and aerospace transportation, electrical power networks, process industries, and biological and medical systems. Benchmarking will serve as a tool for testing and evaluating the technologies developed in HYCON2 and for stimulating and enforcing excellence by the identification and adoption of best practices. In particular, two show-case applications corresponding to real-world problems have been selected in order to demonstrate the applicability of networked control and the need for research in control. As no substantial technological breakthrough can be achieved without preparing the proper cultural background, a further important objective of HYCON2 is to spread and disseminate excellence through multi-disciplinary education at the graduate and undergraduate level. The proposed research, integration and dissemination program will make Europe both the prominent scientific and the industrial leader in the area of highly complex and networked control systems, therefore posing Europe in an extraordinary position to exploit their impact in economy and society.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2012-1.1.24. | Award Amount: 23.40M | Year: 2013
Research accelerators are facing important challenges that must be addressed in the years to come: existing infrastructures are stretched to all performance frontiers, new world-class facilities on the ESFRI roadmap are starting or nearing completion, and strategic decisions are needed for future accelerators and major upgrades in Europe. While current projects concentrate on their specific objectives, EuCARD-2 brings a global view to accelerator research, coordinating a consortium of 40 accelerator laboratories, technology institutes, universities and industry to jointly address common challenges. By promoting complementary expertise, cross-disciplinary fertilisation and a wider sharing of knowledge and technologies throughout academia and with industry, EuCARD-2 significantly enhances multidisciplinary R&D for European accelerators. This new project will actively contribute to the development of a European Research Area in accelerator science by effectively implementing a distributed accelerator laboratory in Europe. Transnational access will be granted to state-of-the-art test facilities, and joint R&D effort will build upon and exceed that of the ongoing EuCARD project. Researchers will concentrate on a few well-focused themes with very ambitious deliverables: 20 T accelerator magnets, innovative materials for collimation of extreme beams, new high-gradient high-efficiency accelerating systems, and emerging acceleration technologies based on lasers and plasmas. EuCARD-2 will include six networks on strategic topics to reinforce synergies between communities active at all frontiers, extending the scope towards innovation and societal applications. The networks concentrate on extreme beam performance, novel accelerator concepts with outstanding potential, energy efficiency and accelerator applications in the fields of medicine, industry, environment and energy. One network will oversee the whole project to proactively catalyze links to industry and the innovation potential.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.3.7 | Award Amount: 3.55M | Year: 2010
Point-of-care testing is essential to provide better patient care by aiding physicians in making informed decision during patient visits. This will enable the start of immediate treatment for many conditions and reduce the strain on resources in secondary care, resulting in reduced outpatient clinic time. A key challenge in the development of point-of-care diagnostic devices is the requirement for robust, rapid and simple assay formats with direct readout, coupled with small sensing areas (~10 x 10 m) and low sample volumes (25 l) that exhibit the same sensitivity as laboratory based tests. The RAPID project will address this challenge by developing an integrated multichannel 2D photonic crystal based disposable biosensor and bench top reader, for point-of-care disease diagnostic applications. The RAPID disposable sensor will demonstrate enhanced performance beyond the state of the art in key proteomic diagnostic systems by delivering direct robust label-free detection of four pancreatic cancer serum biomarkers at less than 100 fM (5 pg/ml) concentrations. Objective genetic algorithms will be developed for infometric and chemometric pattern recognition to allow unequivocal identification of protein cancer biomarkers following collection of the data from the sensor platform. In this manner, the project will support the development of future device innovation in proteomics and disease diagnostics that could yield revolutionary advances in healthcare and nanomedicine. A successful RAPID project will provide a number of clear benefits over the current label-free commercial offerings: speed, cost and ease of use and make the outputs of the RAPID project very attractive commercially in the PoC diagnostic markets.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 11.85M | Year: 2009
LASERLAB-EUROPE II is a Consortium of Laser Research Infrastructures from the majority of the European member states, forming a FP7 Integrated Infrastructure Initiative. Given the importance of lasers and their applications in all areas of sciences, life sciences and technologies, the main objectives of the Consortium are: - To form a competitive, inter-disciplinary network of European national laser laboratories; - To strengthen the European leading role in laser research through Joint Research Activities (JRA), pushing the laser concept into new directions and opening up new applications of key importance; - To engage in the Transnational Access Programme in a co-ordinated fashion for the benefit of the European research community. - To increase the European basis in laser research and applications by reaching out to neighboring scientific communities and by assisting the development of Laser Research Infrastructures on both the national and the European level.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.9.1 | Award Amount: 3.00M | Year: 2013
Strong statistical fluctuations in meso- and nano-scale structures make their thermodynamic properties extremely dependent on the information available about them. The most basic process illustrating the importance of information to statistical systems is the information-to-energy conversion in the famous Maxwells Demon (MD). Our primary goal is to study both experimentally and theoretically the statistics of fluctuations and the role of information in thermodynamics of the nano-scale systems. The first milestone will be the experimental realization of the nanoscale MD. We will create an experimental set-up and develop the corresponding theory of the monitored statistical evolution with feedback that optimizes the information-to-energy conversion. Our vision is to develop the nanoelectronic and bio-molecular devices that will allow us to systematically explore the limits of information-powered systems, in particular to test the Szilrds limit relating one bit of information to extracted energy. We will also study statistics of energy fluctuations as revealed via equilibrium and non-equilibrium fluctuations of temperature. Part of these fluctuations has a quantum mechanical origin, but identification of this contribution in practice poses a challenging problem. Another novel extension of the MD work will be the study of thermodynamic constraints on quantum detectors. The principal novelty of our project is that it brings a rigorous experimental component to the field presently dominated by theory. Though the concept of a MD is tremendously important for development of modern statistical mechanics, MD-type experiments are still at their infancy. Our experimental study of MD will naturally lead to further progress in the relevant theoretical concepts.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2009.2.1.4.1 | Award Amount: 4.79M | Year: 2010
Pollinators form a key component of European biodiversity, and provide vital ecosystem services to crops and wild plants. There is growing evidence of declines in both wild and domesticated pollinators, and parallel declines in plants relying upon them. STEP will document the nature and extent of these declines, examine functional traits associated with particular risk, develop a Red List of some European pollinator groups, in particular bees and lay the groundwork for future pollinator monitoring programmes. We will also assess the relative importance of potential drivers of such change, including climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation, agrichemicals, pathogens, alien species, light pollution, and their interactions. We will measure the ecological and economic impacts of declining pollinator services and floral resources, including effects on wild plant populations, crop production and human nutrition. STEP will review existing and potential mitigation options, providing novel tests of their effectiveness across Europe. Our work will build upon existing datasets and models, complemented by spatially-replicated campaigns of field research to fill gaps in current knowledge. We will integrate our findings in a policy-relevant framework, creating Evidence-based Decision Support tools. We will also establish communication links to a wide range of stakeholders across Europe and beyond, including policy makers, beekeepers, farmers, academics and the general public. Taken together, our research programme will make great steps towards improving our understanding of the nature, causes, consequences and potential mitigation of declines in pollinator services at local, national, continental and global scales.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2013.4.1-4 | Award Amount: 4.44M | Year: 2014
Volatile events such as disasters bring the prospect of rapid contagion and the threat of disastrous impacts for Europe. Vulnerabilities and cascading effects can result in significant injuries, illness and loss of life. Damage to health infrastructure, demand for medical attention, displacement and major outbreaks all place a strain on Health Services. Preparedness and response capabilities of Health Services will directly impact societys ability to bounce back to become more resilient to such devastating shocks. S-HELP will enhance the protection of public health and common grounds for interoperability by significantly ad-vancing the existing knowledge base required for the development of next generation Decision Support (DS) tools and a user-centred Decision Support System (DSS) for better Preparedness, rapid Response and coordinated Re-covery in emergency situations. It will offer evidence-based solutions to improve Health Services performance in emergency management, develop-ing a holistic framework to guide stakeholder needs analysis, and integrating an advanced DS tool-set. The project will execute multi-scenario based end user training, alongside what-if analysis. It will simulate 3 multi-factorial and multi-agency scenarios (a chemical explosion; mass flooding; regional bio-hazard), and model the situational and projected evolution of the 3 emergencies to communicate coordinated and collaborative problem solving across agencies. S-HELP will manage end-user knowledge and validate performance in order to use project DS tools and solutions effectively in preparing for, responding to and recovering from an incident. S-HELP will disseminate and exploit the DS tools and solution to complement the role of Health Services in emergency situations. S-HELP will significantly advance the current state-of-the-art in decision support for Health Services, benefitting from an end-user driven consortium with leading health research, technolog and commercial experts.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: Fission-2007-3.2-01 | Award Amount: 3.95M | Year: 2008
MADEIRA aims to improve 3D nuclear medical imaging technologies significantly. Achievements will be made in terms of reduction of radiation exposure, increase of spatial and temporal resolution. In consequence, the applied techniques will offer better and more detailed pictures for diagnosis obtained with less exposure to radioactivity. Due to the introduction of new diagnostic procedures such as CT, PET and SPECT, the individual dose caused by medical exposures rapidly grew in the last years. This is especially a subject to radiation protection for nuclear medical diagnosis since in this case radiopharmaceuticals are administered to the patient meaning not only a radiation exposure to the unhealthy tissue but also to the healthy tissue of large parts of the body. When dealing with cancer any improvement in the efficacy and availability of proper diagnostic procedures turns out into a benefit for the patients. Early diagnosis reduces mortality and other serious implications like loss of quality of living or high therapy costs. Diagnosis that provides information about - activity of the cancerous tissue - in what 3D region of the cancer and - what kind of cancer to be treated in each specific case is very important. 3D functional nuclear medicine imaging satisfies the above requirements. Especially the combination of todays systems with CT scanners allows simultaneous acquisition of anatomical and functional information. MADEIRA will improve the efficacy and safety of 3D PET and SPECT functional imaging by optimising the spatial resolution, the signal-to-noise ratio and the knowledge of the temporal variation of the radiopharmaceuticals uptake in and clearance from tumour and healthy tissues and evaluating the corresponding patient dose. By this approach to an optimized imaging procedure gaining more information per administered dose MADEIRA will especially reduce the dose to healthy tissue of the patient.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2009.1.1.5.1 | Award Amount: 4.66M | Year: 2010
Africa is probably the most vulnerable continent to climate change and climate variability and shows diverse range of agro-ecological and geographical features. Thus the impacts of climate change can be very high and will greatly differ across the continent, and even within countries. There is a urgent need for the most appropriate and up-to-date tools to better understand and predict climate change, assess its impact on African ecosystems and population, and develop the correct adaptation strategies. In particular the current proposal will focus on the following specific objectives: 1- Develop improved climate predictions on seasonal to decadal climatic scales, especially relevant to SSA; 2- Assess climate impacts in key sectors of SSA livelihood and economy, especially water resources and agriculture; 3- Evaluate the vulnerability of ecosystems and civil population to inter-annual variations and longer trends (10 years) in climate; 4- Suggest and analyse new suited adaptation strategies, focused on local needs; 5- Develop a new concept of 10 years monitoring and forecasting warning system, useful for food security, risk management and civil protection in SSA; 6- Analyse the economic impacts of climate change on agriculture and water resources in SSA and the cost-effectiveness of potential adaptation measures. This objectives will be achieved by an integrated working approach that involves 9 European, 8 African and 1 International Organization.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 3.10M | Year: 2009
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in the European population and represent a great burden of suffering and costs. Their complex etiology originates from different pathological stimuli and involves different cell types, resident in the vascular wall or infiltrating from the blood. The adaptation of the vasculature to physiological and pathophysiological forces depends on both the communication between its cellular components and their interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM). When subjected to enhanced stretch, cyclic mechanical strain, or shear stress, blood vessels undergo typical transformations in wall shape that are always associated with alterations of the ECM and cellular composition, collectively described as vascular remodelling. Remodelling processes occur specifically in small arteries and arterioles, which show extreme changes in their size and function (microvascular remodelling). This is especially the case in hypertensive or diabetic patients, and contributes to a vicious cycle resulting in organ dysfunction and progression of vascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is required to better understand vascular remodelling processes. We propose an interdisciplinary ITN to promote excellence in vascular biology, with focus on small vessels/arteries and their ECM. This will enhance the interaction between 8 academic groups and one SME in 7 European countries, specialized in physiology, signalling mechanisms, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in vascular endothelium and smooth muscle, as well as in drug discovery and development. The ITN will provide a specialized training ground by connecting investigations of the biology of vascular cells and their surrounding ECM in an innovative manner. It will therefore promote the careers of young investigators by specialising them in a field of vascular biology with a great potential for the future.
News Article | November 10, 2016
Climate change is one of the most pressing concerns of the 21st century. But when it comes to tackling climate change, a new study from Cogent Economics & Finance exploring the benefits of carbon flux monitoring is a timely reminder that setting targets is just the beginning. Now that the Paris Agreement has decreased the level of carbon emissions deemed acceptable, the need for a decarbonised energy sector is greater than ever. Although technology exists to monitor actual carbon fluxes globally, the systems currently used to do it are expensive at a time when public financial resources are stretched. In pursuit of this, clean technologies must be supported while fossil fuels are penalised, yet uncertainty in the price of carbon makes it difficult to set caps and impose financial penalties. It also makes it challenging to create a stable, socially desirable investment environment that fosters carbon-neutral technologies. To that end, this article investigates the many ways in which better observation of actual carbon fluxes can aid environmental policy, economic investment and informed decision-making. The study found that better monitoring systems could bring significant cost savings and other benefits, thereby encouraging investors and paving the way for achieving ambitious climate change targets. The study is the result of a collaboration of researchers from several institutes, namely the International Institute for Systems Analysis, the Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change, The Inversion Lab, Lund University, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Comenius University, Lviv Polytechnic National University, the Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change (CMCC Foundation) and the Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry. The authors come from a variety of academic backgrounds, exploring topics in economics, mathematics, remote sensing, forestry, physics, biogeochemistry, integrated assessment of climate change and climate change mitigation.
News Article | November 11, 2016
There are more and more examples of the ways in which we can benefit from our bacteria. According to researcher Rolf Lood from Lund University in Sweden, this is true for the skin as well. He has shown that the most common bacteria on human skin secrete a protein which protects us from the reactive oxygen species thought to contribute to several skin diseases. The protein has an equally strong effect on dangerous oxygen species as known antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin E. There are more and more examples of the ways in which we can benefit from our bacteria. According to researcher Rolf Lood from Lund University in Sweden, this is true for the skin as well. He ... Skin bacteria could protect against disease, Fri 11 Nov 16 from HealthCanal Skin Bacteria Could Protect Against Disease, Fri 11 Nov 16 from Laboratory Equipment Skin bacteria could protect against disease, Fri 11 Nov 16 from Eurekalert Skin bacteria could protect against disease , Fri 11 Nov 16 from AlphaGalileo
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.2.1 | Award Amount: 70.14M | Year: 2010
Scientific research is no longer conducted within national boundaries and is becoming increasing dependent on the large-scale analysis of data, generated from instruments or computer simulations housed in trans-national facilities, by using e Infrastructure (distributed computing and storage resources linked by high-performance networks).\nThe 48 month EGI-InSPIRE project will continue the transition to a sustainable pan-European e-Infrastructure started in EGEE-III. It will sustain support for Grids of high-performance and high-throughput computing resources, while seeking to integrate new Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCIs), i.e. Clouds, SuperComputing, Desktop Grids, etc., as they are required by the European user community. It will establish a central coordinating organisation, EGI.eu, and support the staff throughout Europe necessary to integrate and interoperate individual national grid infrastructures. EGI.eu will provide a coordinating hub for European DCIs, working to bring existing technologies into a single integrated persistent production infrastructure for researchers within the European Research Area.\nEGI-InSPIRE will collect requirements and provide user-support for the current and new (e.g. ESFRI) users. Support will also be given for the current heavy users as they move their critical services and tools from a central support model to ones driven by their own individual communities. The project will define, verify and integrate within the Unified Middleware Distribution, the middleware from external providers needed to access the e-Infrastructure. The operational tools will be extended by the project to support a national operational deployment model, include new DCI technologies in the production infrastructure and the associated accounting information to help define EGIs future revenue model.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-14-2014 | Award Amount: 8.35M | Year: 2015
Mobile data traffic is forecasted to increase 11-fold between 2013 and 2018. 5G networks serving this mobile data tsunami will require fronthaul and backhaul solutions between the RAN and the packet core capable of dealing with this increased traffic load while fulfilling new stringent 5G service requirements in a cost-efficient manner. The 5G-Crosshaul project aims at developing a 5G integrated backhaul and fronthaul transport network enabling a flexible and software-defined reconfiguration of all networking elements in a multi-tenant and service-oriented unified management environment. The 5G-Crosshaul transport network envisioned will consist of high-capacity switches and heterogeneous transmission links (e.g., fibre or wireless optics, high-capacity copper, mmWave) interconnecting Remote Radio Heads, 5GPoAs (e.g., macro and small cells), cloud-processing units (mini data centres), and points-of-presence of the core networks of one or multiple service providers. This transport network will flexibly interconnect distributed 5G radio access and core network functions, hosted on in-network cloud nodes, through the implementation of: (i) a control infrastructure using a unified, abstract network model for control plane integration (5G-Crosshaul Control Infrastructure, XCI); (ii) a unified data plane encompassing innovative high-capacity transmission technologies and novel deterministic-latency switch architectures (5G-Crosshaul Packet Forwarding Element, XFE). Demonstration and validation of the 5G-Crosshaul technology components developed will be integrated into a software-defined flexible and reconfigurable 5G Test-bed in Berlin. Mobility-related 5G-Crosshaul experiments will be performed using Taiwans high-speed trains. 5G-Crosshaul KPI targets evaluated will include among others a 20% network capacity increase, latencies <1 ms and 30% TCO reduction. The 5G-Crosshaul proposal addresses the ICT 14-2014 call of the Horizon 2020 Work Programme 2014-15 with a special focus on the P7 objectives defined by the 5GPPP IA
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.7.2 | Award Amount: 9.26M | Year: 2008
The HAPTIMAP project will deeply embed accessibility into digital mainstream maps and mobile location-based services. Our strategy is twofold: firstly to develop tools that make it easier for developers to add adaptable multimodal components (designed to improve accessibility) to their applications; and secondly, to raise the awareness of these issues via new guidelines and to suggest extensions to existing design practices so that accessibility issues are considered throughout the design process.\n\nThe concrete outcomes of the project will be an open, interoperable and standardized adaptable toolkit together with a set of design guidelines that help developers of mainstream applications make maps in general more accessible and easier to use (not only for disabled users but for everyone). We will raise the industrial awareness of accessibility issues by arranging workshops and also by providing an educational module targeted at engineering and design students. Furthermore we will develop design methods and tools that support existing development practices so that it becomes easier to embed accessibility into the design process, making it an integral part of the work instead of being added afterwards as is currently often the case (if the issue is addressed at all). Finally, example applications that illustrate the use of the toolkit and guidelines will be developed and will be evaluated and demonstrated in multiple real life scenarios\n\nIn this project we have chosen to focus on digital maps and location based services, since these are strongly emerging information services used for a wide range of PC and mobile applications. Our results will be generally applicable, but we have selected this application area as a way of providing our project with a concrete core which ties the different parts of the project together.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.2.2 | Award Amount: 25.84M | Year: 2009
The European robotics industry plays a key role in maintaining our continents industrial base. The robotics industry is strong, but fragmented and dispersed. In the future, cutting-edge technology resulting from top-level research will be the decisive factor for success. Europe not only has a powerful robotics industry, but can also boast superb research. By drawing on these resources, ECHORD aims at producing new knowledge through advancing the state of the art in selected research foci and developing novel technology from which new products can be derived. Within ECHORD, opportunities for knowledge advancement and technology transfer between academia and industry will be created across the whole continent. This will be achieved through the solicitation of focused, small-size RTD projects, so-called experiments, which can be rapidly negotiated, funded and executed. Via these experiments, ECHORD will bring about a large-scale introduction of robotic equipment into research institutions. This is expected to result in both tangible and measurable out-comes in terms of the accelerated development of technologies, as well as the deployment of robotics technology into new scenarios for the direct application of research results. For ECHORD, three such scenarios have been defined: human-robot co-working, hyper flexible cells, and cognitive factories. The foremost purpose of the scenarios is to define an environment that is both scientifically challenging to research institutions and commercially relevant to robot manufacturers.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.19 | Award Amount: 9.36M | Year: 2011
Environmental change and particularly amplified global climate change are accelerating in the Arctic. These changes already affect local residents and feedback from the Arctics land surface to the climate system, will have global implications. However, climate change and its impacts are variable throughout the wide environmental and land use envelopes of the Arctic. Unfortunately, the Arctic is generally remote, sparsely populated and research and monitoring activities are more restricted in time and space than elsewhere. This limitation comes when there is a rapidly expanding need for knowledge as well as increasing technological opportunities to make data collection in the field and accessibility more efficient. INTERACT is a network under the auspices of SCANNET, a circumarctic network of terrestrial field bases. INTERACT specifically seeks to build capacity for research and monitoring in the European Arctic and beyond. Partnerships will be established between Station Managers and researchers within Joint Research Activities that will develop more efficient networks of sensors to measure changing environmental conditions and make data storage and accessibility more efficient through a single portal. New communities of researchers will be offered access to Arctic terrestrial infrastructures while local stakeholders as well as major international organisations will be involved in interactions with the infrastructures. This will lead to increased public awareness of environmental change and methods to adapt to them, increased access to information for education at all levels, and input to major international research and assessment programmes.The whole consortium will form a coherent and integrated unit working within a concept of a wide environmental and land use envelopes in which local conditions determine the directions and magnitudes of environmental change whereas the balance and synergies of processes integrated across the whole region have global impacts.
News Article | December 13, 2016
The authors of the article "Internalization of secreted antigen–targeted antibodies by the neonatal Fc receptor for precision imaging of the androgen receptor axis" (Thorek et al., Sci Transl Med. 2016 Nov 30;8(367))" hK2 in mouse models and human tissues to accurately detect prostate cancer lesions, including bone and liver metastases. Disseminated prostate cancer is typically treated by targeting the androgen receptor, but so far there has been no convenient way to monitor the efficacy of these drugs or to determine when a tumor is becoming resistant to treatment. The new publication by Thorek et al. shows that imaging hK2, using the antibody 11B6, can be applied as a robust method to efficiently monitor androgen receptor activity in real time. The exciting finding that these labelled highly specific antibodies are internalized opens up the possibility for an efficient radio immuno-therapy of prostate cancer. "This is an important scientific proof for us at Diaprost, as our pipeline covers humanized antibodies for both diagnostics and therapeutics targeting the hK2 antigen. It's a well-established fact that the currently used in vitro tests for PSA levels are not giving results of sufficient clinical value. We believe that using real time non-invasive detection and monitoring of hK2 will increase both the effectiveness and the efficiency of prostate cancer care," says Johan Drott, CEO of Diaprost. You can access the article at http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/8/367/367ra167 For more information, please contact: Diaprost's mission is to be the leading biotechnology company discovering and optimizing targeted, high specificity, medicines to provide personalized care for prostate cancer patients. We aim to establish and commercialize an antibody platform, based on the anti-hK2 antibody 11B6, for both in vivo diagnostic and targeted therapy applications. Our goal is to validate the use of this novel technology, and deliver innovative breakthroughs to improve the lives of patients. Diaprost was founded in 2005 based on the idea that the transformative success of the PSA assay for detection of prostate cancer could be leveraged as a personalized theranostic (therapy and diagnostic) platform. The technology and patent applications were pursued by researchers at Lund University in Sweden. Diaprost is collaborating with leading international experts in the fields of molecular medicine, biotechnology, immunology, radiology, radiation physics, laboratory medicine, and oncology. Our scientists are active at some of the world´s most prominent centers in cancer research. The Diaprost pipeline covers humanized antibodies for both diagnostics and therapeutics targeting the hK2 antigen, as well as therapy targeting the PSA antigen. Diaprost AB is a Swedish privately held company based in Lund, Sweden. For more information, please visit www.diaprost.com. Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer among men, with over 1 million new cases diagnosed annually (Cancer Research UK 2012). It is also the second leading cause of death from cancer in men. Prostate cancer often has no indicative symptoms that enable early diagnosis. Critically, differentiating aggressive from benign or low-risk disease, with significantly different treatment options and outcomes is often very difficult. New agents that detect, define and direct therapy may have a significant role in future management of this disease. This information was brought to you by Cision http://news.cision.com http://news.cision.com/diaprost-ab/r/study-demonstrates-the-feasibility-of-targeting-human-kallikrein-related-peptidase-2--hk2--for-detec,c2147221 The following files are available for download:
News Article | December 6, 2016
Hemsö has entered into an agreement to divest a property portfolio containing 35 properties in various locations across Sweden. The total sale price amounts to about SEK 1.5 billion. The property portfolio consists of three nursing homes, four educational properties and 28 properties for other uses. The majority of the properties are located in western and southern Sweden. The total lettable area is 174,400 sqm, the estimated rental income approximately SEK 150 million and the average remaining lease period is about four years. “Hemsö strives to achieve customer-centric and efficient property management to ensure that the needs of our tenants are catered for in the best possible manner. The properties we are now divesting form a mixed portfolio and may contain, for example, a higher share of offices, comprise smaller care and educational properties or be situated in areas where we have made the assessment that our local presence is not sufficiently strong to enable us to take a long-term approach. The divestment helps to concentrate our existing portfolio geographically and frees capacity for new acquisitions and investments in ongoing projects,” says Hemsö’s CEO Nils Styf. The largest tenants are Västra Götaland County Council and Lund University. The buyer is Samhällsbyggnadsbolaget i Norden AB, a subsidiary of Effnetplattformen AB (publ). The divestments will take the form of company transfers with the effective date set at 10 April 2017. Hemsö is Sweden’s leading private owner of properties for community services. The business is based on owning, managing and developing properties for nursing homes, education, care facilities and premises for the legal sector. Hemsö has properties in Sweden, Germany and Finland. The hallmarks of Hemsö’s business are long-term leases and stable tenants. The Third Swedish National Pension Fund is the majority owner. The total value of Hemsö’s property portfolio is SEK 30.2 billion. Hemsö’s credit rating from Standard & Poor’s has been A- since March 2015. More information can be found at: www.hemso.se This information was brought to you by Cision http://news.cision.com
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2011-2.3.5. | Award Amount: 35.18M | Year: 2011
PRACE-2IP supports the accelerated implementation of the pan-European HPC Research Infrastructure created in April 2010 as the result of the preparatory phase PRACE project. It complements and extends the work of the PRACE-1IP project that was started in July 2010.\nPRACE-2IP addresses the computational and simulation needs of European scientific communities to keep them at the forefront of discovery. Our vision is the formation of an integrated HPC ecosystem of facilities and services enabling researchers to realise the full potential of computational science within the supportive environment of the European Research Area.\nBuilding on the implementation work of the preceding PRACE and DEISA projects, PRACE-2IP will enable seamless access to HPC systems and services at the Tier-0 and Tier-1 level to users, regardless of their country of work. This provides the means and motivation to undertake ambitious, ground-breaking computational science. In particular, DEISA-like services will be integrated into the ecosystem.\nApplications enabling expertise will support researchers in code development, optimisation and petascaling to help them make effective use of the Tier-0 and Tier-1 systems. Training and dissemination activities will ensure that European scientists have the knowledge and the skills enabling them to take full advantage of the facilities on offer. Through collaboration with technology providers and vendors, novel architectures, systems and technologies will be evaluated to ensure that Europe remains at the forefront of HPC and that the future needs of the research community are understood and met. Targeted research activities will investigate possible solutions to challenges in programmability and scalability of future multi-petaflop systems.\nPRACE-2IP will considerably strengthen and deepen the co-operation between HPC centres, funding bodies and research communities in a mutually beneficial partnership to enhance European scientific competitiveness.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2007-1.2-03 | Award Amount: 49.02M | Year: 2008
A globally distributed computing Grid now plays an essential role for large-scale, data intensive science in many fields of research. The concept has been proven viable through the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project (EGEE and EGEE-II, 2004-2008) and its related projects. EGEE-II is consolidating the operations and middleware of this Grid for use by a wide range of scientific communities, such as astrophysics, computational chemistry, earth and life sciences, fusion and particle physics. Strong quality assurance, training and outreach programmes contribute to the success of this production Grid infrastructure. \nBuilt on the pan-European network GANT2, EGEE has become a unique and powerful resource for European science, allowing researchers in all regions to collaborate on common challenges. Worldwide collaborations have extended its reach to the benefit of European science.\nThe proposed EGEE-III project has two clear objectives that are essential for European research infrastructures: to expand, optimize and simplify the use of Europes largest production Grid by continuous operation of the infrastructure, support for more user communities, and addition of further computational and data resources; to prepare the migration of the existing Grid from a project-based model to a sustainable federated infrastructure based on National Grid Initiatives. \nBy strengthening interoperable, open source middleware, EGEE-III will actively contribute to Grid standards, and work closely with businesses to ensure commercial uptake of the Grid, which is a key to sustainability. \nFederating its partners on a national or regional basis, EGEE-III will have a structuring effect on the European Research Area. In particular, EGEE-III will ensure that the European Grid does not fragment into incompatible infrastructures of varying maturity. EGEE-III will provide a world class, coherent and reliable European Grid, ensuring Europe remains at the forefront of scientific excellence.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.2.1 | Award Amount: 24.95M | Year: 2010
The European Middleware Initiative is a collaboration of the three major middleware providers in Europe, ARC, gLite and UNICORE, and other consortia. EMI aims to deliver a consolidated set of middleware components for deployment in EGI, PRACE and other DCIs; extend the interoperability between grids and other computing infrastructures; strengthen the reliability of the services; and establish a sustainable model to maintain and evolve the middleware, fulfilling the requirements of the user communities.\nEuropean scientific research has benefited recently from the increasing availability of computing and data infrastructures with unprecedented capabilities for large scale distributed initiatives. These infrastructures are largely defined by enabling middleware. After the necessary initial period of research and consolidation that has taken place in the past several years, the growing usage of these resources now requires the transformation of the computing infrastructures into a professionally managed and standardized service. It is of strategic importance for the establishment of permanent, sustainable research infrastructures to lower the technological barriers still preventing resource owners from federating the resources, and potential communities of tens of thousands of researchers from using grids as a commodity tool in their daily activities.\nThe EMI project will make the realization of this vision possible by addressing a number of problems that still prevent users from easily accessing and using the whole capacity of the existing computing infrastructures. It will focus on improving the usability and accessibility for scientific users and the interoperability and manageability for service providers. The sustainability of the grid services will be directly addressed by replacing wherever possible proprietary technology with off-the-shelf components, improving their standardization and implementing industry standard quality assurance methodologies.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: Health | Award Amount: 2.25M | Year: 2015
The European Consortium for Communicating Stem Cell Research (EuroStemCell) unites 33 partner institutions, that collectively represent >400 stem cell research groupings across Europe. Our common goal is to provide trusted high quality information on stem cells accessible to citizens and stakeholders across Europe, through support and further development of the multi-lingual European Stem Cell Information Portal www.eurostemcell.org. To achieve our aims, EuroStemCell will adopt the highly structured system for coordinated information management established by the FP7 Coordination and Support Action (CSA) also called EuroStemCell. From this, we will implement an ambitious programme of online and direct stakeholder engagement with stem cell research and regenerative medicine, aimed at European citizens at all educational levels. This will include provision of resources tailored specifically for decision-making on stem cell-related questions and an extensive programme of dissemination and capacity building in science communications and public engagement. The proposed work centres on an information hub team, which will link to all project partners and to stakeholders in the stem cell and regenerative medicine arenas and wider society, working with these groupings to implement the project. All outputs will be delivered in 6 European languages, to ensure broad accessibility, and will be rigorously evaluated against measurable objectives throughout the project duration. The proposed consortium comprises leading stem cell labs across Europe, including new member states, together with experts in ethical and societal concerns and evaluating clinical outcomes. It thus provides unparalleled European expertise across the fields of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine and is uniquely placed to maintain and further develop www.eurostemcell.org as a world-leading stem cell information resource, thus meeting the challenge outlined in Topic HOA-6-2014.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2012.1.1-3 | Award Amount: 2.75M | Year: 2013
The aim of SmartSpec is to provide substance, guidance and practical support to the EU Smart Specialisation Platform, based on the combination of leading academic and practical expertise present in the consortium. The goal is directed at operationalising the concept of smart specialisation in a manner which will be useful to actors in different regional contexts. It will do this by strengthening the analytical underpinnings of the smart specialisation concept, providing methodological guidance for practice and generating strategic intelligence for policy-makers. Through an integrated, multi-dimensional and place-based approach focused on 8 Work Packages, SmartSpec develops robust practical and analytical findings to strengthen the implementation of smart specialisation strategies. With a strong emphasis on knowledge exchange and facilitated learning, SmartSpec will deliver useful results to inform practitioners and policymakers in the development and assessment of smart specialisation strategies, whilst extending the state of the art.
News Article | November 13, 2016
It is well known that following a healthy lifestyle -- not smoking, avoiding excess weight and getting regular exercise - can reduce the risk of heart disease. But what about people who have inherited gene variants known to increase risk? A study led by Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) investigators has found that, even among those at high genetic risk, following a healthy lifestyle can cut in half the probability of a heart attack or similar event. Their report is receiving early online publication in the New England Journal of Medicine to coincide with a presentation at the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions. "The basic message of our study is that DNA is not destiny," says Sekar Kathiresan, MD, director of the Center for Human Genetic Research at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), senior author of the NEJM report. "Many individuals - both physicians and members of the general public -- have looked on genetic risk as unavoidable, but for heart attack that does not appear to be the case." In order to investigate whether a healthy lifestyle can mitigate genetic risk, the multi-institutional research team analyzed genetic and clinical data from more than 55,000 participants in four large-scale studies. Three of these -- the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, the Women's Genome Health Study, and the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study -- are prospective studies that have followed participants for up to 20 years. The fourth, the BioImage Study, assessed a variety of risk factors, including the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries when participants joined the study. Each participant in the current analysis was assigned a genetic risk score, based on whether they carried any of 50 gene variants that previous studies associated with elevated heart attack risk. Based on data gathered when participants entered each study, the investigators used four AHA-defined lifestyle factors -- no current smoking; lack of obesity, defined as a body mass index less than 30; physical exercise at least once a week, and a healthy dietary pattern -- to determine a lifestyle score, whether participants had a favorable (three or four healthy factors), intermediate (two factors) or unfavorable (one or no healthy factors) lifestyle. For participants in the prospective studies, the research team investigated how each individual's genetic risk score and lifestyle factors related to the incidence of heart attack, the need for procedures designed to open blocked coronary arteries, or sudden cardiac death. Among participants in the BioImage study, genetic and lifestyle factors were compared to the extent of atherosclerotic disease in the coronary arteries at baseline. Across all three prospective studies, a higher genetic risk score significantly increased the incidence of coronary events -- as much as 90 percent in those at highest risk. While known risk factors such as a family history and elevated LDL cholesterol were also associated with an elevated genetic risk score, genetic risk was the most powerful contributor to cardiac risk. Similarly, each healthy lifestyle factor reduced risk, and the unfavorable lifestyle group also had higher levels of hypertension, diabetes and other known risk factors upon entering the studies. Within each genetic risk category, the presence of lifestyle factors significantly altered the risk of coronary events to such an extent that following a favorable lifestyle could reduce the incidence of coronary events by 50 percent in those with the highest genetic risk scores. Among participants in the BioImage study, both genetic and lifestyle factors were independently associated with levels of calcium-containing plaque in the coronary arteries, and healthy lifestyle factors were associated with less extensive plaque within each genetic risk group. "Some people may feel they cannot escape a genetically determined risk for heart attack, but our findings indicate that following a healthy lifestyle can powerfully reduce genetic risk," says Kathiresan, who is director of the Cardiovascular Disease Initiative at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard and an associate professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. "Now we need to investigate whether specific lifestyle factors have stronger impacts and conduct studies in more diverse populations, since most of the participants in these studies are white." The lead authors of the NEJM paper are Amit Khera, MD, MGH Cardiology and Center for Human Genetic Research (CHGR), and Connor Emdin, DPhil, Broad Institute. Additional co-authors are Pradeep Natarajan, MD, MGH Cardiology and CHGR; Nancy Cook, PhD, Daniel Chasman, PhD, and Paul Ridker, MD, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Alexander Bick, MD, PhD, Broad Institute; Isabel Drake, PhD, Olle Melander, MD, PhD, and Marju Orho-Melander, PhD, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Usman Baber, MD, Roxana Mehran, MD, and Valentin Fuster, MD, PhD, Mount Sinai Medical Center; Daniel Rader, MD, University of Pennsylvania, and Eric Boerwinkle, PhD, University of Texas Health Science Center School of Public Health. Support for the study includes an American College of Cardiology - Merck Research Fellowship and a John S. Ladue Memorial Fellowship from Harvard Medical School. Massachusetts General Hospital, founded in 1811, is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School. The MGH Research Institute conducts the largest hospital-based research program in the nation, with an annual research budget of more than $800 million and major research centers in HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular research, cancer, computational and integrative biology, cutaneous biology, human genetics, medical imaging, neurodegenerative disorders, regenerative medicine, reproductive biology, systems biology, photomedicine and transplantation biology. The MGH topped the 2015 Nature Index list of health care organizations publishing in leading scientific journals, earned the prestigious 2015 Foster G. McGaw Prize for Excellence in Community Service. In August 2016 the MGH was once again named to the Honor Roll in the U.S. News & World Report list of "America's Best Hospitals."
News Article | November 29, 2016
HÄSSELBY, SWEDEN, November 29, 2016-- Gunnar Borg, Ph.D., has been included in Marquis Who's Who. As in all Marquis Who's Who biographical volumes, individuals profiled are selected on the basis of current reference value. Factors such as position, noteworthy accomplishments, visibility, and prominence in a field are all taken into account during the selection process.Dr. Gunnar Borg is one of the most cited Swedish scientists in all categories - and that's including 39 Nobel Prize winners. He introduced the field of perceived exertion in the 1960s and has won international renown for developing methods for measuring intensity of experience (Borg-RPE-Scale for perceived exertion and exercise intensity, and the Borg CR Scales for all kinds of perceptions and feelings, including medical symptoms). His ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) scale is used worldwide by professionals in medicine, exercise physiology, psychology, cardiology, ergonomy, and sports. The fields of application are wide-ranging, including determinations of subjective somatic symptoms, such as pain, perceived exertion and breathlessness, and most kinds of ordinary perceptions and emotions.Dr. Borg has been a professor emeritus with Stockholm University for more than 20 years. Prior to receiving a Ph.D. in psychology from Lund University, he began his career as a psychologist and lecturer with the Umeå School of Education in 1951. Dr. Borg held this position for more than a decade before joining Umeå Medical School as an associate professor. From 1966 to 1967, he served as the rector of a university college for social work and public administration in Umeå, and joined Stockholm University as a director and university professor in 1968. Then, in 1987, Dr. Borg began serving Stockholm University as a professor of perception and psychophysics. Between 1967 and 1991, he also worked as a visiting professor and research associate to several universities located within the United States, including the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania State University, University of Wisconsin-Madison and New Mexico State University.Throughout the course of his career, Dr. Borg has authored and edited a wide variety of medical texts, including Physical Performance and Perceived Exertion, The RPE Manual, Perceived Exertion and Pain Scales, and Physical Work and Effort. In addition, he has contributed more than 200 articles to professional journals in his areas of expertise. Dr. Borg continues to maintain active involvement in the scientific community as a member of The Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences and Swedish Medical Association. He is also an honorary member of the Swedish Society of Lung Medicine and Swedish Society of Sports Medicine.Since 1995, Dr. Borg has been featured in numerous honors publications, including Who's Who in Science and Engineering and Who's Who in the World. He previously received awards from the International Association of Applied Psychology. In recognition of his commitment to sports medicine, Dr. Borg was the 2002 recipient of the Swedish Sports Science Prize. In 2009 he was honored by being appointed MD honoris causa at Umeå University. In 1998, Dr. Borg was recognized by the International Association of Applied Psychology for "exceptional contributions to the advancement of the science of psychology internationally." That same year, he was honored with the award for scientific contributions and applications in ergonomy by the Nordic Ergonomic Society.About Marquis Who's Who :Since 1899, when A. N. Marquis printed the First Edition of Who's Who in America , Marquis Who's Who has chronicled the lives of the most accomplished individuals and innovators from every significant field of endeavor, including politics, business, medicine, law, education, art, religion and entertainment. Today, Who's Who in America remains an essential biographical source for thousands of researchers, journalists, librarians and executive search firms around the world. Marquis now publishes many Who's Who titles, including Who's Who in America , Who's Who in the World , Who's Who in American Law , Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare , Who's Who in Science and Engineering , and Who's Who in Asia . Marquis publications may be visited at the official Marquis Who's Who website at www.marquiswhoswho.com
News Article | November 28, 2016
Wouldn't it be great if we could tell the state of an ecosystem or the like - whether it's healthy or heading for a crisis - by keeping track of just a few key signals? Thanks to the theory of 'tipping points', that's not unthinkable. Now a team of researchers led by Alena Gsell of the Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW) has tested early warning signals: in lakes. In the Early Edition of PNAS online, they conclude that predicting works but not in all cases yet. The term 'tipping point' has become popular to describe sudden and fundamental changes that take place even though exterior conditions haven't changed as radically. Think of a financial crisis. Think of a wall that will fall down - like the Berlin Wall - or one that will end up being built somewhere else just as suddenly. And what's true for human society is also true for ecosystems: in shallow lakes, clear, limpid water may suddenly turn into smelly green soup. Once such a 'regime shift' has occurred, it's difficult or even impossible to get things back to the way they were. But that doesn't mean there are no alarm signals. There is in fact a whole range of statistical indicators that have been proposed as possible early warnings. An international team led by NIOO-researcher Alena Gsell - formerly of the Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries in Berlin - has now for the first time tested the potential of four of these indicators to be applied to a wide range of lakes. "We've looked at five lakes for which long-term monitoring data (16-34 years) is available", explains Alena Gsell. One of them is the Veluwemeer in the Netherlands, another Lake Washington in the United States. The good news is that in some cases, early-warning indicators were indeed detected up to several years ahead of the moment when a 'regime shift' would take place. "That leaves some time for water managers to step in and take appropriate measures." These indicators show that the resilience of lake ecosystems becomes less ahead of a regime shift. "It's something you can observe if you know an ecosystem well", says Gsell. Perturbations become bigger: water turns turbid temporarily, smaller zooplankton species are favoured and edible green algae lose ground to the less tasty bluegreens. But on the whole, the team's tests produced many negative results as well. According to Gsell, this mixed outcome shows that the early warning indicators do hold promise as a method, but are not yet as suitable for general application as had been hoped by many. For the early alarm signals to be more effective, argue the researchers, collecting long term data - an essential "window into the past" - isn't the only thing that's important. The methods for mining the data also need to become more advanced. More frequent data collection would help: per day or even hour, instead of per week or less. "If you look at the current state of the environment, investing in the adaptation of indicator methods would definitely be an effort well spent." The NIOO counts more than 300 staff members and students and is one of the largest research institutes of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW). The institute specialises in water and land ecology. Since 2011, the institute is located in an innovative and sustainable research building located in Wageningen, the Netherlands. The institute has an impressive research history stretching back 60 years and which spans the entire country and beyond its borders. Article: Evaluating early-warning indicators of critical transitions in natural aquatic ecosystems, Alena Sonia Gsell, Ulrike Scharfenberger, Deniz Özkundakci, Annika Walters, Lars-Anders Hansson, Annette B. G. Janssen, Peeter Nõges, Philip C. Reid, Daniel E. Schindler, Ellen van Donk, Vasilis Dakos & Rita Adrian, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 23 november 2016 (Early Edition, alvast online voorafgaand aan officiële uitgave in tijdschrift), http://www. Institutions involved: Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (Duitsland); Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie (NIOO-KNAW); Free University of Berlin (Duitsland); Waikato Regional Council (Nieuw Zeeland); US Geological Survey (VS); Lund University (Zweden); Wageningen University; Estonian University of Life Sciences (Estland); Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science (VK); Plymouth University (VK); Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (VK); University of Washington (VS); ETH Zürich (Zwitserland)
News Article | February 21, 2017
A previously undiscovered species of an extinct primordial giant worm with terrifying snapping jaws has been identified by an international team of scientists. Researchers from the University of Bristol, Lund University in Sweden and the Royal Ontario Museum studied an ancient fossil, which has been stored at the museum since the mid-1990s, and discovered the remains of a giant extinct bristle worm (the marine relatives of earthworms and leeches). The findings are published today in Scientific Reports. The new species is unique among fossil worms and possessed the largest jaws ever recorded in this type of creature, reaching over one centimetre in length and easily visible to the naked eye. Typically, such fossil jaws are only a few millimetres in size and need to be studied using microscopes. Despite being only knows from the jaws, comparison with living species suggests that this animal achieved a body length in excess of a metre. This is comparable to that of 'giant eunicid' species, colloquially referred to as 'Bobbit worms' which are fearsome and opportunistic ambush predators, using their powerful jaws to capture prey such as fish and cephalopods (squids and octopuses) and dragging them into their burrows. Lead author Mats Eriksson from Lund University said: "Gigantism in animals is an alluring and ecologically important trait, usually associated with advantages and competitive dominance. "It is, however, a poorly understood phenomenon among marine worms and has never before been demonstrated in a fossil species. "The new species demonstrates a unique case of polychaete gigantism in the Palaeozoic, some 400 million years ago." Co-author Luke Parry from the University of Bristol's School of Earth Sciences, added: "It also shows that gigantism in jaw-bearing polychaetes was restricted to one particular evolutionary clade within the Eunicida and has evolved many times in different species." The specimens were collected over the course of a few hours in a single day in June 1994, when Derek K Armstrong of Ontario Geological Survey was dropped by helicopter to investigate the rocks and fossils at a remote and temporary exposure in Ontario. Sample materials, from what proved to belong to the Devonian Kwataboahegan Formation, were brought back to the Royal Ontario Museum, where they have been stored until they caught the eyes of the authors'. avid Rudkin from the museum said: "This is an excellent example of the importance of looking in remote and unexplored areas for finding new exciting things, but also the importance of scrutinizing museum collections for overlooked gems." The species has been named Websteroprion armstrongi. This honours Armstrong, who collected the material, and bass player extraordinaire, Alex Webster of Death Metal band Cannibal Corpse, since he can be regarded as a 'giant' when it comes to handling his instrument. Luke Parry added: "This is fitting also since, beside our appetite for evolution and paleontology, all three authors have a profound interest in music and are keen hobby musicians."
News Article | February 25, 2017
A newly discovered ancient worm that would have grown to more than 3 feet (1 meter) long is the oldest "Bobbit worm" ever discovered. Bobbit worm is the colloquial term for giant eunicids, marine worms that still exist today. These creatures, which can grow as long as 10 feet (3 m), bury most of their bodies beneath the sand, waiting for prey to venture by so they can shoot out of their hole in a sneak attack. The new species of worm lived 400 million years ago, during the Devonian period. It is known only from its jaws, which reached more than 0.4 inches (1 centimeter) in length. The jaw size suggests a giant body size, researchers reported Feb. 21 in the journal Scientific Reports. [Photos: Ancient Sea Monster Was One of Largest Arthropods] "Gigantism in animals is an alluring and ecologically important trait, usually associated with advantages and competitive dominance," study leader Mats Eriksson, a paleontologist at Lund University in Sweden, said in a statement. The fossil comes from an isolated outcrop on Rabbit Ridge near the town of Moosonee on Hudson Bay in Ontario, Canada. In 1994, Derek Armstrong, a researcher with the Ontario Geological Survey, took a helicopter to the outcrop and spent a few hours collecting rocks. The samples have been stored at the Royal Ontario Museum ever since. An examination of three of these slabs of mudstone and wackstone revealed multiple jaw fossils, most preserved as empty-void spaces where the jaws had imprinted into the mud before decaying away. A few specimens preserved portions of the original jaws, as well. The jaw characteristics were "unambiguously" unlike those of any known genus or species, the researchers wrote. They dubbed the new animal Websteroprion armstrongi. Armstrongi honors the man who did the fieldwork to collect the fossil; Websteroprion is in honor of Alex Webster, a bassist in the death-metal band Cannibal Corpse. As the researchers explain in their paper on the new species, Webster is a "giant" of a bass player, just as W. armstrongi was a giant at, well, being a worm. "Besides our appetite for evolution and paleontology, all three authors [of the paper] have a profound interest in music and are keen hobby musicians," said Luke Parry, one of the study authors from the University of Bristol. The specimens found in Ontario were likely entombed by a sudden influx of sediment, the researchers wrote. It's also possible, they said, that the jaws were shed throughout the worms' lifetimes. Though the jaws are consistent with a fearsome ambush predator, modern worms of this sort — known as polychaetes — have all sorts of diets and feeding habits, the researchers wrote, so the lifestyle of W. armstrongi remains mysterious. However, it is clear that W. armstrongi was a heavyweight among its contemporaries. Other worm jaws from ancient polychaetes grow to lengths of about 0.08 inches (2 mm) at most. "The new species demonstrates a unique case of polychaete gigantism in the Palaeozoic [era]," Eriksson said.
News Article | November 21, 2016
The Arctic is warming rapidly, with projected temperature increases larger than anywhere else in the world. The Arctic regions are particularly important with respect to climate change, as permafrost soils store huge amounts of the Earth's soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Warming of arctic soils and thawing of permafrost thus can have substantial consequences for the global climate, as the large C and N stores could be released to the atmosphere as the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The release of these heat-trapping gases, in turn, has the potential to further enhance climate warming. The impact of warming on the release of CO2 and CH4 is currently a hot topic in numerous studies carried out in the Arctic. Previous research of the Biogeochemistry research group at the Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, has shown, however, that arctic soils are further a relevant source of the strong greenhouse gas N2O - nearly 300 times more powerful than CO2 in warming the climate. The relevance of this finding, and a potentially even larger N2O release in a warming Arctic, is now being addressed by researchers of the same research group. These results are recently published in Global Change Biology -- a leading journal in environmental science. The study provides the first field-based evidence that arctic N2O emissions increase when the Arctic is warming; and that hampered plant growth plays a substantial role in regulating Arctic greenhouse gas exchange. Besides the increased emissions of N2O, the authors observed significant increases in the seasonal release of CO2 and CH4 as a result of only a mild temperature increase, and dug deeply into the reason behind the observed changes by detailed soil and vegetation measurements. One of the major conclusions drawn from this study, with potential far-reaching implications, is that even mild air warming of less than 1°C is triggering greenhouse gas production at depth: enhanced input of labile organic substances from the soil surface, transported to deeper soil layers via leaching, greatly influences arctic greenhouse gas biogeochemistry. Since leaching processes as well as arctic N2O emissions are not yet well incorporated in Arctic biogeochemical climate models, they pose a challenge for future research. The Biogeochemistry research group conducted the study in co-operation with researchers from Komi Science Center, Russia, and Finnish Meteorological Institute. The research was embedded within international, Nordic and European funded projects, mainly the Nordic Center of Excellence DEFROST (coordinated by Prof. T. R. Christensen, Lund University, Sweden) and European Union project PAGE21 (coordinated by H. W. Hubberten, Alfred Wegener Institute, Potsdam, Germany), and supported by the Academy of Finland (project CryoN), University of Eastern Finland strategic funding (project FiWER) and JPI Climate project COUP. For further information, please contact: Voigt, C., Lamprecht, R. E., Marushchak, M. E., Lind, S. E., Novakovskiy, Alexander, Aurela, M., Martikainen, P. J., Biasi, C. 2016: Warming of subarctic tundra increases emissions of all three important greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Global Change Biology. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13563
News Article | November 30, 2016
An international group of researchers report success in mice of a method of using positron emission tomography (PET) scans to track, in real time, an antibody targeting a hormone receptor pathway specifically involved in prostate cancer. This androgen receptor pathway drives development and progression of the vast majority of prostate cancers. The technique shows promise, the investigators say, as a novel way to use such an antibody to detect and monitor prostate and other hormone-sensitive cancers, as well as to guide therapy in real time. "The findings show that individually tailored imaging agents can provide a unique way of looking at disease progression in real time and in a noninvasive manner," says Daniel Thorek, Ph.D., assistant professor of radiology and radiological science at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and the paper's first author. "Perhaps someday we can put a personalized antibody such as the one we created in our study on a therapeutic agent and conduct cancer treatment using imaging with very high specificity." A summary of the findings was published in Science Translational Medicine on Nov. 30. Thorek says the success is especially important given the challenges of working with small-animal models. "We managed to very accurately and precisely monitor the mouse prostate, and that leads us to hope that a similar approach can be used to guide treatment in people," he adds. Current clinical practice detects prostate cancer by tracking the androgen receptor pathway -- a marker for the cancer -- by testing blood for prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Presence of elevated PSA indicates that the androgen receptor pathway is active and may indicate prostate cancer is present. PSA concentration in the blood, however, is affected by numerous factors, such as age and type of tumor, making it difficult to determine true androgen receptor pathway activation. Furthermore, attempts to target PSA with an antibody is complicated by the "washing out" of the antibody-PSA complex, a process in which the complex is formed but does not remain near the disease site, thus making it difficult to definitively identify and measure disease sites. In the new study, the investigators developed a new antibody called 11B6 to target human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 (hK2), another antigen that indicates androgen receptor pathway activation. Unlike PSA, hK2 is specifically active only in the prostate and an aggressive type of breast cancer. By binding free, unbound hK2 to 11B6, the research team found that the newly formed 11B6-hK2 complex is taken directly back into the cancerous cell rather than washed out. This biological process relies on a transport mechanism involving the neonatal Fc receptor, in which cells are able to recognize and take in antibodies. The Fc receptor is most well-known for how antibodies in mothers' milk are able to pass from the gut of the baby into newborns' bloodstream to provide them with immunity. As far as the research team is aware, this is the first study to exploit the biological mechanism for imaging purposes, Thorek says. In the next phase of their experiments, the team made 11B6 "light up" during PET and fluorescence imaging by binding it to zirconium-89, creating a traceable radiochemical compound called 89Zr-11B6. By imaging the 89Zr-11B6 using PET, the team showed that binding 11B6 to hK2 can measure activity of cancerous lesions robustly, in both soft tissue and bone. Prostate and breast cancer often metastasize to bone, therefore detection of lesions in all areas of the body is critical. To further demonstrate the potential value of 89Zr-11B6 imaging, the team tested the imaging agent in disease models under standard treatment regimens. In one such case, disease activity was imaged and quantified in mice treated with saline and a second group with enzalutamide, a drug used to treat prostate cancer by inhibiting the androgen receptor hormone activity. All of the mice had prostate cancer. Following initial castration, imaging of 89Zr-11B6 allowed the research team to see lower androgen receptor pathway activity, as one might expect. This effect was augmented in the animals with adjuvant enzalutamide treatment. This may inform current clinical practice as the use of adjuvant enzalutamide after castration may show benefit to patients with prostate cancer. By tracking the antibody localization to disease sites in real time, the team hopes this may be a way to determine optimal dosages that don't compromise efficacy while avoiding negative side effects. Imaging of the antibody uptake before and after treatment could, in theory, aid in the decision of whether to keep a patient on chosen drug. If a response is seen, the imaging agent could be used to choose the right dose, balancing the therapeutic effect and minimizing adverse effects. And if there is not an imaging change with a particular drug, this tool would provide a caregiver with rapid information to discontinue ineffective treatments, saving time and cost. The team is currently conducting preliminary nonhuman primate toxicity tests, the final step before applying for human clinical trials, and has thus far found no adverse effects. Other authors on this paper include Diane S. Abou and Marise R.H. van Voss of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; Philip A. Watson, Sang-Gyu Lee, Anson T. Ku, Kwanghee Kim, Michael G. Doran, Elmer Santos, Darren Veach, Mesruh Turkekul, Emily Casey, Jason S. Lewis, Howard I. Scher, Hans Lilja, Steven M. Larson and David Ulmert of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center; Stylianos Bournazos of Rockefeller University; Katharina Braun of the University of Bochum; Kjell Sjöström of Innovagen AB; Urpo Lamminmäki of the University of Turku; Sven-Erik Strand of Lund University; and Mary L. Alpaugh of Rowan University. Funding for this study was provided by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health (P30 CA008748, P30 CA006973, P30 CA008748-48, S10 RR020892-01, S10 RR028889-01, R33 CA127768-02, P50-CA86438), the National Institutes of Health Molecular Imaging Fellowship Program (5R25CA096945-07), the Geoffrey Beene Cancer Research Center, the W.H. Goodwin and A. Goodwin and their Commonwealth Foundation for Cancer Research, the Experimental Therapeutics Center, the Radiochemistry and Molecular Imaging Probe Core (P50-CA086438), the Steve Wynn Prostate Cancer Foundation Young Investigator Award, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the Bertha Kamprad Foundation and the David H. Koch Fund of the Prostate Cancer Foundation, the Ludwig Center for Cancer Immunotherapy, the Swedish Cancer Society, the Swedish National Health Foundation, the Swedish Research Council (Medicine- 20095), the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Specialized Programs of Research Excellence in Prostate Cancer (P50 CA92629), the Sidney Kimmel Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers and the Hascoe Charitable Foundation. D.L.J.T., D.U., U.L., S.-E.S., and H.L. are shareholders of Diaprost Inc. D.L.J.T., S.-E.S., and D.U. currently serve as board members of Diaprost Inc. D.L.J.T., A.K., S.-E.S., S.M.L., and D.U. are inventors on a patent (62257179) submitted by the MSKCC that covers systems, methods and compositions for imaging AR axis activity in carcinoma. D.U. is also the inventor on a patent (20060182682) held by Diaprost Inc. that covers diagnostic imaging of PCa using 11B6. S.-E.S. and U.L. are inventors on a patent application (WO2015075445) submitted by Diaprost Inc. that covers the humanized anti-hK2 antibody.
Simon J.,TU Darmstadt |
Hederstedt L.,Lund University
FEBS Journal | Year: 2011
Organisms employ one of several different enzyme systems to mature cytochromes c. The biosynthetic process involves the periplasmic reduction of cysteine residues in the heme c attachment motif of the apocytochrome, transmembrane transport of heme b and stereospecific covalent heme attachment via thioether bonds. The biogenesis System II (or Ccs system) is employed by β-, δ- and ε-proteobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Aquificales and cyanobacteria, as well as by algal and plant chloroplasts. System II comprises four (sometimes only three) membrane-bound proteins: CcsA (or ResC) and CcsB (ResB) are the components of the cytochrome c synthase, whereas CcdA and CcsX (ResA) function in the generation of a reduced heme c attachment motif. Some ε-proteobacteria contain CcsBA fusion proteins constituting single polypeptide cytochrome c synthases especially amenable for functional studies. This minireview highlights the recent findings on the structure, function and specificity of individual System II components and outlines the future challenges that remain to our understanding of the fascinating post-translational protein maturation process in more detail. Cytochrome c biogenesis involves reduction of cysteine residues in apo-cytochrome, transmembrane transport of haem b, and stereospecific covalent haem b attachment to apo-cytochrome. Organisms use different enzyme systems to mature cytochromes c. System II is employed by many bacteria and by chloroplasts. This minireview emphasizes recent findings on individual System II components and highlights experimental challenges © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.
Zhang S.,CAS Institute of Physics |
Xu H.,CAS Institute of Physics |
Xu H.,Lund University
ACS Nano | Year: 2012
Seeking better plasmonic waveguides is of critical importance for minimizing photonic circuits into the nanometer scale. We have made a theoretical study of the properties of surface plasmon polaritons in a metallic nanowire over substrate (NWOS) configuration. The dielectric substrate breaks the symmetry of the system and mediates the coupling of different primary wire plasmons. The lowest order hybridized mode can be used for subwavelength plasmonic waveguiding for NWOS with thin wire, for a low-permittivity substrate, and in the shorter wavelength region. For NWOS with a high-permittivity substrate, leaky radiation into the substrate raises the propagation losses so that the propagation distance is shorter in the longer wavelength region. By simply adding a high-permittivity layer onto the low-permittivity substrate, we show that leaky radiation can be blocked and high-performance plasmonic waveguiding can be extended to the near-infrared region. Importantly, the NWOS configuration is compatible with current silicon technologies and can be designed into various deep subwavelength active devices such as electro-optical or all-optical modulators. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
McCormick J.R.,Duquesne University |
Flardh K.,Lund University
FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2012
Streptomyces coelicolor is the genetically best characterized species of a populous genus belonging to the gram-positive Actinobacteria. Streptomycetes are filamentous soil organisms, well known for the production of a plethora of biologically active secondary metabolic compounds. The Streptomyces developmental life cycle is uniquely complex and involves coordinated multicellular development with both physiological and morphological differentiation of several cell types, culminating in the production of secondary metabolites and dispersal of mature spores. This review presents a current appreciation of the signaling mechanisms used to orchestrate the decision to undergo morphological differentiation, and the regulators and regulatory networks that direct the intriguing development of multigenomic hyphae first to form specialized aerial hyphae and then to convert them into chains of dormant spores. This current view of S. coelicolor development is destined for rapid evolution as data from '-omics' studies shed light on gene regulatory networks, new genetic screens identify hitherto unknown players, and the resolution of our insights into the underlying cell biological processes steadily improve. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Yuan J.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases |
Yuan J.,Lund University |
Muljo S.A.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2013
The discovery of microRNAs has renewed interest in posttranscriptional modes of regulation, fueling an emerging view of a rich RNA world within our cells that deserves further exploration. Much work has gone into elucidating genetic regulatory networks that orchestrate gene expression programs and direct cell fate decisions in the hematopoietic system. However, the focus has been to elucidate signaling pathways and transcriptional programs. To bring us one step closer to reverse engineering the molecular logic of cellular differentiation, it will be necessary to map posttranscriptional circuits as well and integrate them in the context of existing network models. In this regard, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) may rival transcription factors as important regulators of cell fates and represent a tractable opportunity to connect the RNA world to the proteome. ChIP-seq has greatly facilitated genome-wide localization of DNA-binding proteins, helping us to understand genomic regulation at a systems level. Similarly, technological advances such as CLIP-seq allow transcriptome-wide mapping of RBP binding sites, aiding us to unravel posttranscriptional networks. Here, we review RBP-mediated posttranscriptional regulation, paying special attention to findings relevant to the immune system. As a prime example, we highlight the RBP Lin28B, which acts as a heterochronic switch between fetal and adult lymphopoiesis. © 2013.
Sun M.,CAS Institute of Physics |
Xu H.,CAS Institute of Physics |
Xu H.,Lund University
Small | Year: 2012
The first experimental and theoretical evidence of the surface-catalyzed reaction of p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) produced from para-aminothiophenol (PATP) by local surface plasmons was reported in 2010, and since that time a series of investigations have supported these findings using different experimental and theoretical methods. Recent work has also found that local plasmons can drive a surface-catalyzed reaction of DMAB converted from 4-nitrobenzenethiol (4NBT), assisted by local surface plasmons. There are at least three important discoveries in these investigations: 1) in the field of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) the widely accepted misinterpretation (since 1994) that the chemical mechanism resulting in three additional Raman peaks of PATP in Ag or Au solutions has been corrected with a new mechanism; 2) it is confirmed that SERS is not always a noninvasive technique, and under certain conditions cannot always obtain the vibrational fingerprint information of the original surface species; 3) a novel method to synthesize new molecules, induced by local surface plasmons or plasmon waveguides on the nanoscale, has been found. This Review considers recent novel applications of plasmonics to chemical reactions, especially to plasmon-driven surface-catalyzed reactions. Experimental and theoretical progress on surface-catalyzed reactions of p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB), produced from para-aminothiophenol (PATP) and 4-nitrobenzenethiol (4NBT), assisted by local surface plasmons (LSPs) and a plasmonic waveguide is reviewed. "Hot" electrons generated by surface plasmon decay play an important role in chemical reactions. A novel method to synthesize new molecules, assisted by local LSPs or plasmon waveguides at the nanoscale, is proposed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2007-2.2-01 | Award Amount: 6.61M | Year: 2008
The European Spallation neutron Source (ESS) will be the worlds most powerful source of neutrons. Its design parameters makes it the most cost-effective top tier source for 40 years or more. A genuine panEuropean facility, it will serve a user community of 5,000 users annually across many areas of science and technology. Neutron beams produced by reactors are inherently intensity-limited. The ESS R&D and design phase (>50 M; all major European labs, >100 top scientists) has shown the feasibility of MW spallation sources. In line with the global neutron strategy endorsed by OECD ministers in 1999, the US has now commissioned its facility, based on an early ESS design, and Japan will follow suit in 2008. The initial long pulse configuration of ESS provides substantially higher power, maximum complementarity and the largest instrument innovation potential. Its technical layout guarantees a long-term top position. ESS will also offer new modes of operation and user support to maximally facilitate industry, in addition to university and research lab users. At present, two official bids for siting with a financial contribution in excess of 320M have been made by Spain (Bilbao) and Sweden (Lund). Hungary is expected to come forward with a similar bid soon. From the technical side the ESS is mature and detailed construction design work could start immediately after a positive decision has been taken. The cost issue (WP5) was very carefully assessed in the past and only needs final updating and inclusion of the decommissioning costs. Strategic, legal and governance issues have been investigated by the several possible sites. This information will be updated and collated (WPs 4,6,7). WP 8 will deal with Health, Safety and Environmental questions arising from possible different target materials (WP 9). WPs 1 and 2 concerns the management and the coordination of the project, respectively, and WP 3 the project assessment by an external Advisory Committee.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.3.2-6 | Award Amount: 10.15M | Year: 2008
The elicitation of broadly neutralising antibodies (Nab) remains the primary and most challenging goal in HIV-1 vaccine development. Although a few anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies with broadly neutralising capability have been isolated from infected individuals, none of the immunization strategies thus far explored has proven effective in inducing similar antibodies. Objective of this application is the development of a variety of next-generation HIV-1 envelope-based immunogens that in combination with new adjuvant formulations are capable of eliciting high-titer broadly Nab responses. Our strategy will be based on one side on the identification and cloning of envelopes that have successfully elicited broad Nabs in their natural hosts, focusing on HIV-1 strains derived from patients with high-titered broad Nabs in their sera; on the other side, we will introduce rational modifications into these and promising HIV-env based immunogens that are already under development by NGINs partners, with the aim of exposing cryptic conserved neutralization epitopes and permitting their efficient presentation to the immune system. HIV-1 envelopes will be expressed in viral vectors or as trimeric (gp150) soluble proteins and screened for their immunogenicity and antigenicity in rabbits. A selection of envelopes with highest antigenicity will be expressed as trimeric envelope-complexes on the surface of virosomes or virus-like particles (VLP), to further improve immunogenicity. New immunogens will be evaluated in prime-boost regimens in rabbits using novel effective adjuvant formulations. Immunogen/adjuvant combinations that prove most effective in eliciting broadly Nabs both systemically and at the mucosal level will be evaluated in non-human primates for their immunogenicity and efficacy upon challenge with live heterologous virus. Finally, formulations that will elicit protective immunity in non-human primates will be forwarded for proof-of-principle testing in humans.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2007.8.1 | Award Amount: 1.04M | Year: 2008
In the semiconductor industry, CMOS technology will certainly continue to have a predominant market position in the future. However, there are still a number of technological challenges, which have to be tackled if CMOS downscaling should be pursued until feature sizes will reach 10 nm around the year 2015-2020.\nThe NanoICT Coordination Action activities will reinforce and support the whole European Research Community in ICT nanoscale devices covering the following research areas expected to demonstrate unconventional solutions beyond the expected limits of CMOS technology.\n Demonstration of new concepts for switches or memory cells\n Demonstration of new concepts, technologies and architectures for local and chip level interconnects with substantial improvements over current solutions\n Demonstration of radically new functionalities by the integration of blocks from a few nanometres down to the atomic scale into high added-value systems\nThe CA action plans will go beyond the organisation of conferences, workshops, exchange of personnel, WEB site, etc. developing the following activities:\n Consolidation and visibility of the research community in ICT nanoscale devices\n Mapping and benchmarking of research at European level, and its comparison with other continents\n Identification of drivers and measures to assess research in ICT nanoscale devices, and to assess the potential of results to be taken up in industrial research\n Coordination of research agendas and development of research roadmaps\n Coordination of national or regional research programmes or activities, with the aim to involve funding authorities in building the ERA around this topic\n Development of strategies for international cooperation on themes related to NanoICT\nExpected impact will be the enhanced visibility, shaping and consolidation of the NanoICT research community in Europe.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2007.2.1.4.1. | Award Amount: 4.58M | Year: 2008
European soil biodiversity is pivotal for delivering food, fiber and biofuels and carbon storage. However, the demand is greater than the amount of soil available, as production of biofuels competes with areas for food production and nature. Moreover, intensified land use reduces soil biodiversity and the resulting ecosystem services. SOILSERVICE will value soil biodiversity through the impact on ecosystem services and propose how these values can be granted through payments. SOILSERVICE will combine interdisciplinary empirical studies and soil biodiversity surveys to construct soil food web models and determine effects of changing soil biodiversity on stability and resilience of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, as well as assess consequences for outbreaks of pests or invasive species. SOILSERVICE will link ecological and economic models to develop a system for valuing soil biodiversity in relation to ecosystem services. Objectives: Develop methods to value soil ecosystem services during different pressure of land use and changes in soil biodiversity. Field and modelling studies will determine to what spatial and temporal scales soil biodiversity and soil ecosystem services are vulnerable to disturbance. Detecting processes that indicate when ecosystems are approaching the limits of their natural functioning or productive capacity. Establishing methods to determine and predict sustainability of ecosystem services at different types of land use Building scenarios to identify economical and social drivers of how land use such as biofuel production and land abandonment can influence soil biodiversity and ecosystem services over European scale. Interacting with EU policies and strategies with results on which services are at threat and mitigating changes in soil biodiversity to achieve a sustainable use of soils. Our results contribute to a European knowledge-based competitive economy and to a future EU directive on soils.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-1.4-7 | Award Amount: 3.92M | Year: 2008
Serious disorders of the blood system, particularly malignant blood disorders and genetic diseases can be effectively treated by blood and marrow transplantation. Despite considerable success with this treatment modality during the last decades, lack of suitable donors, engraftment failure and graft versus host disease remain serious problems that need to be addressed. This project aims to address these issues through approaches that will allow expansion of human umbilical cord blood stem cells for transplantation using cytokines, developmental cues, newly identified stem cell regulators and chemicals that can activate internal stem cell regulators to stimulate self-renewal and proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells. Successful expansion of cord blood stem cells will increase the number of hematopoietic stem cells in cord blood samples to generate suitable donor samples for adult patients that die from their disease today due to lack of donors. Expansion of hematopoietic stem- and progenitor cells will also give more efficient early engraftment following transplantation and thereby reduce the frequency of morbidity and mortality due to insufficient engraftment. This will be accomplished through the identification of novel stem cell regulators and the use of known cytokines, developmental cues and chemicals that will stimulate stem cell expansion. Improvement in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation through co-transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells will also be investigated. Conditions for expansion of mesenchymal stem cells will be defined and subsets of more primitive and more mature mesenchymal stem cells will be identified. Mesenchymal stem cells will also be used to improve engraftment efficiency of the expanded hematopoietic cells and to reduce the frequency of graft versus host disease. The findings are expected to have a great impact on the treatment of serious blood disorders by blood and marrow transplantation in the future.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.77M | Year: 2014
The BIopolymer BAsed FOOd Delivery Systems (BIBAFOODS) network will train young researchers for the advancement of food science and technology, by providing them with the complementary skills necessary to develop the future sustainable food industry and entrepreneurial skills crucial for creating biotechnological food oriented start-up companies. This collaborative training network will combine the complementary training capabilities of each individual partner institution to improve the trainees chances for employment and promote health and welfare in the EC by providing the capability to develop novel functional foods. The scientific focus of the research training is on colloidal delivery systems to protect and deliver active components via foods, resulting in novel functional foods. The development of these systems is to be based on only food-grade ingredients and upon economical feasible processes. The hypothesis is that the materials and coatings can be made responsive to the external chemical conditions and therefore suitable for controlled releases targeted at a desired stage during food processing or at a specific point during digestion of the food, e.g. in the intestinal tract. This will involve probiotic bacteria and enzymes that are liberated and allowed to be active in a controllable way. The ultimate successful materials ensure stability of the active component during long term storage prior to food production, during food production or during digestion, but at the same time liberating the active component at the right point. The behaviour and interaction of the delivery systems will be studied by simulation of gastric and intestinal conditions and by implementation in food production and formulation into probiotic products. To summarize, through the training in BIBAFOODS, 14 young researchers will achieve superior qualifications that will make them highly competitive and attractive for the European food and bio-tech industry.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-2.4.4-1 | Award Amount: 8.05M | Year: 2010
The Collaborative Project on Mendelian Forms of Parkinsons Disease (MEFOPA) will bring together the major groups in Europe with a track-record in basic and clinical research on rare Mendelian forms of Parkinsons disease (PD) in order to identify and validate relevant disease-related molecular pathways, drug-targets and biomarkers for disease susceptibility and progression.. Over the last years it has become increasingly clear that progress in the understanding of the molecular basis of PD, the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, and hence the chance to develop effective disease-modifying treatments, will most likely be brought about by focusing on the rare variants of the disease with known genetic defects. The groups forming the MEFOPA-consortium will therefore analyze the molecular pathways underlying inherited forms of PD with autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive inheritance in an integrative way, using cellular and animal models and cutting-edge technology. These two subprojects will provide targets for novel, disease-modifying treatment strategies. In a third subproject, a European registry and biobank for patients with rare Mendelian forms of PD will be established. Body fluids will be collected and systematically analyzed by unbiased proteomic techniques as well as by focussed analysis of candidate proteins, and ex vivo cellular models will be generated, in order to allow validation of disease-related alterations detected in the models analyzed in subprojects 1 and 2. Through this integrated, translational approach combining basic and clinical research groups, the project aims to achieve measurable progress in defining the relevant targets and readouts for disease-modifying therapies and will set the stage for rationally designed drug trials in carefully selected groups of patients and even presymptomatic mutation carriers.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.3.5 | Award Amount: 12.57M | Year: 2012
The mid-infrared (MIR) region is emerging as the favourite wavelength band for a number of applications, including high sensitivity trace detection, chemical emission monitoring, process control, and biological sensing applications. An efficient way to get precise and reliable information is to rely on spectroscopic analysis and, among the existing technologies, Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy (TDLS) has been identified to be the most attractive solution due to the unique adsorption spectrum of chemicals, allowing their unambiguous detection. In the MIR region, the availability of Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) covering a broad portion of the spectral range (MIR, 3-12 m), where many chemicals of interest for Safety & Security have their strongest absorption lines, has recently pushed forward the commercialisation of TDLS-based detection units.\nFurther technology advancements are still needed in the TDLS and QCL domains, the crucial bottlenecks being the range of tuneability, the footprint, power consumption & wallplug efficiency. Besides high cost and poor versatility, these limitations set a barrier for the realisation of powerful versatile detection units. To address these issues, MIRIFISENS will bring major technological advancements in the field of miniaturisation, process development, heterogeneous integration and co-integration of MOEMS functionalities.\nThe project will exploit state-of-the-art micro and nano-fabrication techniques. The major technologic achievements proposed will address the issues of sensitivity & selectivity, multi-gas capabilities, compactness, efficiency and cost effectiveness as specified by a number of selected Safety & Security applications. These achievements will be tested and validated for these applications. MIRIFISENS will deliver a new class of sensors with superior tuneability, better portability and extended detection capabilities, changing radically the current landscape of MIR chemical sensing spectroscopy.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 4.37M | Year: 2009
The objective of BIOTRAINS is to deliver a trans-European network of industrially oriented white biotechnologists fully trained in the application of biocatalysis to sustainable chemical manufacturing. Their skills will be developed through a joint research programme at leading national CoEs (Centre of Excellence) with research projects identified by internationally leading Principal Investigators in this field. There is an urgent need for these scientists to support the KBBE (Knowledge Based BioEconomy) identified by the SUSCHEM (The European Technology Platform for Sustainable Chemistry) technology platform and they will provide the key to the European future that has defined the work programme for FP7 in this field. We present a doctoral training program where the scientific research is integrated with industrial training, supervised by key academic and industrial scientists from all the disciplines needed to deliver industrial relevant science. The UK Centre of Excellence in Biocatalysis (CoEBio3) will manage the project to ensure that the collaboration is integrated seamlessly across both academic and industrial centres, and across geographical boundaries. Most importantly, CoEBio3 will manage efficient technology transfer between the academic scientists and industry. This will ensure a state-of-the-art programme meeting current industry needs in both people and technology. A structured exchange programme with both industrial placements and CoE exchanges will ensure that national leading-edge skills together with specialist equipment training are transferred across Europe, and will define best practice for both academia and industry.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2007.3.5 | Award Amount: 5.23M | Year: 2008
Today Biophotonics is an emerging multidisciplinary research area, embracing all light-based technologies applied to the life sciences and medicine. Enhancing diagnosis, therapy and follow-up care, Biophotonics drives the trend towards personalized medicine and plays a crucial role in limiting health-care costs and appropriately addressing the accelerating challenges associated with population aging and the consequent increase in age-related diseases. Its economic and socio-political importance is reflected in the enormous annual growth rates of industries in this field.\nAs a Network of Excellence, PHOTONICS4LIFE aims to provide a coherent framework for research in the strongly fragmented field of Biophotonics in Europe. One of the challenging tasks of PHOTONICS4LIFE is therefore to map and to overview the research and technological developments across these various subdisciplines with their manifold but not sufficiently explored interdependences.\nPHOTONICS4LIFE targets to bridge the gaps between the different research communities ranging from Physics and Engineering via Chemistry and Physical Chemistry to Biology and Medicine for the analysis of cell processes, for non- and minimally-invasive diagnosis and therapy and for point-of-care diagnostics.\nPHOTONICS4LIFE aims to link the expertise of research institutes towards the SMEs and large companies in order to foster Biophotonics research and to strengthen the economical competitiveness of Europe in the global Biophotonics market.\nPHOTONICS4LIFE is composed of partners standing on the forefront of Biophotonics research and covering together the broadness of fields including the related ethical issues. The partners will work towards a durable integration, provide a critical mass that will act as a nucleus for integrated fundamental and applied Biophotonics research across Europe and reach out to the international scene. With its objectives, PHOTONICS4LIFE is aimed directly at improving the quality of life.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 4.21M | Year: 2013
Extended lifespan is a new and permanent feature of human life globally. The demographic for population growth of persons over 60 years is predicted to expand by 70% and 400% respectively in developed and less developed regions during the coming decades. Ageing, is accompanied by cognitive decline and greater risk of depression and anxiety. Major drug companies have recently cutback significantly on development of drugs against brain disorders due to lack of new avenues of research. Thus the responsibility falls on academic labs to make breakthroughs to improve brain health. This consortium gathers experts on molecular mechanisms of age-associated pathologies including depressive disorders and anxiety, and neurodegeneration. Specifically, they focus on identification of stress-regulated molecules provoking neuronal death and hindering neurogenesis, and monitoring the consequences of these processes in human brain. The groups combine biological and medical imaging techniques with behavioral studies and proteomics to define molecular mechanisms of ageing and neurogenesis. Using biotechnology, they will create new tools to isolate neurogenic cells from aged brain, thus aiding research strategies an early stage. Four leading imaging infrastructures from across Europe selected from the ESFRI Eurobioimaging Proof-of Concept list have been selected as partners to facilitate this training and research program. Confocal and high-content imaging is used to define ageing pathways, proteomics and genomics to visualize effectors of pathological ageing, transgenic mice to study neurogenesis and MRI/MRS to identify and localize new depression-related parameters in select patient populations. This multi-faceted approach aims to (i) identify druggable targets and identify reagents to interfere with pathways contributing to depression and anxiety, and (ii) produce novel tools to image depression-associated events in brain, facilitating earlier diagnosis and intervention.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENV.2013.6.5-2 | Award Amount: 1.20M | Year: 2013
SEFIRA has the objective of creating a European coordination of transdisciplinary scientific and socio-economic resources in order to support the review and implementation of air quality legislation by the European Commission (EC) led by DG Environment. The EC has now given increased attention to the socio-economic dimension of air quality policies in order to improve their effectiveness and acceptability. SEFIRA will coordinate some of the best scientific and socio-economic resources and will review air quality policies and legislation at the interface between environmental, economic and social sciences in order to achieve a deeper understanding of these complex issues. Individual behaviours and choices will be analysed in a socio-economic context ranging from the local to the European level. The main fields involved in the action will be atmospheric sciences, environmental and legal sociology, anthropology, geography and economics. The integration of disciplines, the relationship with the most relevant stakeholders and an effective coordination between the SEFIRA consortium and other European projects in the same field will be a priority. The project strategy will support the development of a new European appraisal of problems and resources in the field, will deploy a pilot survey and a test of policy implementation by innovative models of individual choices analysis and ecosystem services valuation. Stakeholders will be involved from the beginning of the project in a process of dialogue and cooperative problem solving in order to ensure relevance and robustness as the work progresses from local to European level.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.13M | Year: 2015
ACTRIS-2 addresses the scope of integrating state-of-the-art European ground-based stations for long term observations of aerosols, clouds and short lived gases capitalizing work of FP7-ACTRIS. ACTRIS-2 aims to achieve the construction of a user-oriented RI, unique in the EU-RI landscape. ACTRIS-2 provides 4-D integrated high-quality data from near-surface to high altitude (vertical profiles and total-column), relevant to climate and air-quality research. ACTRIS-2 develops and implements, in a large network of stations in Europe and beyond, observational protocols that permit harmonization of collected data and their dissemination. ACTRIS-2 offers networking expertise, upgraded calibration services, training of users, trans-national access to observatories and calibration facilities, virtual access to high-quality data products. Through joint research activities, ACTRIS-2 develops new integration tools that will produce scientific or technical progresses reusable in infrastructures, thus shaping future observation strategies. Innovation in instrumentation is one of the fundamental building blocks of ACTRIS-2. Associated partnership with SMEs stimulates development of joint-ventures addressing new technologies for use in atmospheric observations. Target user-groups in ACTRIS-2 comprise a wide range of communities worldwide. End-users are institutions involved in climate and air quality research, space agencies, industries, air quality agencies. ACTRIS-2 will improve systematic and timely collection, processing and distribution of data and results for use in modelling, in particular towards implementation of atmospheric and climate services. ACTRIS-2 invests substantial efforts to ensure long-term sustainability beyond the term of the project by positioning the project in both the GEO and the on-going ESFRI contexts, and by developing synergies with national initiatives.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-1-2014 | Award Amount: 3.80M | Year: 2015
The Solid-State Neutron Detector SoNDe project aims to develop a high-resolution neutron detector technique that will enable the construction of position-sensitive neutron detectors for high-flux sources, such as the upcoming European Spallation Source (ESS). Moreover, by avoiding the use of 3He in this detector the 3He-shortage, which might otherwise impede the construction of such large-scale facilities, can be alleviated. The main features of the envisioned detector technique are: high-flux capacity, capable of handling the peak-flux of up-to-date spallation sources high-resolution down to 3 mm by direct imaging technique, higher resolutions available by interpolation no beam stop necessary, thus enabling investigations with direct beam intensity independence of 3He modularity, improving maintenance characteristics of todays neutron detectors Detectors of these kind will be capable of usage in a wide array of neutron instruments at facilities which use neutrons to conduct there research, among them the Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL) in France, the Maier-Leibnitz-Zentrum (MLZ, former FRMII) in Germany, Laboratoire Leon Brillion (LLB) in France and ISIS in the United Kingdom which are in operation at the moment and the upcoming ESS. At these facilities neutrons are used as a probe in a wide array of fields, ranging from material science to develop new and smart materials, chemical and biological science to develop new drugs for improved treatment of a wide range of medical conditions, magnetic studies for the development of future information storage technology to archeology, probing historical artifacts without physically destroying them. All these fields nowadays rely heavily on neutrons scattering facilities in their research and thus are in need of a reliable, high-quality neutron detection technique, which will be able to perform well at the new high-flux facilities such as ESS and simultaneously avoid the problem of 3He shortage.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EURO-2-2014 | Award Amount: 2.50M | Year: 2015
The EU is facing long-term structural challenges compounded by the recent economic crisis. More and better jobs are needed to lower unemployment, raise the employment participation rates of female, older, migrant, low-skilled and young workers and thus tackle social exclusion and inequality. The EUs growth strategy, Europe 2020, wants smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, with innovation and job quality as flagship initiatives. Innovation and job quality are however currently treated separately but ought to be better integrated in policy and workplace practice. Research that can lever this to mutually boost innovation and job quality is needed. QuInnE contributes to the EU growth strategy of boosting innovation, job quality and employment by exploring the mutually reinforcing relationship between innovation and job quality and identifying mechanisms that can be accelerated to deliver both more and better jobs, which in turn help tackle social exclusion and inequality. QuInnE creates a new analytical framework of for understanding the relationship between innovation and job quality and that relationships impact on employment. This framework is then used to statistically analyse existing datasets to create a typology of innovation-job quality dynamics by industry and country. The analysis is then extended to assess how different types of relationships create jobs, and provide jobs that are accessible and sustainable for groups of workers currently struggling in the labour market, and reduce social inequalities by age, class and gender. QuInnE then explores how the innovation-job quality dynamic creates more and better jobs at firm level. There are three main outcomes: new scientific understanding of the innovation-job quality-employment dynamic; new diagnostic and developmental tools to help monitor and measure this dynamic at national level and improve that dynamic in firms and workplaces; evidence-based advice on developing policy to boost EU growth.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.4.4-1 | Award Amount: 7.59M | Year: 2012
The overall objective is to develop a novel preventative intervention for the blinding disease retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and other complications of prematurity. The PREVENTROP consortium proposes to conduct preclinical studies (pharmacological, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and toxicological) in models and/or clinical studies (including phase III clinical trial) of an EU designated orphan medicinal product. This orphan medicinal product has been granted the EU orphan designation. We have completed both a Phase I study and the first section of the Phase II study administering the growth factor complex IGF-I/IGFBP-3 (Premiplex) successfully to preterm infants in order to prevent ROP a discovery that we have taken from bench to bedside. Due to improved neonatal care, the survival of preterm babies has increased dramatically during the last decades. The downside of this improvement in survival rates is higher morbidity affecting these vulnerable infants. It should be emphasised that in a preterm infant any lasting morbidity will have a negative impact on the quality of life for a whole life span for both the individual and their families. One of the most severe morbidities affecting these infants is retinopathy causing severe visual impairment and blindness. Our research findings have rendered several editorials pointing at the hope of prevention strategies which if successful will change the paradigm for ROP and other morbidities in preterm infants. There are three major impacts of the present proposal; (1) clinical availability of a new orphan designated drug product, Premiplex, and (2) improved care of preterm infants and (3) a significant contribution towards the goal of the International Rare Disease Research Consortium (IRDiRC) by delivering one new therapy for a rare disease.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2009-1-2-01;KBBE-2009-2-3-03 | Award Amount: 3.67M | Year: 2010
The project focusses on development of novel solid food conservation techniques for a wide range of applications (frozen, dried and packaged) to extent shelf life and to meet the current need for convenient foods. Three innovative preservation techniques, partly interconnected, will be investigated for having the potential for better maintaining the product quality and freshness (nutritional value, taste) and the potential for improved sustainability, as the techniques allow for reduction of the raw material losses, lower energy costs and reductions in the use of chemicals. The environmental benefits will be established during the process and product development on the basis of sustainability indicators, applicable for wider use. After a development stage, a demonstration unit will be build for comparative validation and new product development on location, particularly intended for SME.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.55M | Year: 2011
SANITAS will create the next generation of integrated Urban Water System (UWS) management professionals by providing a unique Europewide training platform in the technical and complementary skills they will require. This is needed since in the near future climate change will bring dramatic regional variations in excessive surplus and deficiency in water supply and unpredictable variations in water quality placing unprecedented demands on European UWSs. SANITAS is acutely aware of many unmet needs regarding deficiencies in manpower and application of innovation to the field. The partners have realized the need to draw on their Complementary skills, to innovate at all levels and create a critical mass of excellence that will drive the innovation required to comprehensively address the fundamental rethinking of water use management that climate change demands. They have also realized that the scale of the problems to be faced in future will require new approaches to cooperation between academia, industry and policy makers that transcend traditional barriers to the creation and uptake of innovation and enabling technologies. By drawing on expert participation from academia, industry, water authorities and policy specialists, SANITAS will critically examine and develop the cutting edge skills required to meet the future UWS management challenges that Europe faces. SANITAS introduces novel methodologies that will provide direct training to researchers in Intellectual Asset Management, patent application filing and how to write successful reports for policy makers. Over and above regional impact, SANITAS will serve as a source for regional UWS infrastructure integration and policy formulation worldwide. By doing so, SANITAS will support the responsibility and opportunity Europe has to take the lead in technical innovation and policy formulation that the world needs in facing critical challenges of water quality and supply and energy requirements of wastewater management.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.95M | Year: 2013
We propose a multi-site ITN consisting of 8 Full and 3 Associated Partners that will deliver a total of 500 ESR-months of training in the physics and techniques of Monte Carlo event generators to a total of at least 15 long-term and 40 short-term appointed researchers. Monte Carlo event generators are central to high energy particle physics. They are used by almost all experimental collaborations to plan their experiments and analyze their data, and by theorists to simulate the complex final states of the fundamental interactions that may signal new physics. We intend to build on the success of our RTN MCnet, by creating an ITN incorporating all the authors of current general purpose event generators, with the main purposes of: (a) training a large section of our user base, using annual schools on the physics and techniques of event generators and short-term residencies of Early Stage Researchers as a conduit for transfer of knowledge to the wider community; (b) training the next generation of event generator authors through a significant number of dedicated studentships in our research groups; (c) providing broader training in transferable skills through our research, through dedicated training in entrepreneurship and employability and through secondments to private sector partners. We will achieve these training objectives both through dedicated activities and through our outreach and research activities: (d) enhancing the visibility of particle physics in the wider community by specific outreach projects using event generators to visualize current particle physics research; (e) developing and supporting the new generation of event generators intended for use throughout the LHC data analysis era and beyond; (f) playing a central role in the analysis of LHC data and the discovery of new particles and interactions there; and (g) extracting the maximum potential from existing data to constrain the modeling of the data from the LHC and future experiments.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 4.37M | Year: 2008
The European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility addresses an important need of European science and technology by providing experimental, industrial and other researchers with access to state-of-the-art computer simulation tools for electronic excited states in matter, together with high-quality support from ETSF personnel, mirroring the massive progress in the power and resolution of new European experimental facilities. All domains that need knowledge about electronic excitations, transport and spectroscopy will benefit from the ETSF, such as condensed matter physics and chemistry, biology, materials science and nanoscience, atmospheric science, and astrophysics. The ETSF provides users with computer codes, background knowledge, customised support and development, training, and collaborators to enhance their studies of the electronic and transport properties of complex or nanoscale materials. Its focus is on the rapid transfer of ground-breaking fundamental knowledge of matter, at the quantum-mechanical level, to detailed understanding and future-oriented design of prototypical or technologically relevant systems. The ETSF has been successfully designed and recently brought into operation by the Nanoquanta Network of Excellence with the support of national and local institutions. In the present ETSF-I3 project, the ETSF is partnered by the Barcelona Supercomputing Centre to create a framework for deploying the ETSF infrastructure to a much wider range of users, through user training and projects supported by ETSF scientists. The ETSF-I3 project will monitor the scientific and technological needs of users, and will boost the user-oriented development of ETSF software, algorithms and libraries made available on the most advanced computational platforms. ETSF-I3 will be crucial to keep the ETSF at the forefront of knowledge and establish it as the world-wide reference centre for modelling of electronic excited states.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2007-1.1-1 | Award Amount: 4.95M | Year: 2008
EXCELL is a novel innovative approach to explore interaction mechanisms between biological materials and systems/nanostructures. It involves a forward-looking cross-disciplinary and design-based research to generate an integrated, biologically inspired technological platform of high complexity, able to monitor cell dynamics at nano-scale. Expertise in cellular and molecular biology, nanosciences, material engineering, biophysics, biotechnology, modelling, and analytical chemistry, are combined to address the targeted goals, which go beyond the state of the art methods used in traditional biotechnology and systems biology. EXCELL will provide a complete Lab-in-a-Cell (LIC) sensor and actuator platform, which is capable of: (1) studying single cells in their natural environment surrounded by other cells or a complex mixture of different cells/tissue, (2) following the dynamics and interdependence of single cell processes from gene, protein, metabolite to compound secretion, exocytosis and cell-to-cell communication, (3) testing how and where various stimuli affect the different levels of the molecular machinery and finally (4) programming cells to be able to differentiate into a particular phenotype. A major task is the design of suitable biocompatible nano/bio interfaces that ensures a sustainable cellular environment. EXCELL provides a unique opportunity for developing advanced, novel experimental tools to address fundamental problems of stem cell research and poses a potential for possible diversification and modulation of developmental programs of stem cells to differentiate them into specific phenotypes. EXCELL has the capacity to drive new discoveries having a significant impact not only in the field of stem cell research and clinical use, but also on molecular engineering, nanosciences, sensor development, diagnostics, therapeutics, biotechnology and industry (smart materials, medical diagnostics, pharmaceutical companies, start-ups)
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 2.87M | Year: 2012
Rare-earth ions (lanthanides) play an increasingly important role in modern optical technologies. Lanthanides are extensively used in solid-state laser physics, e.g. as key components in telecommunication networks. Rare-earths are also employed as luminescent materials in lamps or as radiation detectors in X-ray imaging. Rare-earths are already commercially omnipresent. However, the full potential of rare-earth ions is not yet explored in particular with regard to the rapidly evolving field of future information technology. Future data storage and processing will require novel types of memories (e.g. based on interactions between light and quantized matter), algorithms (e.g. based on quantum computations) and materials (e.g. appropriate quantum systems). Rare-earth ion doped solids are very promising candidates to permit implementation of future quantum technology. The media combine the advantages of solids (i.e. large density and scalability) and atomic gases (i.e. long coherence times). CIPRIS will build on the advantages of rare-earth doped media and drive applications towards future information technology. CIPRIS follows two scientific approaches : Classical processing and quantum processing. Both are meant as pronounced inter-disciplinary research efforts, combining physics, material science and information technology. To exploit the results, the public and private sector partners will closely cooperate to develop commercial demonstration devices. In terms of training, CIPRIS aims at the development of the next generation of young researchers with appropriate skills in rare-earth-based information technology pushing it towards commercial applications. CIPRIS offers a large variety of training actions, e.g. mini schools, laboratory courses, secondments to the private sector, or training sessions to strengthen complementary skills and contacts to the private sector. This will contribute to a European knowledge base for future information technology.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-06-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 4.50M | Year: 2016
It is high time for the EU to develop pathways and strategies for decarbonisation also in emissions intensive sectors such as steel, plastics, paper, and meat and dairy. These are sectors where low carbon transitions are still relatively unexplored. Some progressive companies and other actors are just beginning to consider such pathways. The overall aim of REINVENT is to help Europe achieve its long-term climate objectives, while supporting the development of other societal benefits and the economy. A new evidence-based framework to assess the viability, challenges and governance implications of decarbonisation pathways will be developed and tools provided. It builds on the integration of conceptual work, empirical mapping and case-studies of innovations and climate initiatives, co-creation of knowledge and co-design of pathways, and careful assessment of the implications for other societal goals. The approach is to study and understand transitions and emerging initiatives from within sectoral contexts where government climate policy is only one of many factors that shape perceptions and strategies. As a result, REINVENT supports systemic innovation and system-wide transformation in the studied sectors. The project provides stakeholders with access to leading research and analytical capacity concerning key dimensions of low carbon transitions; it is also a platform for dialogue and learning about feasible pathways so that policies can be better aligned with the specific needs and conditions in different sectors. REINVENT will make an innovative scientific and societal contribution through (a) focusing on important economic sectors that are relatively unexplored yet important for the whole economy, (b) studying transitions from within these sectors, and (c) taking whole value chains into account through (d) a new analytical approach capable of advancing our understanding of key drivers, dynamics and implications of decarbonisation.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2015 | Award Amount: 1.06M | Year: 2016
MAKERS will bring together leaders from business, academia and policy to study issues related to the drivers and dynamics of sustaining the competitiveness of EU manufacturing sectors. The projects innovative research, training and mobility activities will address key concerns related to the historic opportunity for the EU to lead a manufacturing renaissance that not only upgrades existing manufacturing competences but, more importantly, develops new technological capabilities across EU regions to support regional industrial resilience for more distributed and sustainable socio-economic growth and prosperity. MAKERS will create a multi-stakeholder platform to discuss the current understanding of issues related to manufacturing renaissance, including (1) the role of small, medium and large manufacturing firms and local production systems plugged into local-global value chains; (2) what are the drivers and processes for innovation, technological capabilities and technology transfer from research intuitions to firms; (3) trends in reshoring and nearshoring and the potentials for re-industrialisation and shorter value chains; (4) the impact of the socio-economic-environmental sustainability agenda on EU competitiveness; (5) skills requirements and training; and finally (6) how policy can ensure the competitiveness of EU manufacturing sectors for more distributed and sustainable socio-economic growth and prosperity. MAKERS training programme comprises: 1) annual summer schools that will cover the breadth of the issues above and address methodological requirements; 2) work package-specific Business/Academia/Policy (BAP) workshops; 3) dissemination activities within the network in conjunction with mobility, such as presentations at faculty seminar series, and doctoral level guest lectures; 4) dissemination activities at events outside the network, such as presentations at international conferences, policy fora and multi-media engagement.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2011.2.2.1-2 | Award Amount: 15.72M | Year: 2011
In acute neurodegenerative disorders, following a sudden insult, neurons are rapidly damaged and usually die but cellular loss can occur hours and days thereafter. These diseases cause massive morbidity and mortality and tremendous economic and societal burden, especially ischemic stroke, which is a leading cause of death and disability with no effective treatment to promote recovery. The brain responds to a stroke, i.e., occlusion of a cerebral artery, with an inflammatory process characterized by rapid activation of resident cells including microglia and astrocytes, production of proinflammatory mediators, and infiltration of various types of immune cells. Recent studies have suggested that the local inflammation is not only detrimental but can also be beneficial for the repair process. Our proposal unites 7 leading academic teams and 2 experienced SMEs and aims to develop a pre-clinical protocol for immunomodulation leading to enhancement of cellular plasticity and improved functional recovery in stroke patients. To achieve this goal we will study the temporal and spatial role of inflammatory cells in stroke-induced brain damage and determine the action of inflammatory cells in the activation and support of regenerative processes, including the formation of new neurons from endogenous and transplanted neural stem cells (NSCs). We will investigate the ability of transplanted NSCs to modulate the inflammatory response and to affect the characteristics of the stroke-induced lesion and subsequent recovery. The overriding social objective of our project is to develop a novel therapeutic strategy which will shorten the recovery phase, minimize the motor impairments, and improve the patientsquality of life after stroke.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP.2011.2.2-3 | Award Amount: 5.35M | Year: 2012
The suggested project aims at developing a nanowire (NW) technology applied to III-nitride and III-V materials to improve the present Solid State Lighting (SSL) solutions. Present white light emitting diode (LED) emitters are based on thin film III-nitride technology, and a combination of violet-blue LEDs and suitable phosphor coatings has yielded a light emission efficacy of > 100 lm/W with an operating lifetime > 50000 hrs in commercial white LEDs. The color rendering is generally unsatisfactory, however, and the cost is so far prohibitive for general market penetration. Our NW approach is based on combining three (blue-green-red) or four (blue-green-yellow-red) single NW LEDs into one white LED package, thereby avoiding the loss in the phosphor downconversion process. Using NW LEDs we also expect to increase the radiative efficiency due to a drastic reduction of the defect density in the active quantum well (QW) regions of the LEDs, and also improve the extraction efficiency of the emitted light. Our suggested employment of large size silicon or sapphire wafers as substrates is predicted to reduce the future fabrication cost by at least a factor 3. To increase the efficiency of white emitters it is necessary to drastically improve the LEDs emitting in the green-yellow part of the spectrum. We suggest to reach the green LED range by the ability to increase the In composition in the radial QWs of the presently grown nitride NW LEDs, and by using AlGaInP materials. The latter material system will also be explored for yellow and red NW LED emission. To realize yellow-red emission quantum dot media will also be employed, either by the SK growth mechanism on the m-plane facets of the NWs, or by separate application of InP/ZnS core-shell dots with red emission. To realize this work a consortium of five partners is suggested, comprising excellent expertise in growth of NWs and in sophisticated studies of structural, electronic and optical properties of the NWs, and also processing into efficient LED structures having long life-times. The safety issues in the growth and handling of NWs are secured in collaboration with the Nano-Safety project at ULUND. The materials used are favorable from the environmental point of view.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SCC-03-2016 | Award Amount: 7.80M | Year: 2016
Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) have the potential to respond to climate change, enhance biodiversity and improve environmental quality while contributing to economic regeneration and social well-being. Yet there is a substantial gap between the promise of NBS and their uptake. To unlock the potential of NBS for sustainable urban development, NATURVATION will take a transdisciplinary, internationally comparative approach to: advance assessment approaches (Objective 1) to capture the multiple impacts & values of NBS to deliver a robust evidence base for decision-making; enable innovation (Objective 2) to identify the most promising governance, business/finance and participation models and how to overcome the systemic conditions that currently limit their use to support systemic integration; and generate momentum to realise the potential of NBS through co-design, co-development & co-implementation of new partnerships, knowledge, recommendations, processes and tools required to build capacity, enable replication and foster cultural change (Objective 3). Our transdisciplinary approach working with urban-regional innovation partnerships in six different cities and a Task Force of highly respected international organisations working in this arena integrates science, social science and humanities (SSH) and practical expertise and experience to achieve a step-change in the use of NBS for urban sustainability.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE.2012.1.2-02 | Award Amount: 3.81M | Year: 2013
The next few decades will witness a rapidly increasing demand for agricultural products. This growing demand needs to be met largely through intensification (produce more from the same land surface) because there is little scope for an increase in agricultural area. Eco-functional intensification has been proposed as a promising solution. Eco-functional intensification is the optimization of all provisioning, regulating and supporting ecosystem services in the agricultural production process. LIBERATION aims to provide the evidence base for eco-functional intensification and demonstrate the concept in seven representative agricultural landscape types in Europe. Using existing datasets from past and on-going European-scale studies we will first identify general relationships between the configuration of semi-natural habitats, on-farm management and biodiversity in a range of European landscapes and farming systems. Using a modelling approach we will link biodiversity to ecosystem services, by determining relationships between biodiversity, the delivery of multiple ecosystem services and agronomic yield. A novel aspect is that LIBERATION considers above- and below-ground ecosystem services simultaneously and analyses synergies and trade-offs between different ecosystem services. Using this modelling approach we will analyse which on-farm management practices and spatial configuration of semi-natural habitats optimizes yield and which optimizes farm income. We will synthesise management and policy recommendations. We will raise awareness and promote uptake of eco-functional intensification by disseminating project results to the widest possible range of stakeholders, amongst others by means of demonstration projects. This way we hope to liberate the forces of nature to the benefit of agricultural production.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-4.2-3 | Award Amount: 3.77M | Year: 2010
The goals of the PREHDICT study are to determine prerequisites and strategies for vaccination in European countries and to predict the impact of vaccination on screening programmes. To achieve these goals, a multiple HPV type transmission model will be built to describe the type-specific incidence and clearance of HPV infections. This model will be linked to an individual-based simulation model used for modelling the impact of screening. For HPV-related diseases other than cervical cancer and genital warts, Markov models will be developed after critical review of the role of HPV. In the PREHDICT study, country-specific cost-effectiveness analyses will be performed for the vaccination and include determination of the vaccination age, the number of doses, the vaccination population, and the optimal catch-up vaccination age. Furthermore, the impact of vaccination on screening programmes will be assessed. This involves determination of the screening technology, screening frequency, and follow-up management of test-positive women. Special attention will be given to screening attendance and its relation to vaccination attendance. To have models with strong empirical support, the PREHDICT team will collect the most updated data on HPV infection, HPV-related disease, life-style factors, and demographics. Furthermore, HPV-type specific analyses will be performed on the outcomes of a vaccination trial, 3 large screening trials, and one self-sampling trial for screening non-attenders. By meta-analytical techniques, results will be pooled. The costs involved in the calculations will include the costs of organizing, running, and monitoring a vaccination and/or screening programme. The results of the PREHDICT study will be published in international peer-reviewed journals, posted on the WHO HPV information centre website and will also be systematically disseminated to all major stakeholders, in particular to decision makers at European, national and sub-national levels.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2013-1 | Award Amount: 1.59M | Year: 2013
Bioremediation the use of certain biological agents to remove or neutralize contaminants from polluted soil or water is a rapidly advancing field and the technology has been applied successfully to remediate many contaminated sites. Effective monitoring of biological processes is a necessary component of any bioremediation application. Currently, the influence of the remediation process is monitored by taking samples from contaminated sites and analysing them remotely, which takes a lot of time, and costs significant amounts of money. By integrating online, real time on-the-field monitoring and control systems into the remediation process, the overall time and cost of remediation can be decreased significantly. The proposed project intends to build on recent advancements in the fields of sensor and low-cost wireless technology to address the need of a system for continuous monitoring the bioremediation processes. The aim of the project is to develop a flexible and expandable, low cost online system for detecting subsurface microbial events allowing autonomous control and remote adjustment of the remediation process. The project objectives include the development of new generation of biosensors with ultra-low power consumption for the detection of aromatic compounds low-cost, self-sustaining and expandable wireless communication system a treatment unit with autonomous control and remote adjustment and the integration of the obtained data with pre-existing data analysis systems. SMEs involved in bioremediation will possess a low-cost system enabling the continuous monitoring, autonomous control and remote adjustment of the microbial processes at the contaminated sites, which reduces operational costs and shortens response time.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.4.2-5 | Award Amount: 3.59M | Year: 2009
Heart failure as a result of myocardial infarction or ischemic heart disease is a major health problem in Europe. Currently the only long term solution is heart transplantation but one in three patients die while awaiting a match. Transplantation of an alternative cell source is extremely attractive but has so far met with very little success. Thus, skeletal muscle myoblasts led to recurrent arrhythmias with potential lethal effects, whereas the hopes for bone marrow transplantation have been largely dashed by the low efficiency and lack of evidence for trans-differentiation. In this project, we plan to mount a concerted and integrated effort to identify cells within the adult and developing heart with repair potential. We will characterise the cells to enhance their purification from, or stimulation within, foetal or adult tissue. In addition, we will determine how they are made during embryonic development to further improve the chances of manipulating their activity in vivo and also to increase the efficiency of their generation from embryonic stem cells. Cardiomyocytes generated in any of these ways will be genetically profiled and physiologically tested, both in vitro and after transplantation, to ensure their proper functional integration into the resident myocardium. In preparation for eventual transplantation into patients, we will explore biomatrices as supports for these cells and also approaches to suppressing the inflammatory response to increase the chances of graft survival.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP.2013.1.1-2 | Award Amount: 5.15M | Year: 2014
Carbohydrate biomass constitutes an abundant and renewable resource that is attracting growing interest as a biomaterial. Convincingly the use of different natural elementary bricks, from oligosaccharides to fibers found in biomass, when mimicking self-assembly as Nature does, is a promising field towards innovative nanostructured biomaterials, leading to eco-friendly manufacturing processes of various devices. Indeed, the self-assembly at the nanoscale level of plant-based materials, via an elegant bottom-up approach, allows reaching very high-resolution patterning (sub-10nm) never attained to date by petroleum-based molecules, thus providing them with novel properties. GREENANOFILMS aims to use carbohydrates as elementary bricks (glycopolymers, cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibers) for the conception of ultra-high resolution nanostructured technical films to be used in various markets, from large volume sectors, such as (i) high-added value transparent flexible substrate for printed electronic applications, (ii) thin films for high-efficiency organic photovoltaics, to growing markets, such as (iii) next generation nanolithography and (iv) high-sensitivity SERS biosensors. GREENANOFILMS main impacts are the implementation of a new generation of ultra-nanostructured carbohydrate-materials that will play a prominent role in the achievement of the sustainability improvement of various opto- and bio-electronic sectors. A network of industrial end-user leaders is integrated in the project to facilitate the innovator-to-market perspective. The prospective environmental impacts and benefits of new green processes, eco-efficient nanomaterials and nanoproducts will be quantified with Life Cycle Assessment, risk assessment and validation of the industrial feasibility, including economic evaluation of the products. The results will be disseminated to the European smart paper, printed electronic, photovoltaic, display, security and health communities.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2013.5.1-2 | Award Amount: 3.17M | Year: 2014
The project investigates the notion of demand for trafficking in human beings (THB) from a range of scientific perspectives and develops an integrated framework that comprehensively addresses and relates demand with alternative framings where appropriate. The findings provide empirical evidence to concrete policy questions on the EU agenda and lay-out the full range of promising policy options. The project consortium engages in continuous, intensive communication efforts with the objective of ensuring a good take-up of research results by policy-makers, other stakeholders and the wider society. Work will proceed in three phases: Phase 1 involves a comprehensive analysis of theoretical and empirical literature as well as an overview over debates with regard to trafficking for different purposes (commercial sex, labor exploitation, child begging, forced marriages, organ removal and criminal activities), and a mapping of demand related policy measures in different countries. On this basis, a joint conceptual approach will be developed. Phase 2 involves five in-depth empirical case studies. Three of them address specific fields with systematic differences with regard to the type of demand linked to trafficking: Domestic work, prostitution and imported goods which are provided through global supply chains. Two case studies investigate specifically relevant policy approaches (law enforcement and raising awareness through campaigns). Phase 3 integrates insights from both phases into a coherent framework and intensifies dissemination which is informed by continuous, systematic stakeholder communication throughout the project.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-3.1-1 | Award Amount: 3.60M | Year: 2009
This collaborative project will develop a European methodology to assess the implementation of research evidence into practice (the European Implementation Score (EIS)), in primary, secondary and specialist care from the perspectives of different target groups (users and carers, voluntary organisations, range of health and social care professionals and health policy makers). The EIS will measure how well new knowledge is implemented into clinical practice in Europe. The EIS will address implementation of research knowledge at different levels of the health care system (micro-, meso- and macro-level) and in different health care settings (e.g. primary care, hospital, specialised care). The focus of the project will be in stroke because of the emerging new evidence of effective new treatments available and because of the national initiatives and governmental policies in this area. We will test the transferability of the develop methods using coronary heart disease as another vascular disease example. General recommendations for measuring effective implementation of research results will be developed from the perspectives of users, health care professionals and health policy, hence widening the theoretical framework for effective implementation from a focus on patients and professionals alone. The different components of the EIS will be refined according to their ability to predict successful implementation of evidence based stroke care in different settings in Europe. The identification of factors determining effective implementation will be data driven, analysing available data from national audits and population-based registers. The EIS will benchmark the current status of implementation of research results in different health care settings at different levels of the health care system and will inform health policy of a possible set of processes required for closing the research/practice gap.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: KBBE-2007-3-2-05 | Award Amount: 1.49M | Year: 2008
Metabolic engineering is an applied science focusing on developing new cell factories or improving existing ones. Metabolic engineering is an enabling science, and distinguishes itself from applied genetic engineering by the use of advanced analytical tools for identification of appropriate targets for genetic modifications and the use of mathematical models to perform in silico design of optimized cell factories. In recent years, there has been increasing focus on using mathematical models for design. SYSIBIO will coordinate European activities in the field of model driven metabolic engineering and also coordination of activities on other technologies required for state of the art metabolic engineering, e.g. metabolomics and fluxomics. The coordination of activities will involve establishing a database containing metabolic models for different industrially important microorganisms. The database will also contain different simulation tools required for use of these models to identify metabolic engineering targets and use of these models for analysis of omics data. SYSINBIO will also coordinate the further development of techniques required for metabolic engineering, such as metabolomics, fluxomics and identification of mutations in evolved strains. Furthermore, an important part of SYSINBIO will be coordination of education and training in the field of metabolic engineering in Europe.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Training Grant | Award Amount: 4.34M | Year: 2014
This world-leading Centre for Doctoral Training in Bioenergy will focus on delivering the people to realise the potential of biomass to provide secure, affordable and sustainable low carbon energy in the UK and internationally. Sustainably-sourced bioenergy has the potential to make a major contribution to low carbon pathways in the UK and globally, contributing to the UKs goal of reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050 and the international mitigation target of a maximum 2 degrees Celsius temperature rise. Bioenergy can make a significant contribution to all three energy sectors: electricity, heat and transport, but faces challenges concerning technical performance, cost effectiveness, ensuring that it is sustainably produced and does not adversely impact food security and biodiversity. Bioenergy can also contribute to social and economic development in developing countries, by providing access to modern energy services and creating job opportunities both directly and in the broader economy. Many of the challenges associated with realising the potential of bioenergy have engineering and physical sciences at their core, but transcend traditional discipline boundaries within and beyond engineering. This requires an effective whole systems research training response and given the depth and breadth of the bioenergy challenge, only a CDT will deliver the necessary level of integration. Thus, the graduates from the CDT in Bioenergy will be equipped with the tools and skills to make intelligent and informed, responsible choices about the implementation of bioenergy, and the growing range of social and economic concerns. There is projected to be a large absorptive capacity for trained individuals in bioenergy, far exceeding current supply. A recent report concerning UK job creation in bioenergy sectors concluded that there may be somewhere in the region of 35-50,000 UK jobs in bioenergy by 2020 (NNFCC report for DECC, 2012). This concerned job creation in electricity production, heat, and anaerobic digestion (AD) applications of biomass. The majority of jobs are expected to be technical, primarily in the engineering and construction sectors during the building and operation of new bioenergy facilities. To help develop and realise the potential of this sector, the CDT will build strategically on our research foundation to deliver world-class doctoral training, based around key areas:  Feedstocks, pre-processing and safety;  Conversion;  Utilisation, emissions and impact;  Sustainability and Whole systems. Theme 1 will link feedstocks to conversion options, and Themes 2 and 3 include the core underpinning science and engineering research, together with innovation and application. Theme 4 will underpin this with a thorough understanding of the whole energy system including sustainability, social, economic public and political issues, drawing on world-leading research centres at Leeds. The unique training provision proposed, together with the multidisciplinary supervisory team will ensure that students are equipped to become future leaders, and responsible innovators in the bioenergy sector.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-1.4-1 | Award Amount: 16.14M | Year: 2010
There are currently no cures for Parkinsons disease (PD) but one of the most effective reparative therapies in patients to date has been with allotransplants of dopamine (DA) neuroblasts obtained from fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) tissue. However, this cell transplantation approach has given inconsistent results, with some patients doing extremely well and coming off anti-PD medication for years, whilst others have shown no or only modest clinical improvements, and in some cases also developed severe, off-state graft-induced dyskinesias (GIDs). The reasons behind this heterogeneity of outcomes, and the emergence of GIDs in particular, need to be better understood, not least in the perspective of the rapid advances that are now being made in the development of stem-cell based therapies. There is therefore an urgent need to revisit the trials that have already been done with fetal VM tissue in PD patients, with the expectation that a critical reassessment can form the basis for an optimised and more standardised procedure that will translate into more consistently efficacious transplants with minimal side-effects. Over the last two years a group of international experts, including the key investigators of the previous European and North American trials, has been re-examining the outcome of these trials as well as reviewing the results obtained from recent and ongoing animal experimental studies, and identified a number of weaknesses that may explain the inconsistent outcome in previous trials. As a result of these discussions, the group has agreed to join forces in a new round of experimental work and cell therapy trials in PD, based on a new jointly developed protocol where all these factors are taken into account. In the first instance fetal VM tissue containing mesencephalic DA neuroblasts will be used, with the expectation that this will pave the way for bigger trials using dopaminergic neurons derived from stem cells.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.3.1 | Award Amount: 6.22M | Year: 2013
E2SWITCH focuses on Tunnel FET (TFETs) as most promising energy efficient device candidates able to reduce the voltage supply of integrated circuits (ICs) below 0.25V and make them significantly more energy efficient by exploiting strained SiGe/Ge and III-V platforms, with CMOS technological compatibility. A full optimization and DC/AC benchmarking for complementary n- and p-type TFETs, integrated on the same fabrication platform, is proposed. Compact models are developed and implemented in Verilog A, for portability, to support the design of low power ICs with CMOS architectural compatibility for: (i) digital and (ii) analog/RF. The device scalability, operational reliability and the operation from room to high temperature, as required by ITRS metrics, are priorities of our investigations. In order to push even more the III-V and SiGe/Ge TFET performance we propose to study, optimize and experimentally validate new device concepts such as a Density-Of-State (DOS) switch exploiting the effect of dimensionality. The DOS switch will deliver deep subthermal switching (subthreshold swing less than 10mV/decade, for at least four decades of current).An advanced TCAD simulation platform is developed for the selected material systems, able to capture quantum effects and to accurately predict the influence of dimensionality. TCAD will also support the optimization of TFETs on the two proposed material platforms, with emphasis on the role of strain and on the alignment between the tunneling path and the electric field.A full set of characterization techniques including DC, AC, low frequency noise, RF measurements (S-parameters) and large range of temperature is foreseen to support the device optimization, parameter extraction and the calibration of the compact models.We will deliver very first full digital and analog circuit demonstrators and will benchmark their operational performance, reliability and robustness compared to equivalent CMOS technology nodes.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.16 | Award Amount: 11.60M | Year: 2011
Climate change is for a large part governed by atmospheric processes, in particular the interaction between radiation and atmospheric components (e.g. aerosols, clouds, greenhouse and trace gases). Some of these components are also those with adverse health effects influencing air quality. Strengthening the ground-based component of the Earth Observing System for these key atmospheric variables has unambiguously been asserted in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report and Thematic Strategy on air pollution of the EU. However, a coordinated research infrastructure for these observations is presently lacking. ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) aims to fill this observational gap through the coordination of European ground-based network of stations equipped with advanced atmospheric probing instrumentation for aerosols, clouds and short-lived trace gases. ACTRIS is a coordinated network that contributes to: providing long-term observational data relevant to climate and air quality research produced with standardized or comparable procedures; supporting transnational access to large infrastructures strengthening collaboration in and outside the EU and access to high quality information and services to the user communities; developing new integration tools to fully exploit the use of atmospheric techniques at ground-based stations, in particular for the calibration/validation/integration of satellite sensors and for the improvement of global and regional-scale climate and air quality models. ACTRIS supports training of new users in particular young scientists in the field of atmospheric observations and promotes the development of new technologies for atmospheric observation of aerosols, clouds and trace gases through close partnership with SMEs. ACTRIS will have the essential role to support integrated research actions in Europe for building the scientific knowledge required to support policy issues on air quality and climate change.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.2.3-01 | Award Amount: 4.38M | Year: 2013
SAFETYPACK aims the realisation of a new contactless non- intrusive laser gas sensors that will provide the food manufacturing industry with a real time in line control technology that can perform quality and safety control of a wide range of sealed food. In food packaging industry the use of gases other than air in the process of manufacturing and sealing of food items for distribution to the consumer chain (supermarkets, retail points, etc) has progressively grown. It follows that the precise measurement and control of the inside atmosphere represent a requirement in the food and packaging industries. The control will be made in-line after closure or later to monitor the integrity of the seal and its evolution in time. Inline non intrusive laser gas sensors, contactless based on laser spectroscopy, will be developed and validated in the project timeframe. It can operate both on (partially) transparent (food trays and bags, bottles) as well in almost non-transparent containers. What is new in our proposal is the possibility to measure gas with laser spectroscopy within diffuse materials, such as paper, plastic and food itself with a new method of inspection and its adaptation to measuring closed containers from food trays, to bags, to milk containers to bottles of different shape, colors, transparent and not transparent. The sensors will be demonstrated and validated with two real time in line pilot installations regarding bread, tortilla and cheese production. The S/T objectives will provide: Non introusive real time in line food packaging inspection. Fast & High precision accuracy gas sensor. Sensor available for exploitation in food industry. SAFETYPACK fully responds to the topic extending the in line control of safety and quality control on food processing, allowing the emerging of new hi-tech products to be applied to a large variety of packaging, supporting the overall objective to secure quality, safety and shelf life for European food products.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.91M | Year: 2013
Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Europe. Small arteries form a key element in the pathogenesis. Thus, these vessels dictate local perfusion and blood pressure by adaptation of their caliber. Structural changes towards smaller caliber, small artery remodelling, cause hypertension and decreased organ perfusion, leading to acute events and chronic end organ dysfunction. Despite this role, these vessels are poorly studied and therapeutic options based on these arteries are lacking. SmArteR (Small Artery Remodelling) collects 13 academic and SME partners who have set up a training programme for 12 ESRs and 3 ERs. We address the interaction between cells, extracellular matrix and mechanical loading in an integrative way, taking advantage of the multidisciplinary partnership. Thus, we will unravel the processes in small artery remodelling at the molecular, cellular and integrative physiology level, and we will develop novel and marketable technology aimed at studying these vessels in vitro under the right biomechanical conditions. The ESRs and ERs are trained in not only cardiovascular R&D, but also in a range of skills required to form the new generation of frontrunners in biomedical research in academia and industry.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2010.1.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 9.81M | Year: 2011
The Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS) European large scale integrating project brings together most of the leading European research groups, with state-of the-art observational and modeling facilities to: (1) Quantify the magnitude of regional to global feedbacks between atmospheric chemistry and a changing climate and to reduce the corresponding uncertainty of the major ones. (2) Identify mitigation strategies and policies to improve air quality while limiting their impact on climate change. The project is organized into four scientific Themes designed to optimize the integration of methodologies, scales, and ultimately our understanding of air quality and climate interactions: (I) Anthropogenic and biogenic emissions and their response to climate and socio-economy (II) Atmospheric interactions among chemical and physical processes (III) Regional and global links between atmospheric chemistry and climate change (IV) Air quality in a changing climate: Integration with policy PEGASOS will bridge the spatial and temporal scales that connect local surface-air pollutant exchanges, air quality and weather with global atmospheric chemistry and climate. Our major focus for air quality will be Europe including effects of changes in pollutant emissions elsewhere and the time horizon for the study will be the next 50 years. During the project we will provide improved process understanding in areas of major uncertainty for better quantification of feedbacks between air quality and a changing climate. We will present, for the first time, a fully integrated analysis of dynamically changing emissions and deposition, their link to tropospheric chemical reactions and interactions with climate, and emerging feedbacks between chemistry-climate and surface processes. We will target both local and regional scales, taking into account chemistry and climate feedbacks on the global scale.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 3.75M | Year: 2010
The objective of the ACUSEP research project is to develop an integrated, dry-reagent based disposable ready-to-use cartridge enabling rapid analysis of sepsis-causing organisms and eventual identification of antibiotic resistance directly from suspected blood samples. Sepsis causes annually up to 135 000 deaths in Europe and the early diagnosis is the key to improved survival. Identification of the antibiotic resistance is further beneficial to fast initiation of proper antimicrobial treatment. The rapid diagnostics of sepsis and identification of the causative pathogens can be achieved by research utilizing the recent technological advances; combining acoustophoretic collection of the pathogens from whole blood and photoluminescent dual-tag probe-pair detection technology with nucleic acid amplification providing excellent sensitivity and speed needed in acute diagnostics. The consortium is assembled to cover all the key research areas of the project. It consists of academic research organizations with significant technical and scientific experience of acoustophoretic target organism collection and purification, nucleic acid amplification, photoluminescent reporters and multiplexed homogeneous probe detection technologies. The project will proceed in phases, divided to both parallel and serial tasks in collaboration with SME and clinical partners involved, to perform a clinical evaluation of the developed prototype consumable assay cartridge and to initiate further exploitation activities. The specific objective in FP7 HEALTH-2010 addressed to is to develop detection and analytical tools and technologies for diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of diseases.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.1.2-3 | Award Amount: 16.09M | Year: 2008
EuroSyStem brings together elite European research teams to create a unique and world-leading programme in fundamental stem cell biology. By interconnecting complementary biological and computational expertise we will drive the generation of new knowledge on the characteristics of normal and abnormal stem cells. We will pave the way for application of systems methodology by measuring and modelling stem cell properties and behaviour. Information will be mined from studies in model organisms, but our primary focus is on the paradigmatic mammalian stem cells haematopoietic, epithelial, neural and embryonic. We will compare cellular hierarchy, signalling, epigenetics, dysregulation, and plasticity. Niche dependence, asymmetric division, transcriptional circuitry and the decision between self-renewal and commitment are linked in a cross-cutting work package. A multidisciplinary approach combines transgenesis, real time imaging, multi-parameter flow cytometry, transcriptomics, RNA interference, proteomics and single cell methodologies. SMEs will contribute to the development of enhanced resolution quantitative technologies. A platform work package will provide new computational tools and database resources, enabling implementation of novel analytical and modelling approaches. EuroSyStem will engage with and provide a focal point for the European stem cell research community. The targeted collaborations within the EuroSyStem research project will be augmented by federating European research excellence in different tissues and organisms. We will organise annual symposia, training workshops, summer schools, networking and research opportunities to promote a flourishing basic stem cell research community. This network will foster interaction and synergy, accelerating progress to a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of stem cell properties. In parallel EuroSyStem will develop WEB resources, educational and outreach materials for scientists and the lay community.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2009-3.3.1. | Award Amount: 3.44M | Year: 2010
In recent times, Europe has experienced increasing tensions between national majorities and ethnic or religious minorities, more particularly with marginalised Muslim communities. In some countries challenges relate more to immigrant groups while in other countries they refer to native minority claims. It is in this geopolitical context that the ACCEPT project responds to Topic 3.3.1 and notably in the quest for investigating whether European societies have become more or less tolerant during the past 20 years and in the necessity to clarify: (a) how is tolerance defined conceptually, (b) how it is codified in norms, institutional arrangements, public policies but also social practices, (c) how tolerance can be measured and how the degree of tolerance of a society across time or of several countries at the same time can be compared (whose tolerance, who is tolerated, and what if degrees of tolerance vary with reference to different minority groups). The project starts from a distinction between liberal tolerance (not interfering with practices or forms of life of a person even if one disapproves of them) and egalitarian tolerance referring to institutional arrangements and public policies that fight negative stereotyping, promote positive inclusive identities and re-organise the public space in ways that accommodate diversity. It reviews critically past empirical research and the scholarly theoretical literature on the topic. It conducts original empirical research on key events of national and European relevance that thematise different understandings and practices of tolerance. Bringing together empirical and theoretical findings, ACCEPT generates a State of the Art on Tolerance and Cultural Diversity in Europe targeting policy makers, NGOs and practitioners, a Handbook on Ideas of Tolerance and Cultural Diversity in Europe aimed to be used at upper high school level and with local/national policy makers, a Tolerance Indicators Toolkit where qualitative and quantitative indicators may be used to score each countrys performance on tolerating cultural diversity. These indicators will inform the evaluation and development of public policies in this area. Last but not least the ACCEPT project will produce a book manuscript on Tolerance, Pluralism and Cultural Diversity in Europe. The project includes direct communication and feedback mechanisms with civil society, political and media actors for the dissemination and exploitation of its findings.