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Lund University is one of northern Europe's oldest and most prestigious universities,consistently ranking among the world's top 100 universities. Further, it ranks among the best universities in Northern Europe and in international rankings. The university, located in the city of Lund in the province of Scania, Sweden, traces its roots back to 1425, when a Franciscan studium generale was founded in Lund next to the Lund Cathedral, arguably making it the oldest institution of higher education in Scandinavia followed by studia generalia in Uppsala in 1477 and Copenhagen in 1479. The current university was however not founded until 1666 after Sweden acquired Scania in the 1658 peace agreement with Denmark.Lund University has eight faculties, with additional campuses in the cities of Malmö and Helsingborg, with 47,000 students in more than 280 different programmes and around 2,250 separate courses. The University has some 680 partner universities in over 50 countries and it belongs to the League of European Research Universities as well as the global Universitas 21 network.Two major facilities for materials research are currently under construction in Lund: MAX IV, which will be a world-leading synchrotron radiation laboratory and European Spallation Source , a European facility that will be home to the world’s most powerful neutron source.The university traditionally centers on the Lundagård park adjacent to the Lund Cathedral, with various departments spread in different locations in town, but mostly concentrated in a belt stretching north from the park connecting to the university hospital area and continuing out to the northeastern periphery of the town, where one finds the large campus of the Faculty of Engineering. Wikipedia.

Helsing J.,Lund University
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2011

An integral equation based scheme is presented for the fast and accurate computation of effective conductivities of two-component checkerboard-like composites with complicated unit cells at very high contrast ratios. The scheme extends recent work on multi-component checkerboards at medium contrast ratios. General improvement include the simplification of a long-range preconditioner, the use of a banded solver, and a more efficient placement of quadrature points. This, together with a reduction in the number of unknowns, allows for a substantial increase in achievable accuracy as well as in tractable system size. Results, accurate to at least nine digits, are obtained for random checkerboards with over a million squares in the unit cell at contrast ratio 106. Furthermore, the scheme is flexible enough to handle complex valued conductivities and, using a homotopy method, purely negative contrast ratios. Examples of the accurate computation of resonant spectra are given. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Alerstam T.,Lund University
Journal of Ornithology | Year: 2011

Using optimality perspectives is now regarded as an essential way of analysing and understanding adaptations and behavioural strategies in bird migration. Optimization analyses in bird migration research have diversified greatly during the two recent decades with respect tomethods used as well as to topics addressed. Methods range from simple analytical and geometric models to more complex modeling by stochastic dynamic programming, annual routine models and multiobjective optimization. Also, game theory and simulation by selection algorithms have been used. A wide range of aspects of bird migration have been analyzed including flight, fuel deposition, predation risk, stopover site use, transition to breeding, routes and detours, daily timing, fly-and-forage migration, wind selectivity and wind drift, phenotypic flexibility, arrival time and annual molt and migration schedules. Optimization analyses have proven to be particularly important for defining problems and specifying questions and predictions about the consequences of minimization of energy, time and predation risk in bird migration. Optimization analyses will probably also be important in the future, when predictions about bird migration strategies can be tested by much new data obtained by modern tracking techniques and when the importance of new trade-offs, associated with, e.g., digestive physiology, metabolism, immunocompetence and disease, need to be assessed in bird migration research. © Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2011.

The supervisory system of the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has been heavily criticized for not being able to guarantee the additionality of projects. Since neither the sellers nor the buyers of emission reduction credits in the CDM have an interest in the emissions reductions per se, but simply the right to them, a credible supervisory system is necessary to uphold the mechanism's integrity. In the CDM, the on-the-ground supervision of projects has been delegated to the Designated Operational Entities (DOEs), which are private companies accredited by the CDM Executive Board (EB) to perform this task. But, as the DOEs are selected and paid by the project developers themselves, they have an economic incentive to let projects through to gain a favourable reputation among clients. Taking its starting point in delegation theory, this article argues that the supervisory system of the CDM is fundamentally flawed, since its design is incompatible with basic theoretical insights from this literature. It concludes that a thorough reform of the CDM's supervisory system is needed in order to increase its credibility. First, the EB should select and pay the DOEs. Second, the current rules for determining additionality should be replaced so as to reduce the arbitrariness of decisions. © 2010 Earthscan.

Lundin J.F.,Lund University
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2012

Supply chain management includes coordination and motivation of independently operating partners. Therefore, it is important to align logistics structures, processes and incentives, especially when making major changes involving those components. Traditionally, cost, quality, and service have served as prioritized performance indicators for supply chains, but lately risk is also taken into consideration (Tang, 2006), especially when studying risk-exposed supply chains. This paper presents a case study of a cash supply chain (CSC). A CSC provides society with notes and coins (Rajamani et al., 2006), which typically involves two parties working together: a central bank and a group of private actors (private banks and logistics service/security providers). Together, they form a closed-loop supply chain (see Guide and Van Wassenhove, 2006), which through their storage facilities and transport means supply cash to their customers (ATMs, bank branches, and retailers), whom in turn enables societys cash consumption. The CSC studied in this paper has during the last couple of years gone through several design changes in network structure (e.g. reducing number of storage facilities), processes (outsourcing), and incentive mechanisms (payment schemes and policies). Most design changes were carried out in order to decrease number of transports from and to central bank storage facilities, nevertheless some of them led to unintended effects (so-called misalignments). Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present a model that determines effects caused by design changes in a CSC. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Neff B.D.,University of Western Ontario | Svensson E.I.,Lund University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Many species in the animal kingdom are characterized by alternative mating tactics (AMTs) within a sex. In males, such tactics include mate guarding versus sneaking behaviours, or territorial versus female mimicry. Although AMTs can occur in either sex, they have been most commonly described in males. This sex bias may, in part, reflect the increased opportunity for sexual selection that typically exists in males, which can result in a higher probability that AMTs evolve in that sex. Consequently, females and polyandry can play a pivotal role in governing the reproductive success associated with male AMTs and in the evolutionary dynamics of the tactics. In this review, we discuss polyandry and the evolution of AMTs. First, we define AMTs and review game theoretical and quantitative genetic approaches used to model their evolution. Second, we review several examples of AMTs, highlighting the roles that genes and environment play in phenotype expression and development of the tactics, as well as empirical approaches to differentiating among the mechanisms. Third, ecological and genetic constraints to the evolution of AMTs are discussed. Fourth, we speculate on why female AMTs are less reported on in the literature than male tactics. Fifth, we examine the effects of AMTs on breeding outcomes and female fitness, and as a source, and possibly also a consequence, of sexual conflict. We conclude by suggesting a new model for the evolution of AMTs that incorporates both environmental and genetic effects, and discuss some future avenues of research. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Helsing J.,Lund University
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2011

An algorithm is presented for the fast and accurate solution of the electrostatic equation on multi-component random checkerboards. It relies on a particular choice of integral equation, extended as to separate ill-conditioning due to singular fields in corners from ill-conditioning due to interaction of clusters of well-conducting squares at large distances. Two separate preconditioners take care of the two separate phenomena. In a series of numerical examples, effective conductivities are computed for random checkerboards containing up to 104 squares with conductivity ratios of up to 106. The achievable relative precision in these examples is on the order of 10-11. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Bjorklund A.,Lund University
Proceedings - Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS | Year: 2010

We present a Monte Carlo algorithm for Hamiltonicity detection in an n-vertex undirected graph running in O*(1.657 n) time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first superpolynomial improvement on the worst case runtime for the problem since the O*(2 n) bound established for TSP almost fifty years ago (Bellman 1962, Held and Karp 1962). It answers in part the first open problem in Woeginger's 2003 survey on exact algorithms for NP-hard problems. For bipartite graphs, we improve the bound to O*(1.414 n) time. Both the bipartite and the general algorithm can be implemented to use space polynomial in n. We combine several recently resurrected ideas to get the results. Our main technical contribution is a new reduction inspired by the algebraic sieving method for k-Path (Koutis ICALP 2008, Williams IPL 2009). We introduce the Labeled Cycle Cover Sum in which we are set to count weighted arc labeled cycle covers over a finite field of characteristic two. We reduce Hamiltonicity to Labeled Cycle Cover Sum and apply the determinant summation technique for Exact Set Covers (Björklund STACS 2010) to evaluate it. © 2010 IEEE.

Leijnse M.,Lund University
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2014

We theoretically investigate the possibility to use thermolectric measurements to detect Majorana bound states and to investigate their coupling to a dissipative environment. The particle-hole symmetry of Majorana states would normally lead to a vanishing Seebeck coefficient, i.e. a vanishing open-circuit voltage resulting from a temperature gradient. We discuss how coupling to a quantum dot with a gate-controlled energy level breaks particle-hole symmetry in a tunable manner. The resulting gate-dependent Seebeck coefficient provides a new way to evidence the existence of Majorana states, which can be combined with conventional tunnel spectroscopy in the same setup. Furthermore, the thermoelectric properties rely on the ability of the quantum dot-Majorana system to sense the temperature of the bulk superconductor and can be used to extract information about the dissipative decay of Majorana states, which is crucial for quantum information applications. © 2014 IOP Publishing and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

Leemann S.C.,Lund University
Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams | Year: 2014

The latest generation of storage ring-based light sources employs multibend achromat lattices to achieve ultralow emittance. These lattices make use of a large number of weak bending magnets which considerably reduces the amount of power radiated in the dipoles in comparison to power radiated from insertion devices. Therefore, in such storage rings, parameters such as emittance, energy spread, and radiated power are - unlike 3rd generation storage rings - no longer constant during a typical user shift. Instead, they depend on several varying parameters such as insertion device gap settings, bunch charge, bunch length, etc. Since the charge per bunch is usually high, intrabeam scattering in medium-energy storage rings with ultralow emittance becomes very strong. This creates a dependence of emittance on stored current. Furthermore, since the bunch length is adjusted with rf cavities but is also varied as insertion device gaps change, the emittance blowup from intrabeam scattering is not constant either. Therefore, the emittance, bunch length, and hence the resulting Touschek lifetime have to be calculated in a self-consistent fashion with 6D tracking taking into account not only the bare lattice and rf cavity settings, but also momentary bunch charge and gap settings. Using the MAX IV 3 GeV storage ring as an example, this paper demonstrates the intricate interplay between transverse emittance (insertion devices, emittance coupling), longitudinal emittance (tuning of main cavities as well as harmonic cavities), and choice of stored current in an ultralow-emittance storage ring as well as some implications for brightness optimization. © Published by the American Physical Society.

Erlinge D.,Lund University
Blood | Year: 2015

In this issue of Blood, Buchanan and coauthors present the development of a specific antidote for ticagrelor.1 In fact, this is the first specific antidote against any antiplatelet agent. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

Nilsson D.-E.,Lund University
Visual Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Eye evolution is driven by the evolution of visually guided behavior. Accumulation of gradually more demanding behaviors have continuously increased the performance requirements on the photoreceptor organs. Starting with nondirectional photoreception, I argue for an evolutionary sequence continuing with directional photoreception, low-resolution vision, and finally, high-resolution vision. Calculations of the physical requirements for these four sensory tasks show that they correlate with major innovations in eye evolution and thus work as a relevant classification for a functional analysis of eye evolution. Together with existing molecular and morphological data, the functional analysis suggests that urbilateria had a simple set of rhabdomeric and ciliary receptors used for directional photoreception, and that organ duplications, positional shifts and functional shifts account for the diverse patterns of eyes and photoreceptors seen in extant animals. The analysis also suggests that directional photoreception evolved independently at least twice before the last common ancestor of bilateria and proceeded several times independently to true vision in different bilaterian and cnidarian groups. This scenario is compatible with Pax-gene expression in eye development in the different animal groups. The whole process from the first opsin to high-resolution vision took about 170 million years and was largely completed by the onset of the Cambrian, about 530 million years ago. Evolution from shadow detectors to multiple directional photoreceptors has further led to secondary cases of eye evolution in bivalves, fan worms, and chitons. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.

Sandhu G.,Lund University
Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most ancient diseases of mankind, with molecular evidence going back to over 17,000 years. In spite of newer modalities for diagnosis and treatment of TB, unfortunately, people are still suffering, and worldwide it is among the top 10 killer infectious diseases, second only to HIV. According to World Health Organization (WHO), TB is a worldwide pandemic. It is a leading cause of death among HIV-infected people. In India, historically speaking, fight against TB can be broadly classified into three periods: early period, before the discoveries of x-ray and chemotherapy; post-independence period, during which nationwide TB control programs were initiated and implemented; and the current period, during which the ongoing WHO-assisted TB control program is in place. Today, India′s DOTS (directly observed treatment-short course) program is the fastest-expanding and the largest program in the world in terms of patients initiated on treatment; and the second largest, in terms of population coverage. Major challenges to control TB in India include poor primary health-care infrastructure in rural areas of many states; unregulated private health care leading to widespread irrational use of first-line and second-line anti-TB drugs; spreading HIV infection; lack of political will; and, above all, corrupt administration. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is another emerging threat to TB eradication and is a result of deficient or deteriorating TB control program. WHO with its "STOP TB" strategy has given a vision to eliminate TB as a public health problem from the face of this earth by 2050. For this review article, data available at the official websites of WHO; and from the Ministry of Health, Government of India, were consulted, and search engines PubMed® and Google Scholar were used.

Durbeej M.,Lund University
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2010

Laminins are cell adhesion molecules that comprise a family of glycoproteins found predominantly in basement membranes, which are the thin sheets of extracellular matrix that underlie epithelial and endothelial cells and surround muscle cells, Schwann cells, and fat cells. Many laminins self-assemble to form networks that remain in close association with cells through interactions with cell surface receptors. Laminins are vital for many physiological functions. They are essential for early embryonic development and organogenesis and have crucial functions in several tissues including muscle, nerve, skin, kidney, lung, and the vasculature. A great wealth of data on laminins is available, and an in-depth description is not attempted here. In this review, I will instead provide a snapshot of laminin structure, tissue distribution, and interactions with other matrix molecules and receptors and briefly describe laminin mutations in mice and humans. Several illuminating and timely reviews are cited that can be consulted for references to original articles and more detailed information concerning laminins. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Marsal K.,Lund University
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010

Despite that epidemiological studies did not indicate negative effects on neurological development of offspring when exposed to diagnostic ultrasound, possible association with nonright-handedness in males could not be excluded. In addition, an experimental study on fetal mice suggested that prolonged ultrasound exposure may cause mild disturbance in neuronal migration. No doubt, further studies are warranted. The present knowledge of the potential bioeffects of ultrasound suggests that, when using ultrasound for examinations in pregnancy, fetal scanning without medical indication should be avoided and that adherence to ALARA principle (use of energy " as low as reasonably achievable") is compulsory. © 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.

Muijres F.T.,Lund University
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society | Year: 2012

Many small passerines regularly fly slowly when catching prey, flying in cluttered environments or landing on a perch or nest. While flying slowly, passerines generate most of the flight forces during the downstroke, and have a 'feathered upstroke' during which they make their wing inactive by retracting it close to the body and by spreading the primary wing feathers. How this flight mode relates aerodynamically to the cruising flight and so-called 'normal hovering' as used in hummingbirds is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid dynamics data in combination with wingbeat kinematics data for three pied flycatchers flying across a range of speeds from near hovering to their calculated minimum power speed. Flycatchers are adapted to low speed flight, which they habitually use when catching insects on the wing. From the wake dynamics data, we constructed average wingbeat wakes and determined the time-resolved flight forces, the time-resolved downwash distributions and the resulting lift-to-drag ratios, span efficiencies and flap efficiencies. During the downstroke, slow-flying flycatchers generate a single-vortex loop wake, which is much more similar to that generated by birds at cruising flight speeds than it is to the double loop vortex wake in hovering hummingbirds. This wake structure results in a relatively high downwash behind the body, which can be explained by the relatively active tail in flycatchers. As a result of this, slow-flying flycatchers have a span efficiency which is similar to that of the birds in cruising flight and which can be assumed to be higher than in hovering hummingbirds. During the upstroke, the wings of slowly flying flycatchers generated no significant forces, but the body-tail configuration added 23 per cent to weight support. This is strikingly similar to the 25 per cent weight support generated by the wing upstroke in hovering hummingbirds. Thus, for slow-flying passerines, the upstroke cannot be regarded as inactive, and the tail may be of importance for flight efficiency and possibly manoeuvrability.

Segad M.,Lund University
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2013

An accurate characterization of the microstructure of raw and pure homoionic clays from Wadi Bashira in Iraq (IQ-WB) has been carried out experimentally, using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and dynamic light scattering. The structures of lamellar IQ-WB dispersions were identified by these techniques and by complementary free swelling and dialysis experiments. SAXS measurements were used to resolve the characteristic distance, h s, between individual platelets in Na IQ-WB and between platelets inside tactoids formed in Ca clays. The tactoids in raw and Ca IQ-WB have well formed lamellar structures where h s = 1.9nm. The average lateral size, D, of a platelet is determined to be a few hundred nanometres. Analysis of the SAXS peaks, based on the Scherrer relation, revealed a small difference in the average number of platelets per tactoid, N = 6-9, depending on platelet size and the concentrations of divalent counter-ions. It was also found that the average tactoid size can be estimated from an empirical relation as follows: N ≃ δ + D, where δ is a constant and the slope. © 2013 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore - all rights reserved.

Persson M.,Lund University
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016

Background:The association between smoking and breast cancer prognosis remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preoperative smoking was associated with prognosis in different treatment groups.Methods:This population-based cohort consisted of 1065 breast cancer patients without preoperative treatment included between 2002 and 2012 in Lund, Sweden. Smoking status was examined in relation to patient and tumour characteristics, and prognosis in different treatment groups.Results:At the preoperative visit, 21.0% smoked. Median follow-up time was 5.1 years. Overall, in the 1016 patients included in the survival analyses, there was no significant association between smoking and risk of breast cancer events (adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR): 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95–2.20). For the 309 aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treated patients ⩾50 years with oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumours, smoking was associated with risk of breast cancer events (adjHR: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.44–6.13), distant metastasis (adjHR: 4.19; 95% CI: 1.81–9.72), and death (adjHR: 3.52; 95% CI: 1.59–7.81). Smoking was not associated with breast cancer events or distant metastasis in other treatment groups.Conclusions:Preoperative smoking was only associated with an increased risk for breast cancer events and distant metastasis in AI-treated patients. If confirmed, smoking status should be taken into consideration when selecting an endocrine therapy.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 9 June 2016; doi:10.1038/bjc.2016.174 www.bjcancer.com. © 2016 Cancer Research UK

Premise of the study: Small, autogamous flowers have evolved repeatedly in the plant kingdom. While much attention has focused on the mechanisms that promote the shift to autogamy, there is still a paucity of information on the factors that underlie the reduction of flower size so prevalent in selfing lineages. In this study of Crepis tectorum, I examine the role of inbreeding, acting alone or together with selection, in promoting evolutionary reduction of flower size. Methods: Experimental crosses were performed to produce progeny populations that differed in inbreeding and (or) selection history. Progenies were grown in two different environments and scored for flower size and other characters. Key results: Inbreeding depressed flower and fruit size, but also caused changes in flowering time and the number of heads produced. Despite some inconsistencies in the results for the last progeny generation, the decline in flower size was persistent over generations, consistent across environments, and similar in magnitude to the effects of selection for small flower size and the floral reduction inferred to have taken place during the shift toward autogamy within the study species. The floral size reduction was largely independent of changes in overall vigor, and there was considerable adaptive potential in flower size (measured by sib analyses and parent-offspring comparisons) after inbreeding. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that inbreeding can promote evolutionary reduction of flower size and highlight the close, persistent association between flower and fruit size in the study species. © 2012 Botanical Society of America.

Svensson T.,Lund University | Shen Z.,University of Stockholm
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

We show that high-resolution laser spectroscopy can probe surface interactions of gas confined in nanocavities of porous materials. We report on strong line broadening and unfamiliar line shapes due to tight confinement, as well as signal enhancement due to multiple photon scattering. This new domain of laser spectroscopy constitute a challenge for the theory of collisions and spectroscopic line shapes, and open for new ways of analyzing porous materials and processes taking place therein. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Ryde U.,Lund University
MedChemComm | Year: 2014

In this paper, enthalpy-entropy compensation (EEC) during the association of two molecules is studied by minimising model systems with molecular mechanics (MM) or quantum mechanics (QM), calculating translational, rotational, and vibrational contributions to the enthalpy and entropy with standard statistical-mechanics methods, using the rigid-rotor harmonic-oscillator approach. We start with simple two-atom models, for which dispersion and electrostatics can be studied separately, showing that there is no fundamental difference between dispersion, electrostatics, or even covalent interactions. All three types of interactions give rise to EEC and a saturation of TΔS as ΔH becomes strongly negative. Next, homologous series of complexes dominated either by dispersion or hydrogen bonds are studied. We see no qualitative difference between results obtained at the MM or QM level, and for all complexes except two very weak, EEC is observed, owing to the loss of translational and rotational entropy, typically counteracted by the vibrational entropy. Within homologous series, linear relations between TΔS and ΔH with slopes of 0.1-1.7 are obtained with no clear difference between dispersive or hydrogen-bonded systems (but ∼0.01 for ionic and covalent interactions). These relations often reflect the increasing size of the complexes coming from the translational and rotational entropies, but at least for the hydrogen-bonded complexes, it is significantly enhanced also by the vibrational entropy (which depends on the strength of the interaction). Thus, for homologous series of molecules with repeated interactions studied in vacuum, EEC is a rule. However, if water molecules are added, the relation is blurred and it can be predicted that for a real binding reaction in water solution, both enthalpy-entropy compensation and anti-compensation can be observed, depending on the detailed interaction of the two molecules with water before and after binding, further complicated by dynamic effects. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Sun M.,CAS Institute of Physics | Xu H.,CAS Institute of Physics | Xu H.,Lund University
Small | Year: 2012

The first experimental and theoretical evidence of the surface-catalyzed reaction of p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) produced from para-aminothiophenol (PATP) by local surface plasmons was reported in 2010, and since that time a series of investigations have supported these findings using different experimental and theoretical methods. Recent work has also found that local plasmons can drive a surface-catalyzed reaction of DMAB converted from 4-nitrobenzenethiol (4NBT), assisted by local surface plasmons. There are at least three important discoveries in these investigations: 1) in the field of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) the widely accepted misinterpretation (since 1994) that the chemical mechanism resulting in three additional Raman peaks of PATP in Ag or Au solutions has been corrected with a new mechanism; 2) it is confirmed that SERS is not always a noninvasive technique, and under certain conditions cannot always obtain the vibrational fingerprint information of the original surface species; 3) a novel method to synthesize new molecules, induced by local surface plasmons or plasmon waveguides on the nanoscale, has been found. This Review considers recent novel applications of plasmonics to chemical reactions, especially to plasmon-driven surface-catalyzed reactions. Experimental and theoretical progress on surface-catalyzed reactions of p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB), produced from para-aminothiophenol (PATP) and 4-nitrobenzenethiol (4NBT), assisted by local surface plasmons (LSPs) and a plasmonic waveguide is reviewed. "Hot" electrons generated by surface plasmon decay play an important role in chemical reactions. A novel method to synthesize new molecules, assisted by local LSPs or plasmon waveguides at the nanoscale, is proposed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Bogh M.K.B.,Lund University
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation | Year: 2012

During the last decade vitamin D has become a hot topic and our knowledge of its vital role in health and disease is constantly expanding. Solar ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280320 nm) is both the initiator of vitamin D production in the skin and a risk factor for sunburn and skin carcinogenesis. At present, this dilemma is debated worldwide. In Northern Europe, it is possible to reach a sufficient vitamin D status through sun exposure in the summer months. However, in the winter, the ambient UVB radiation is too low to initiate any production of vitamin D and this has led to a widespread concern and focus on vitamin D status. This review focuses on aspects of UV-related and personal factors of importance for the cutaneous vitamin D production after UVB exposure. © 2012 Informa Healthcare.

Akke M.,Lund University
Biochemical Society Transactions | Year: 2012

Protein conformational dynamics can be critical for ligand binding in two ways that relate to kinetics and thermodynamics respectively. First, conformational transitions between different substates can control access to the binding site (kinetics). Secondly, differences between free and ligand-bound states in their conformational fluctuations contribute to the entropy of ligand binding (thermodynamics). In the present paper, I focus on the second topic, summarizing our recent results on the role of conformational entropy in ligand binding to Gal3C (the carbohydrate-recognition domain of galectin-3). NMR relaxation experiments provide a unique probe of conformational entropy by characterizing bond-vector fluctuations at atomic resolution. By monitoring differences between the free and ligand-bound states in their backbone and side chain order parameters, we have estimated the contributions from conformational entropy to the free energy of binding. Overall, the conformational entropy of Gal3C increases upon ligand binding, thereby contributing favourably to the binding affinity. Comparisons with the results from isothermal titration calorimetry indicate that the conformational entropy is comparable in magnitude to the enthalpy of binding. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the dynamic response to binding of different ligands, despite the fact that the protein structure is virtually identical in the different protein-ligand complexes. Thus both affinity and specificity of ligand binding to Gal3C appear to depend in part on subtle differences in the conformational fluctuations that reflect the complex interplay between structure, dynamics and ligand interactions. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 Biochemical Society.

When skeletal muscle is stretched above optimal sarcomere length during tetanic activity there is an increase in force that stays above the isometric force level throughout the activity period. This long-lasting increase in contractile force, generally referred to as 'residual force enhancement after stretch' (FE resid), has been studied in great detail in various muscle preparations over more than half a century. Substantial evidence has been presented to show that non-uniform sarcomere behaviour plays a major part in the development of FE resid. However, in a great number of recent studies the role of sarcomere non-uniformity has been challenged and alternative mechanisms have instead been proposed to explain the increase in force such as enhancement of cross-bridge function and/or strengthening of parallel elastic elements along the muscle fibres. This article presents a short review of the salient features of FE resid and provides evidence that non-uniform sarcomere behaviour is indeed likely to play a major role in the development of FE resid. Electron microscopical studies of fibres rapidly fixed after active stretch demonstrate that, dispersed in the preparation, there are assymetrical length changes within the two halves of myofibrillar sarcomeres resulting in greater filament overlap in one half of the sarcomere than in the opposite sarcomere half. Sarcomere halves with increased filament overlap will consequently be in a situation where they are able to produce a greater force than that recorded in the isometric control. Weaker regions in series will be able to keep the enhanced force by recruitment of elastic elements. © 2012 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2012 The Physiological Society.

Hofer A.,Umea University | Crona M.,University of Stockholm | Logan D.T.,Lund University | Sjoberg B.-M.,University of Stockholm
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is the only source for de novo production of the four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) building blocks needed for DNA synthesis and repair. It is crucial that these dNTP pools are carefully balanced, since mutation rates increase when dNTP levels are either unbalanced or elevated. RNR is the major player in this homeostasis, and with its four different substrates, four different allosteric effectors and two different effector binding sites, it has one of the most sophisticated allosteric regulations known today. In the past few years, the structures of RNRs from several bacteria, yeast and man have been determined in the presence of allosteric effectors and substrates, revealing new information about the mechanisms behind the allosteric regulation. A common theme for all studied RNRs is a flexible loop that mediates modulatory effects from the allosteric specificity site (s-site) to the catalytic site for discrimination between the four substrates. Much less is known about the allosteric activity site (a-site), which functions as an on-off switch for the enzyme's overall activity by binding ATP (activator) or dATP (inhibitor). The two nucleotides induce formation of different enzyme oligomers, and a recent structure of a dATP-inhibited α 6β 2 complex from yeast suggested how its subunits interacted non-productively. Interestingly, the oligomers formed and the details of their allosteric regulation differ between eukaryotes and Escherichia coli. Nevertheless, these differences serve a common purpose in an essential enzyme whose allosteric regulation might date back to the era when the molecular mechanisms behind the central dogma evolved. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Apelqvist J.,Skane University Hospital | Apelqvist J.,Lund University
Endocrine | Year: 2012

Every 30 s, a lower limb is amputated due to diabetes. Of all amputations in diabetic patients 85% are preceded by a foot ulcer which subsequently deteriorates to a severe infection or gangrene. There is a complexity of factors related to healing of foot ulcers including strategies for treatment of decreased perfusion, oedema, pain, infection, metabolic disturbances, malnutrition, non-weight bearing, wound treatment, foot surgery, and management of intercurrent disease. Patients with diabetic foot ulcer and decreased perfusion do often not have rest pain or claudication and as a consequence non-invasive vascular testing is recommended for early recognition of ulcers in need of revascularisation to achieve healing. A diabetic foot infection is a potentially limb-threatening condition. Infection is diagnosed by the presence or increased rate of signs inflammation. Often these signs are less marked than expected. Imaging studies can diagnose or better define deep, soft tissue purulent collections and are frequently needed to detect pathological findings in bone. The initial antimicrobial treatment as well as duration of treatment is empiric. There is a substantial delay in wound healing in diabetic foot ulcer which has been related to various abnormalities. Several new treatments related to these abnormalities have been explored in wound healing with various successes. An essential part of the strategy to achieve healing is an effective offloading. Many interventions with advanced wound management have failed due to not recognizing the need for effective offloading. A multidisciplinary approach to wounds and foot ulcer has been successfully implemented in different centres with a substantial decrease in amputation rate. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Almost regardless of ideological persuasion, the seemingly self-evident concept of "technological progress" inherited from early industrialism is resorted to as an article of faith serving to dispel the specter of truncated growth. The increasingly acknowledged threats of peak oil and global warming are thus generally countered with visions of a future civilization based on solar power. I discuss this technological scenario as a utopia that raises serious doubts about mainstream understandings of what "technology" really is. Technological utopianism raises difficult but fundamental analytical questions about the relation between thermodynamics and theories of economic value. While Marxism and some ecological economics share the ambition of grounding notions of economic value in physical parameters, notions of economic value and physical processes should be kept analytically distinct. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Albertsen P.C.,University of Connecticut Health Center | Klotz L.,University of Toronto | Tombal B.,Catholic University of Leuven | Grady J.,University of Connecticut Health Center | And 2 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2014

Background Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity. Objective To determine whether cardiovascular morbidity differs following initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists compared with an antagonist. Design, setting, and participants Pooled data from six phase 3 prospective randomized trials that recruited 2328 men between 2005 and 2012 to compare the efficacy of GnRH agonists against an antagonist. Men recruited had pathologically confirmed prostate cancer, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score <2, a minimum life expectancy of 12 mo, and were naïve to ADT. Men were excluded if they had a prolonged baseline QT/corrected QT interval, other risk factors for heart failure, hypokalemia or a family history of long QT syndrome, or had another cancer diagnosed within 5 yr. Intervention Men were randomized to receive a GnRH agonist or an antagonist for either 3-7 mo (n = 642) or 12 mo (n = 1686). Treatment groups were balanced for common baseline characteristics. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Event analysis was based on death from any cause or cardiac events. Data documenting adverse experiences were classified based on the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities. The following conditions defined a cardiac event: arterial embolic or thrombotic events, hemorrhagic or ischemic cerebrovascular conditions, myocardial infarction, and other ischemic heart disease. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests were used to compare time to a cardiovascular event or death. Results and limitations Among men with preexisting cardiovascular disease, the risk of cardiac events within 1 yr of initiating therapy was significantly lower among men treated with a GnRH antagonist compared with GnRH agonists (hazard ratio: 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.74; p = 0.002). Since our analysis is post hoc, our findings should only be interpreted as hypothesis generating. Conclusions GnRH antagonists appear to halve the number of cardiac events experienced by men with preexisting cardiovascular disease during the first year of ADT when compared to GnRH agonists. © 2013 European Association of Urology.

Onnby L.,Lund University
Biotechnology progress | Year: 2010

Applications of IDA in, for example, immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography for purification of His-tagged proteins are well recognized. The use of IDA as an efficient chelating adsorbent for environmental separations, that is, for the capture of heavy metals, is not studied. Adsorbents based on supermacroporous gels (cryogels) bearing metal chelating functionalities (IDA residues and ligand derived from derivatization of epoxy-cryogel with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine followed by the treatment with bromoacetic acid (defined as TBA ligand)) have been prepared and evaluated on capture of heavy metal ions. The cryogels were prepared in plastic carriers, resulting in desired mechanical stability and named as macroporous gel particles (MGPs). Sorption and desorption experiments for different metals (Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Ni2+ with IDA adsorbent and Cu2+ and Zn2+ with TBA adsorbent) were carried out in batch and monolithic modes, respectively. Obtained capacities with Cu2+ were 74 μmol/mL (TBA) and 19 μmol/mL gel (IDA). The metal removal was higher for pH values between pH 3 and 5. Both adsorbents showed improved sorption at lower temperatures (10°C) than at higher (40°C) and the adsorption significantly dropped for the TBA adsorbent and Zn2+ at 40°C. Desorption of Cu2+ by using 1 M HCl and 0.1 M EDTA was successful for the IDA adsorbent whereas the desorption with the TBA adsorbent needs further attention. The result of this work has demonstrated that MGPs are potential treatment alternatives within the field of environmental separations and the removal of heavy metals from water effluents. © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

Londahl M.,Lund University | Londahl M.,Skane University Hospital
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews | Year: 2012

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) could be described as a short-term, high-dose oxygen inhalation and diffusion therapy, delivered systemically through airways and blood, achieved by having the patient breathing concentrated oxygen at a pressure higher than 1 absolute atmosphere. In clinical practice, monoplace or multiplace hyperbaric chambers are used to achieve this. Treatment is usually given as daily 90- to 120-min-long HBO sessions at pressures between 2.0 and 2.5 absolute atmosphere, aiming for 30-40 treatment sessions. The use of HBO as treatment of diabetic foot ulcers has been founded on weak scientific ground, although the outcomes from previous studies are in concert with the conclusions from preclinical studies and supports the theoretical framework of HBO reversing hypoxia-induced pathology. Two well-designed randomized double-blind trials have put HBO on firmer ground and may justify adjunctive HBO treatment to a selected group of patients with nonhealing diabetic foot ulcers. Some health economic studies suggest potential cost effectiveness, but these studies are limited by deficient primary clinical data and should be interpreted with caution. Several issues remain to be addressed, such as developing robust criteria to improve treatment protocols, determining which patients are likely to benefit, and when to start and stop treatment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Brischke C.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Thelandersson S.,Lund University
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2014

Service life planning and performance classification are key issues in the building sector. Well-functioning 'performance models' are absolutely essential to predict the service life and functionality of buildings, building assets, and building products over time. Different types of performance models have been established for various building materials, but cannot necessarily transferred to wood-based materials, primarily due to their organic character. For performance modelling of wood products biological agents need to be considered, such as wood disfiguring and degrading organisms. Different approaches to adequately reflect the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on the performance of wood have been reviewed and evaluated with respect to their usability in the building trade. We found that efforts in developing performance models for both fungal decay and mould growth have been intensified in recent years. A high heterogeneity among the numerous attempts became visible, different strategies have been followed, and were roughly distinguished according to the respective objectives, governing variables (e.g. mass loss, strength loss, remaining strength, decay ratings, service life, aesthetic appearance, etc.), data sources and the resulting level of accuracy. A framework of how exposure, dimension, design details, and the material-intrinsic ability to take up and release water can be linked to model the moisture risk in wood products is in principal available. Methods and models have the potential to get implemented not only in design guidelines, but also in European and international standards. In particular, various dosimeter models could serve as reliable tools to quantify the effects of different construction details. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Wacker A.,Lund University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

A simple two-well design for terahertz quantum cascade lasers is proposed which is based on scattering injection and the efficient extraction of electrons from the lower laser level by resonant tunneling. In contrast to existing designs this extraction also controls the positive differential conductivity. The device is analyzed by calculations based on nonequilibrium Green's functions, which predict lasing operation well above 200 K at a frequency of 2.8 THz. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Pemsel S.,Lund University | Wiewiora A.,Queensland University of Technology
International Journal of Project Management | Year: 2013

Current research into project management offices (PMOs) has stressed the PMOs' potential to act as knowledge brokers between projects, and between project and top management. Nonetheless, the literature does not provide sufficient evidence of the brokering role of PMOs. The research reported here aims to examine PMO's functions from a knowledge sharing perspective and explore whether or not these functions reflect the knowledge sharing needs of project managers (PMs). These issues are investigated through a cross-case analysis of seven organisations. The main contribution is insight into how PMs share knowledge and awareness of the need to structure PMOs to align with PMs' nature, needs and expectations in order to improve knowledge sharing in PBOs. Finally, some practical steps for helping PMOs to better adapt their functions to the needs of PMs and their learning and knowledge sharing style are proposed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Miller C.W.,University of Florida | Svensson E.I.,Lund University
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2014

Sexual selection has resulted in some of the most captivating features of insects, including flashy colors, bizarre structures, and complex pheromones. These features evolve in dynamic environments, where conditions can change rapidly over space and time. However, only recently has ecological complexity been embraced by theory and practice in sexual selection. We review replicated selection studies as well as studies on variation in the agents of selection to delineate gaps in current knowledge and clarify exciting new directions for research. Existing work suggests that fluctuations in sexual selection may be extremely common, though work on the ecological factors influencing these fluctuations is scarce. We suggest that deeper ecological perspectives on sexual selection may alter some of the fundamental assumptions of sexual selection theory and rapidly lead to new discoveries. © Copyright ©2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

African economic history has undergone impressive revitalization in the past decade. Much of the recent work is, quite naturally, inspired by developments in economic history at large, and increasingly - indirectly or directly - using markets as the organizing principle in understanding how economies evolve over time. More specifically, recent work assumes that markets create the possibility to use resources more efficiently, which, theoretically, enables economies to grow as long as institutions adjust and enable the population to exploit the arising opportunities. That is, the current works in African economic history are to a large extent grounded in Smithian growth models, labelled after Adam Smith's work on the mechanisms of long-term growth. This paper critically discusses the explanatory value of the Smithian growth models for understanding the long-term economic development in Africa. The latter is best described as recurrent growth episodes, and we argue that while Smithian models can account for initial periods of growth, they fail to explain why the growth was not sustained. We use the boom and busts of cocoa production in Ghana in the twentieth century as a case in point. We show that the decline in cocoa production was not caused by state policies distorting the functions of the markets, as the Smithian growth models suggest. Instead, the decline in production was an outcome of changes in the ecological and institutional conditions that caused the initial growth. The irony is that it was the initial growth in cocoa production that altered the conditions, making further growth in production impossible. We capture these changes - for the first time ever - by combining the concepts of forest rents and involutionary growth in an African case. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Background: The reported incidence of lactational mastitis varies greatly; the single highest reported incidence in the scientific literature is 33%. The purpose of this study was to collect data regarding incidence and experiences of lactational mastitis from women attending a meeting of lactation specialists and to compare findings in a similar population reported in 1990 by Riordan and Nichols.Methods: A retrospective questionnaire study was carried out with a group of Danish lactation specialists in 2011. The questionnaire was constructed to replicate that used in 1990 and included questions about occurrence of mastitis, the infant's age, breast segments afflicted, examination by a physician, use of antibiotics and possible causes of the illness. Results: As in the earlier research, respondents in this study reported a 33% occurrence of lactational mastitis. This cannot however, be considered as the incidence of mastitis. In order to state the incidence it is necessary to impose a time limit for the collection of data and to know the size of the population at risk. Incomplete emptying of the breast was the factor most frequently cited as the cause of mastitis.Conclusions: Researchers must strive to be as exact as possible when reporting definitions and incidences of mastitis and should attempt to identify the true population at risk - in this case, all women who were breastfeeding in the uptake area under study, during a specified time limit. Well-designed studies in different global locations are needed before any conclusions can been drawn about the range of incidences of mastitis. © 2013 Kvist; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Khan J.,Lund University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

Many cities around the world have taken a pioneering role in tackling climate change and they will be key players in a possible transition to a future low carbon society. However, cities are at the same time constrained and act in a world of multi-level governance where local decision makers are dependent on both higher political levels and other actors in society. In this situation network governance has emerged as a promising 'new mode of governance' where cities can increase both the legitimacy and implementation capacity of an ambitious climate agenda. In network governance the municipality is a facilitator rather than commander and implementer. However, there are also some important potential problems with network governance relating to its democratic legitimacy (politics increasingly carried out by closed elites) and its capacity to lead to radical change (networks of established interests tend to preserve status quo). The aim of this paper is to critically analyse the role of network governance in urban low carbon transitions. The paper builds on original empirical research from the Swedish context which is supplemented by experience found in the literature from other cases. The paper draws from, and merges, two different theoretical perspectives on governance: network governance and transition governance. The literature on network governance asks whether this mode of governance is legitimate and effective, while the literature on transition governance explores what governance configurations are needed in order to steer towards a (low carbon) transition. The findings of the paper show that the effects of network governance are mixed both regarding its policy outputs and its democratic legitimacy. On the implications of network governance for urban low carbon transitions it is argued that while network governance can contribute to niche developments and innovation at the urban level, the elitist character of networks risks maintaining existing unsustainable patterns and defining possible urban futures in too narrow terms. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dobes V.,Lund University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

Even enterprises with very advanced management systems seldom monitor efficiency of energy usage and materials flows within their processes and have, therefore, difficulty to effectively manage their resource efficiency. This paper is built upon experiences from a pilot implementation of a new tool for promotion of energy management and cleaner production, developed within the Energy Management and Performance Related Savings Scheme project to promote an effective energy management system in industrial enterprises. The combination of soft managerial approaches (Monitoring and Targeting technical services) with financing provided on a no cure, no pay basis provided by Energy Service Companies, is the foundation for this new tool for promotion of energy management and cleaner production on no cure, no pay basis. It enabled us to test the introduction of cleaner production projects with no technical or financial risks for enterprises or for the need of financing from the side of the enterprises. Consequently, it removed some of the important barriers for implementing cleaner production. This paper distinguishes between auditing and accounting approaches in the promotion of cleaner production and argues that auditing approaches are not sufficient for completion of the learning needed for integration of cleaner production into the practice of an enterprise. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kjellberg S.,Lund University
First Monday | Year: 2010

The number of scholarly blogs on the Web is increasing. In this article, a group of researchers are asked to describe the functions that their blogs serve for them as researchers. The results show that their blogging is motivated by the possibility to share knowledge, that the blog aids creativity, and that it provides a feeling of being connected in their work as researchers. In particular, the blog serves as a creative catalyst in the work of the researchers, where writing forms a large part, which is not as prominent as a motivation in other professional blogs. In addition, the analysis brings out the blog's combination of functions and the possibility it offers to reach multiple audiences as a motivating factor that makes the blog different from other kinds of communication in scholarly contexts.

Sulfonylureas (SUs) are commonly used as add-on to metformin in treatment of type 2 diabetes in patients who are insufficiently controlled by metformin alone. They have good efficacy and have been shown to prevent microvascular complications. However, treatment with SUs is also associated with a high frequency of hypoglycemia, increased body weight, and a high risk of secondary failure. During recent years, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have emerged as alternatives to SUs. They show similar efficacy as SUs but with lower risk of hypoglycemia, and reduction or no change in body weight, and if confirmed in humans, they may preserve islet function and thereby minimize the risk for secondary failure. Their limitation at present is the lack of long-term (>5 years) experience on durability and safety. Overall, therefore, the conclusion emerges that SUs are less desirable than DPP-4 inhibitors in management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Gisselsson D.,Lund University
Advances in Cancer Research | Year: 2011

Clonal evolution in cancer is intimately linked to the concept of intratumor cellular diversity, as the latter is a prerequisite for Darwinian selection at the micro-level. It has been frequently suggested in the literature that clonal evolution can be promoted by an elevated rate of mutation in tumor cells, so-called genomic instability, the mechanisms of which are now becoming increasingly well characterized. However, several issues need clarification before the presumably complex relationship between mutation rate, intratumor diversity, and clonal evolution can be understood sufficiently well to translate into models that predict the course of tumor disease. In particular, it has to be clarified which of the proposed mechanisms for genomic instability that are able to generate daughter cells with sufficient viability to form novel clones, how clones with different genomic changes differ phenotypically from each other, and what the selective forces are that guide competition among diverse clones in different microenvironments. Furthermore, standardized measurements of mutation rates at the chromosome level, as well as genotypic and phenotypic diversity, are essential to compare data from different studies. Finally, the relationship between clonal variation brought about by genomic instability, on the one hand, and cellular differentiation hierarchies, on the other hand, should be explored to put genomic instability in the context of the tumor stem cell hypothesis. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Biermann F.,Lund University
Ecological Economics | Year: 2012

This article discusses the concept of planetary boundaries that has been advanced by a group of leading experts around Johan Rockström. I place the concept of planetary boundaries in the larger framework of the emerging research paradigm of earth system governance, welcoming it as a crucial contribution that defines the overall goals of governance. Yet I also elaborate on the political conflicts that surround the identification of planetary boundaries, which are, in the end, a social construct. I then explore the policy and governance responses that may follow from the planetary boundary approach. In the conclusion, I point to several research challenges that flow from the current state of knowledge on planetary boundaries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Pemsel S.,Lund University | Muller R.,Norwegian School of Management
International Journal of Project Management | Year: 2012

This research investigates patterns of knowledge governance practices in project-based organizations (PBOs). Five propositions about knowledge governance in PBOs were deductively and empirically tested using qualitative data from 82 interviews. The results were triangulated with those of prior studies. Results indicate that knowledge governance practices in PBOs are impacted by structural and situational factors, such as being a subsidiary or standalone PBO, a PBO striving for excellence or not, as well as some preconditions, such as the executives' competence in project governance. The results show that informal governance mechanisms are more useful than formal when it comes to knowledge creating processes. Governance of informal knowledge creating mechanisms appears to be complex for executives and their preconceptions showed either to be enablers or barriers to productive knowledge governance practices. Executive's competence and preconditions, concerning aspects like human capabilities and attitudes to professional ethos, seems to impact knowledge governance strategies. In subsidiary PBOs knowledge governance provides practitioners with proper assistance to avoid unbeneficial situations of having knowledge silos among loosely coupled islands. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and International Project Management Association.

Larsson J.,Lund University
Blood | Year: 2013

In this issue of Blood, Cellot et al identify the histone demethylase Jarid1b as a key regulator of renewal and differentiation in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs).

Genheden S.,Lund University
Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design | Year: 2011

The affinities of two sets of guest-host systems were estimated using the popular end-point methods MM/GBSA (molecular-mechanics with generalised Born and surface-area solvation) and LIE (linear interaction energy). A set of six primary alcohols that bind to α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and a set of eight guest molecules to cucurbit[8]uril (CB8) were considered. Three different charge schemes were used to obtain charges for the host and guest molecules, viz., AM1-BCC, RESP, and the recently suggested xAvESP (which average ESP charges over a number of molecular dynamics snapshots). Furthermore, both the generalised Born and Poisson-Boltzmann solvation models were used in the MM/GBSA calculations. The two solvation models perform equally well in predicting relative affinities, and hence there is no point in using the more expensive Poisson-Boltzmann model for these systems. Both the LIE and MM/GBSA estimates are shown to be robust with respect to the charge model, and therefore it is recommended to use the cheapest AM1-BCC charges. Using AM1-BCC charges, the MM/GBSA method gave a MADtr (mean absolute deviation after removal of systematic error) of 17 kJ/mol and a correlation coefficient (r 2) of 0.67 for the CB8 complexes, and a MADtr of 10 kJ/mol and an r 2 of 0.96 for the α-CD complexes. The LIE method gave a MADtr of 20 kJ/mol and an r 2 of 0.10 for the CB8 complexes, after optimisation of the non-polar scaling parameter. For the α-CD complexes, no optimisation was necessary and the method gave a MADtr of 2 kJ/mol and a r 2 of 0.96. These results indicate that both MM/GBSA and LIE are able to estimate host-guest affinities accurately. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Dockter C.,Carlsberg Laboratory | Hansson M.,Lund University
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2015

The Green Revolution combined advancements in breeding and agricultural practice, and provided food security to millions of people. Daily food supply is still a major issue in many parts of the world and is further challenged by future climate change. Fortunately, life science research is currently making huge progress, and the development of future crop plants will be explored. Today, plant breeding typically follows one gene per trait. However, new scientific achievements have revealed that many of these traits depend on different genes and complex interactions of proteins reacting to various external stimuli. These findings open up new possibilities for breeding where variations in several genes can be combined to enhance productivity and quality. In this review we present an overview of genes determining plant architecture in barley, with a special focus on culm length. Many genes are currently known only through their mutant phenotypes, but emerging genomic sequence information will accelerate their identification. More than 1000 different short-culm barley mutants have been isolated and classified in different phenotypic groups according to culm length and additional pleiotropic characters. Some mutants have been connected to deficiencies in biosynthesis and reception of brassinosteroids and gibberellic acids. Still other mutants are unlikely to be connected to these hormones. The genes and corresponding mutations are of potential interest for development of stiff-straw crop plants tolerant to lodging, which occurs in extreme weather conditions with strong winds and heavy precipitation. © The Author 2015.

Roger K.,ESPCI ParisTech | Cabane B.,ESPCI ParisTech | Cabane B.,Lund University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

In our communication "Why are hydrophobic/water interfaces negatively charged?" we offer a simple explanation for the negative charge observed at hydrophobic interfaces with water.[1] We demonstrate that traces of carboxylic acid surfactant at these interfaces account qualitatively and quantitatively for the properties of "surfactant-free" emulsions. This is a classic example of colloidal behavior where traces of surface-active substances can control the surface behavior and hence the macroscopic properties of the colloidal dispersion.[2] Our demonstration rests on three simple but solid experimental observations: 1) Through straightforward acid-base titrations we detect trace amounts of acids at a concentration of 7 mmolL-1 in 99% pure hexadecane oil and 1 mmolL-1 in 99.8% pure hexadecane oil. For 100 nm diameter droplets in an aqueous phase, with 99% pure oil, the concentration that we detect yields a surface charge of 0.065 enm-2 at pH 7. 2) We observe that these carboxylic acids accumulate at the interface of oil droplets in surfactant-free emulsions. Indeed, through electrophoretic mobility measurements we find a strong variation of the negative charge with pH, as reported by a large number of authors.[5, 6] The freeenergy associated with this variation is 20 times the thermal energy kT, which matches exactly the reaction free-energy between hydroxide ions and carboxylic acids. 3) The key observation was obtained by comparing different emulsions made with the same method, at constant pH, but with two oils of different purity (99%hexadecane and 99.8% hexadecane). All other parameters being kept constant, the concentration of impurities changed dramatically the surface properties of the droplets and particularly their colloidal stability. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Kelber A.,Lund University | Osorio D.,University of Sussex
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

Many animals use the spectral distribution of light to guide behaviour, but whether they have colour vision has been debated for over a century. Our strong subjective experience of colour and the fact mat human vision is the paradigm for colour science inevitably raises the question of how we compare with other species. This article outlines four grades of'colour vision' that can be related to the behavioural uses of spectral information, and perhaps to the underlying mechanisms. In the first, even without an (image-forming) eye, simple organisms can compare photoreceptor signals to locate a desired light environment. At the next grade, chromatic mechanisms along with spatial vision guide innate preferences for objects such as food or mates; this is sometimes described as wavelength-specific behaviour. Here, we compare the capabilities of di- and trichromatic vision, and ask why some animals have more than three spectral types of receptors. Behaviours guided by innate preferences are then distinguished from a grade that allows learning, in part because the ability to learn an arbitrary colour is evidence for a neural representation of colour. The fourth grade concerns colour appearance rather than colour difference: for instance, the distinction between hue and saturation, and colour categorization. These higher-level phenomena are essential to human colour perception but poorly known in animals, and we suggest how they can be studied. Finally, we observe that awareness of colour and colour qualia cannot be easily tested in animals. This journal is © 2010 The Royal Society.

Stern D.I.,Australian National University | Enflo K.,Lund University
Energy Economics | Year: 2013

Though there is a very large literature examining whether energy use Granger causes economic output or vice versa, it is fairly inconclusive. Almost all existing studies use relatively short time series, or panels with a relatively small time dimension. We apply Granger causality and cointegration techniques to a Swedish time series dataset spanning 150. years to test whether increases in energy use and energy quality have driven economic growth or vice versa. We show that these techniques are very sensitive to variable definition, choice of additional variables in the model, sample periods and size, and the introduction of structural breaks. The relationship between energy and growth may also have changed over time - energy causes output in the full sample while output causes energy use in recent smaller samples. Energy prices have a more robust causal impact on both energy use and output. © 2013.

Nilsson L.,Lund University
Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development | Year: 2014

Collaboration by two grounded theory researchers, who each had developed a learning continuum instrument, led to the emergence of a new tool for assessment of learning powered mobility use. We undertook a rigorous process of comparative reanalysis that included merging, modifying, and expanding our previous research findings. A new instrument together with its facilitating strategies emerged in the course of revisits to our existing rich account of data taken from real environment powered mobility practice over an extensive time period. Instrument descriptors, categories, phases, and stages allow a facilitator to assess actual phase and plot actual occupational performance and provide a learner with the just right challenge through the learning process. Facilitating strategies are described for each of the phases and provide directions for involvement during learner performance. The learning approach is led by a belief system that the intervention is user-led, working in partnership and empowering the learner. The new assessment tool is inclusive of every potential powered mobility user because it focuses on the whole continuum of the learning process of powered mobility use from novice to expert. The new tool was appraised by clinicians and has been used successfully in clinical practice in the United Kingdom and Sweden. © 2014, Rehabilitation Research and Development Service firstissue. All rights reserved.

Andreasson E.,Lund University | Andreasson E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Ellis B.,University of British Columbia
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2010

Although mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction cascades are known regulators of various aspects of plant biology, our knowledge of these systems has been largely restricted to a small subset of the MAPKs. However, global analyses are now revealing that many more of these kinases are probably engaged in modulating developmental and fitness adaptation processes in the plant kingdom. In this review, we show how these new findings are beginning to define the overall architecture of plant MAPK signaling, with a particular focus on the interplay between the terminal MPKs and their activators, inactivators and cellular targets. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kronsell A.,Lund University
Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions | Year: 2013

This article demonstrates how gender is relevant to governance of a transition to a low-carbon economy. It does this through insights derived from gender and transition studies in combination, applied and illustrated through a study of climate governance in Sweden. The approach is constructive and uses as central concepts: transition arenas, niches, regimes and landscapes in combination with theories from gender studies. The article suggests that the two fields are linked through three processes that are necessary to make a transition: to strengthen participation, to deal with oppressive power relations and to challenge institutionalized norms. It illustrates how masculine norms seem to permeate the landscape of climate transitions and argues that gender regimes tend to dictate planning, measures and implementation. Finally, the article proposes that a gender perspective on climate governance would analyze participation in transition arenas and niches by asking who is included in climate governance and what ideas influence climate policies. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bruun G.M.,Lund University | Massignan P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Massignan P.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

The ground state of an impurity immersed in a Fermi sea changes from a polaron to a molecule as the interaction strength is increased. We show here that the coupling between these two states is strongly suppressed due to a combination of phase-space effects and Fermi statistics, and that it vanishes much faster than the energy difference between the two states, thereby confirming the first order nature of the polaron-molecule transition. In the regime where each state is metastable, we find quasiparticle lifetimes which are much longer than what is expected for a usual Fermi liquid. Our analysis indicates that the decay rates are sufficiently slow to be experimentally observable. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Borrebaeck C.A.K.,Lund University
Proteomics - Clinical Applications | Year: 2012

Despite massive efforts, proteomics has not delivered biomarkers of clinical value. However, the technologies that are emerging today have the power to reach deep into proteomes and identify the patterns associated with different diseases. Study design is then crucial and sample quality, bioinformatics approaches, prevalidation, using independent patient cohort need to attract increased attention before proteomics will contribute to the needs of personalized medicine. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Lindgren I.,Lund University
Journal of rehabilitation medicine | Year: 2014

To investigate whether somatosensory impairments are more common in individuals with post-stroke shoulder pain than in those without post-stroke shoulder pain and healthy controls. Descriptive analysis of a convenience sample. Forty-nine individuals with stroke, 24 with and 25 without post-stroke shoulder pain (median age 65 years), and 11 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Perception and pain thresholds for cold, warm and heat (thermal thresholds), and pain thresholds for pressure and pin prick (mechanical thresholds) were assessed using quantitative sensory testing (QST). Passive range of motion, motor function, resistance to passive movements, light touch and proprioception were assessed in the upper extremities. Shoulder pain characteristics were recorded in the post-stroke shoulder pain group. There were no significant differences between the group with post-stroke shoulder pain and the group without post-stroke shoulder pain in any of the QST assessments, but more participants in the post-stroke shoulder pain group reported abnormal cold sensation in the affected side. Both stroke groups had generally higher thermal thresholds and more extreme low or high mechanical thresholds than the healthy controls. Somatosensory impairments are common among individuals with stroke compared with healthy controls. The non-significant differences in QST thresholds between the group with post-stroke shoulder pain and the group without post-stroke shoulder pain indicate that somatosensory impairments have only a small impact on post-stroke shoulder pain.

Abstract The lateral reticular nucleus (LRN) is a major precerebellar centre of mossy fibre information to the cerebellum from the spinal cord that is distinct from the direct spinocerebellar paths. The LRN has traditionally been considered to provide the cerebellum with segregated information from several spinal systems controlling posture, reaching, grasping, locomotion, scratching and respiration. However, results are presented that show extensive convergence on a majority of LRN neurons from spinal systems. We propose a new hypothesis suggesting that the LRN may use extensive convergence from the different input systems to provide overview and integration of linked motor components to the cerebellum. This integrated information is sent in parallel with the segregated information from the individual systems to the cerebellum that finally may compare the activity and make necessary adjustments of various motor behaviours. © 2013 The Physiological Society.

Edvinsson L.,Lund University
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Recently developed calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonistic molecules have shown promising results in clinical trials for acute treatment of migraine attacks. Drugs from the gepant class of CGRP receptor antagonists are effective and do not cause vasoconstriction, one of the major limitations in the use of triptans. However their use had to be discontinued because of risk of liver toxicity after continuous exposure. As an alternative approach to block CGRP transmission, fully humanized monoclonal antibodies towards CGRP and the CGRP receptor have been developed for treatment of chronic migraine (attacks >15 days/month). Initial results from phase I and II clinical trials have revealed promising results with minimal side effects and significant relief from chronic migraine as compared with placebo. The effectiveness of these various molecules raises the question of where is the target site(s) for antimigraine action. The gepants are small molecules that can partially pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and therefore, might have effects in the CNS. However, antibodies are large molecules and have limited possibility to pass the BBB, thus effectively excluding them from having a major site of action within the CNS. It is suggested that the antimigraine site should reside in areas not limited by the BBB such as intra- and extracranial vessels, dural mast cells and the trigeminal system. In order to clarify this topic and surrounding questions, it is important to understand the localization of CGRP and the CGRP receptor components in these possible sites of migraine-related regions and their relation to the BBB. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

Karlsson Green K.,Lund University
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society | Year: 2013

During sexual conflict, males and females are expected to evolve traits and behaviours with a sexually antagonistic function. Recently, sexually antagonistic coevolution was proposed to occur between male and female diving beetles (Dytiscidae). Male diving beetles possess numerous suction cups on their forelegs whereas females commonly have rough structures on their elytra. These rough structures have been suggested to obstruct adhesion from male suction cups during mating attempts. However, some diving beetle species are dimorphic, where one female morph has a rough elytra and the other has a smooth elytra. Here, we used biomechanics to study the adhesive performance of male suction cups on the female morphs in two diving beetle species: Dytiscus lapponicus and Graphoderus zonatus. We compared adhesion on the rough and the smooth female morphs to infer the function of the rough elytral modifications. We found that the adhesive force on the rough structures was much lower than on other surfaces. These findings support the suggestion of sexual conflict in diving beetles and a sexually antagonistic function of the rough female structures. In addition, males differed in their adhesive capacity on different female surfaces, indicating a male trade-off between adhering to smooth and rough female morphs.

Parents influence adolescent drinking behavior, but to what extent does this association diminish with age, however? The cross-sectional data was drawn from the Scania drug use survey 2007, consisting of 4,828 secondary education students in the 9th and 11th grade. The age-and gender-adjusted findings indicate that having parents who are consenting to alcohol use (OR 1.4), having been provided with alcohol by one's parents (OR 1.8), having parents with an authoritarian (OR 1.5) or neglectful (OR 2.1) parenting style, and having parents who both have a university degree (OR 1.3) were factors significantly associated with monthly heavy episodic drinking. These findings lead to the conclusion that parenting styles as well as parental attitudes and behaviors are important throughout the high school years. Thus, prevention targeting parents should emphasize both these domains. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Liljas A.,Lund University
Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography | Year: 2013

The Nobel Committees have to follow the nominations submitted for a specific year. During the early phase of X-ray crystallography, a limited number of scientists were active. In 1914 Max von Laue and William Henry Bragg were both nominated and could have been awarded a joint Nobel Prize. However, a member of the Nobel Committee for Physics, Allvar Gullstrand, was well aware of the activities in the field and strongly recommended that only von Laue should receive the prize since a main contributor, William Laurence Bragg, was not nominated. Next year, when the First World War had started, there were few nominations, but now both Braggs, father and son, were nominated. Gullstrand was very pleased and recommended them both for the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics. The rest of the committee agreed and this then became the decision of the Royal Academy for Sciences, Stockholm.

Andersen K.H.,Technical University of Denmark | Pedersen M.,Lund University
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

The largest perturbation on upper trophic levels of many marine ecosystems stems from fishing. The reaction of the ecosystem goes beyond the trophic levels directly targeted by the fishery. This reaction has been described either as a change in slope of the overall size spectrum or as a trophic cascade triggered by the removal of top predators. Here we use a novel size- and trait-based model to explore how marine ecosystems might react to perturbations from different types of fishing pressure. The model explicitly resolves the whole life history of fish, from larvae to adults. The results show that fishing does not change the overall slope of the size spectrum, but depletes the largest individuals and induces trophic cascades. A trophic cascade can propagate both up and down in trophic levels driven by a combination of changes in predation mortality and food limitation. The cascade is damped as it comes further away from the perturbed trophic level. Fishing on several trophic levels leads to a disappearance of the signature of the trophic cascade. Differences in fishing patterns among ecosystems might influence whether a trophic cascade is observed. © 2009 The Royal Society.

The most critical functions of the various proteomics organisations are the training of young scientists and the dissemination of information to the general scientific community. The education committees of the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO) and the European Proteomics Association (EuPA) together with their national counterparts are therefore launching the International Proteomics Tutorial Programme to meet these needs. The programme is being led by Peter James (Sweden), Thierry Rabilloud (France) and Kazuyuki Nakamura (Japan). It involves collaboration between the leading proteomics journals: Journal of Proteome Research, Journal of Proteomics, Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, and Proteomics. The overall level is aimed at Masters/PhD level students who are starting out their research and who would benefit from a solid grounding in the techniques used in modern protein-based research. The tutorial program will cover core techniques and basics as an introduction to scientists new to the field. At a later stage the programme may be expanded with a series of more advanced topics focussing on the application of proteomics techniques to biological problem solving. The entire series of articles and slides will be made freely available for teaching use at the Journals and Organisations homepages and at a special website, © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Hogberg T.,Lund University
Current Oncology Reports | Year: 2011

Adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy has the potential to eradicate micrometastases within the irradiated field but has not resulted in survival improvements in randomized studies. This illustrates the need for systemic therapy. Chemotherapy, mainly with anthracyclines, platinum compounds, and taxanes, renders high response rates although this unfortunately translates in only modest improvements in progression-free and overall survival. Better systemic treatments need to be developed. Investigations of the molecular mechanisms of endometrial cancer have identified possible targets for therapy. In advanced endometrial cancer one study shows that chemotherapy is better than whole abdominal radiotherapy, while in the adjuvant situation the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy appears promising. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Cedergren A.,Lund University
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2013

In many industries, a national accident investigation board conducts investigations following major accidents. For safety improvements to be achieved, however, it is essential that the recommendations presented in these investigations are followed by necessary actions. In this paper, challenges related to implementation of recommendations from accident investigations are studied. The theoretical framework providing the foundation for the study lies at the intersection between systems safety, risk governance, and implementation research. Empirical data for the case study was collected from the Swedish railway sector. The first part of the paper presents an analysis of the extent of recommendations that have not resulted in implemented actions. The second part consists of an interview study aiming at providing a deeper understanding of the difficulties related to transforming these recommendations into actual changes. Two key factors that give rise to challenges to implementation of recommendations are identified. The first factor is related to the different actors' views on their own and other stakeholders' roles in the implementation process, and can be described as a trade-off between being insider and outsider to the industry. The second factor is related to the scope of the accident investigations and their recommendations, and can be described as a trade-off between micro-level and macro-level factors. The opportunities for implementing recommendations, and achieving safety improvements at the industry level, are affected by the ways in which the different stakeholders manage these trade-offs at the local level. This study thus mainly contributes by highlighting the importance of co-ordinating the various actors involved in the implementation process, and the results show that challenges to implementation to a large extent arise in the interactions between these actors. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Barker R.A.,Cambridge Center for Brain Repair | Barrett J.,Institute of Public Health | Mason S.L.,Cambridge Center for Brain Repair | Bjorklund A.,Lund University
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2013

Clinical use of allografts of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue as a treatment to replace dopaminergic neurons in patients with Parkinson's disease was first done more than 20 years ago. Since then, many patients have received transplants, with variable results. During this time, our knowledge of Parkinson's disease has changed and the nature and extent of problems associated with the disorder have been better defined. Our understanding on how best to implement this cell-replacement strategy for patients has grown, but gaining this insight has entailed critical reappraisal of data from transplant trials that have already been undertaken. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Shannon O.,Lund University
Current topics in microbiology and immunology | Year: 2013

Haemostasis is maintained by a tightly regulated coagulation system that comprises platelets, procoagulant proteins, and anticoagulant proteins. During the local and systemic response to bacterial infection, the coagulation system becomes activated, and contributes to the pathophysiological response to infection. The significant human pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes has multiple strategies to modulate coagulation. This can range from systemic activation of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway of coagulation to local stimulation of fibrinolysis. Such diverse effects on this host system imply a finely tuned host-bacteria interaction. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this modulation of the coagulation system are discussed in this review.

Background:Recent cross-sectional genome-wide scans have reported associations of 97 independent loci with body mass index (BMI). In 3541 middle-aged adult participants from the GLACIER Study, we tested whether these loci are associated with 10-year changes in BMI and other cardiometabolic traits (fasting and 2-h glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures).Methods:A BMI-specific genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the BMI-associated effect alleles at each locus. Trait-specific cardiometabolic GRSs comprised only the loci that show nominal association (P⩽0.10) with the respective trait in the original cross-sectional study. In longitudinal genetic association analyses, the second visit trait measure (assessed ~10 years after baseline) was used as the dependent variable and the models were adjusted for the baseline measure of the outcome trait, age, age2, fasting time (for glucose and lipid traits), sex, follow-up time and population substructure.Results:The BMI-specific GRS was associated with increased BMI at follow-up (β=0.014 kg m-2 per allele per 10-year follow-up, s.e.=0.006, P=0.019) as were three loci (PARK2 rs13191362, P=0.005; C6orf106 rs205262, P=0.043; and C9orf93 rs4740619, P=0.01). Although not withstanding Bonferroni correction, a handful of single-nucleotide polymorphisms was nominally associated with changes in blood pressure, glucose and lipid levels.Conclusions:Collectively, established BMI-associated loci convey modest but statistically significant time-dependent associations with long-term changes in BMI, suggesting a role for effect modification by factors that change with time in this population.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 7 June 2016; doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.72. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Lema Tome C.M.,Lund University
Molecular neurobiology | Year: 2013

Parkinson's disease patients exhibit progressive spreading of aggregated α-synuclein in the nervous system. This slow process follows a specific pattern in an inflamed tissue environment. Recent research suggests that prion-like mechanisms contribute to the propagation of α-synuclein pathology. Little is known about factors that might affect the prion-like behavior of misfolded α-synuclein. In this review, we suggest that neuroinflammation plays an important role. We discuss causes of inflammation in the olfactory bulb and gastrointestinal tract and how this may promote the initial misfolding and aggregation of α-synuclein, which might set in motion events that lead to Parkinson's disease neuropathology. We propose that neuroinflammation promotes the prion-like behavior of α-synuclein and that novel anti-inflammatory therapies targeting this mechanism could slow disease progression.

Melke P.,Lund University
PLoS computational biology | Year: 2010

Although bacteria are unicellular organisms, they have the ability to act in concert by synthesizing and detecting small diffusing autoinducer molecules. The phenomenon, known as quorum sensing, has mainly been proposed to serve as a means for cell-density measurement. Here, we use a cell-based model of growing bacterial microcolonies to investigate a quorum-sensing mechanism at a single cell level. We show that the model indeed predicts a density-dependent behavior, highly dependent on local cell-clustering and the geometry of the space where the colony is evolving. We analyze the molecular network with two positive feedback loops to find the multistability regions and show how the quorum-sensing mechanism depends on different model parameters. Specifically, we show that the switching capability of the network leads to more constraints on parameters in a natural environment where the bacteria themselves produce autoinducer than compared to situations where autoinducer is introduced externally. The cell-based model also allows us to investigate mixed populations, where non-producing cheater cells are shown to have a fitness advantage, but still cannot completely outcompete producer cells. Simulations, therefore, are able to predict the relative fitness of cheater cells from experiments and can also display and account for the paradoxical phenomenon seen in experiments; even though the cheater cells have a fitness advantage in each of the investigated groups, the overall effect is an increase in the fraction of producer cells. The cell-based type of model presented here together with high-resolution experiments will play an integral role in a more explicit and precise comparison of models and experiments, addressing quorum sensing at a cellular resolution.

Svanborg C.,Lund University
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common, dangerous and interesting. This review includes a general background on UTIs and molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. In addition, we discuss UTI susceptibility and especially the effect of genetic variation on innate immunity. The symptoms of acute pyelonephritis are caused by the innate immune response and inflammation in the urinary tract decreases renal tubular function and may give rise to renal scarring, especially in childhood. The disease severity is explained by pathogens and their virulence factors triggering signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and type 1 interferons, and the activation of a host response mediating disease or pathology or clearance of infection. In children with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), in contrast, bacteria persist without causing symptoms or pathology. ABU strains mostly lack virulence factors, and the lack of symptoms has largely been attributed to their lack of virulence. Recently, rapid progress has been made in the understanding of host susceptibility mechanisms. For example, genetic alterations that reduce TLR4 function are associated with ABU while polymorphisms reducing IRF3 or CXCR1 expression are associated with acute pyelonephritis and an increased risk for renal scarring. Understanding bacterial virulence and host resistance promises new tools to improve the diagnostic accuracy in children with UTI. By combining information on bacterial virulence and the host response, it should be possible to start individualizing diagnosis and therapy. Finally, we propose that the prediction of future disease risk and decisions on prophylaxis and invasive diagnostic procedures might be improved by genetic analysis. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

Kallen B.,Lund University | Olausson P.O.,Statistics Sweden
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2012

Objective To describe a large study on pregnancy outcome after vaccination against H1N1 during the 2009/10 pandemic. Design A cohort study of women vaccinated with Pandemrix® during pregnancy. Setting The Swedish Medical Birth Register was used for the analysis. Information on vaccination and pregnancy week when vaccination was made was obtained from antenatal care documents. Population All women who gave birth during 2009 and 2010 in Sweden. Methods Characteristics of the vaccinated women and their delivery outcome were compared with two groups of women: women without a known vaccination who gave birth in 2009/10 after 1 October 2009, and women who gave birth during 2009 before 1 October. Adjustment was made for year of delivery, maternal age, parity, smoking habits and body mass index. Outcome measures Stillbirth, congenital malformations, preterm birth, low birthweight, small for gestational age. Results A total of 18 612 vaccinated women having 18 844 infants were studied. The risk for stillbirth, preterm birth and low birthweight was lower than in the comparison groups whereas the risk for small for gestational age and a congenital malformation (after vaccination during the first trimester) did not differ from the comparison groups. No clear-cut explanation to the 'protective' effect of vaccination was found. Conclusions Vaccination during pregnancy with Pandemrix® appeared to have no ill effects on the pregnancy. On the contrary, the rate of preterm birth and low birthweight was lower than expected, which agrees with some previous results. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

Edman K.A.P.,Lund University
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010

The single muscle fiber preparation provides an excellent tool for studying the mechanical behaviour of the contractile system at sarcomere level. The present article gives an overview of studies based on intact single fibers from frog and mouse skeletal muscle. The following aspects of muscle function are treated: (1) The length-tension relationship. (2) The biphasic force-velocity relationship. (3) The maximum speed of shortening, its independence of sarcomere length and degree of activation. (4) Force enhancement during stretch, its relation to sarcomere length and myofilament lattice width. (5) Residual force enhancement after stretch. (6) Force reduction after loaded shortening. (7) Deactivation by active shortening. (8) Differences in kinetic properties along individual muscle fibers. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Finding the correct Top Dead Center (TDC) offset for an internal combustion engine is harder than it seems. This study introduces a novel method to find the TDC offset based on the simple assumption that the heat loss power through the combustion chamber walls is constant for motored cycles in a narrow Crank Angle interval around TDC. The proposed method uses nonlinear least squares optimization to find the combination of specific heat ratio and TDC offset that makes the heat loss power as constant as possible. An important subproblem is to determine the peak pressure location with high accuracy. Fitting a third order Fourier series to the motored cylinder pressure allows the pressure maximum to be estimated with a standard deviation of 0.005° Crank Angle (CA) and it can also be used instead of the measured pressure to reduce the uncertainty of the TDC estimate by approximately 50%. The standard deviation of a single-cycle TDC estimate is approximately 0.025° CA when using a crank resolution of 0.2° CA for the measurements. The bias of the TDC estimate is in the 0-0.02° CA range both when comparing to measurements with a TDC sensor and with simulated motored cycles. The method can be used both for calibration and on-board diagnostics purposes e.g. during cranking, fuel cut-off or engine switch-off. The third order Fourier series fit comes with a significant computational penalty but since it is only applied very intermittently this does not have to be a serious issue. © 2011 IFP Energies nouvelles.

Glentis G.-O.,University of Peloponnese | Jakobsson A.,Lund University
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2011

This paper presents computationally efficient implementations for several recent algorithms based on the iterative adaptive approach (IAA) for uniformly sampled one- and two-dimensional data sets, considering both the complete data case, and the cases when the data sets are missing samples, either lacking arbitrary locations, or having gaps or periodically reoccurring gaps. By exploiting the method's inherent low displacement rank, together with the development of suitable Gohberg-Semencul representations, and the use of data dependent trigonometric polynomials, the proposed implementations are shown to offer a reduction of the necessary computational complexity by at least one order of magnitude. Numerical simulations together with theoretical complexity measures illustrate the achieved performance gain. © 2011 IEEE.

Johansson B.,Swedish Defence Research Agency | Johansson B.,Lund University
Energy | Year: 2013

A broadened typology describing the interconnection between energy and security is developed in this paper, with the aim of improving understanding of the relationship between energy and security by applying different research and policy perspectives. One approach involves studying energy as an object exposed to security threats, using concepts such as security of supply or security of demand. Another approach involves studying the role of the energy system as the subject in generating or enhancing insecurity. The latter approach includes studying the conflict-generating potential inherent in the economic value of energy, the risk of accidents and antagonistic attacks to energy infrastructure and the security risks related to the negative environmental impact of the energy system. In order to make a comprehensive analysis of the security consequences of proposed energy policies or strategies, all these aspects should be taken into account to varying degrees. The typology proposed here could be a valuable tool for ensuring that all security aspects have been considered. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Hellmark T.,Lund University | Segelmark M.,Linkoping University
Journal of Autoimmunity | Year: 2014

Goodpasture's disease or anti-glomerular basement membrane disease (anti-GBM-disease) is included among immune complex small vessel vasculitides. The definition of anti-GBM disease is a vasculitis affecting glomerular capillaries, pulmonary capillaries, or both, with GBM deposition of anti-GBM autoantibodies. The disease is a prototype of autoimmune disease, where the patients develop autoantibodies that bind to the basement membranes and activate the classical pathway of the complement system, which start a neutrophil dependent inflammation. The diagnosis of anti-GBM disease relies on the detection of anti-GBM antibodies in conjunction with glomerulonephritis and/or alveolitis. Overt clinical symptoms are most prominent in the glomeruli where the inflammation usually results in a severe rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Despite modern treatment less than one third of the patients survive with a preserved kidney function after 6 months follow-up. Frequencies vary from 0.5 to 1 cases per million inhabitants per year and there is a strong genetic linkage to HLA-DRB1*1501 and DRB1*1502. Essentially, anti-GBM disease is now a preferred term for what was earlier called Goodpasture's syndrome or Goodpasture's disease; anti-GBM disease is now classified as small vessel vasculitis caused by in situ immune complex formation; the diagnosis relies on the detection of anti-GBM in tissues or circulation in conjunction with alveolar or glomerular disease; therapy is effective only when detected at an early stage, making a high degree of awareness necessary to find these rare cases; 20-35% have anti-GBM and MPO-ANCA simultaneously, which necessitates testing for anti-GBM whenever acute test for ANCA is ordered in patients with renal disease. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

This work presents a new mathematical formulation of biologically effective dose (BED) for radiation therapy where effects of repair need to be considered. The formulation is based on the observation that the effects of repair, both during protracted irradiation and of incomplete repair between fractions, can be written using a convolution, i.e. BED(T)=∫(∞)(-∞)R(T)(t)dt+1/(α/β) ∫(∞)(-∞)[R(T)(t)xI(t)]dt where T is the total irradiation time, R(T)(t) is the absorbed dose rate as a function of time t and I(t) is the function describing repair. To validate this formulation, the previously published expressions for instant and protracted irradiation are first summarized. Then, by analytical derivation, it is shown that the new formulation gives identical results. The calculation of BED can thus be treated within one single mathematical framework, applicable in external beam therapy, brachytherapy, radionuclide therapy, or a combination of these treatment modalities. Moreover, the new formulation allows for a straightforward incorporation of different repair models and has the advantage of being numerically applicable.

Lau B.K.,Lund University | Andersen J.B.,University of Aalborg
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2012

Compact arrays such as multiple antennas on a mobile terminal suffer from low efficiency and high correlation between antenna signals. In the present paper, a simple and rigorous procedure for decoupling two closely coupled antennas with a parasitic scatterer is proposed. The parasitic scatterer, which can be an additional antenna, acts as a shield between two active antenna elements. In contrast to previous studies involving the use of parasitic scatterer for decoupling antennas, we demonstrate using antenna impedances the underlying decoupling mechanism for two arbitrary antennas. By a proper choice of parameters, perfect matching and decoupling can be obtained for a given antenna spacing without extending the overall area used, and without introducing additional decoupling networks. The price to pay is a reduction of bandwidth relative to that of widely spaced antennas, which is the case for other decoupling methods as well. Simulation and experimental results are used to substantiate the effectiveness of the proposed design approach on a two-monopole array with an antenna spacing of 0.1 wavelength. Finally, several practical considerations of the proposal are also presented, including the extension of the approach for more than two active antennas and its implementation in mobile terminals. © 2011 IEEE.

Akesson S.,Lund University
Journal of Animal Ecology | Year: 2016

The gamma Y moth selects to migrate in stronger winds compared to songbirds, enabling fast transport to distant breeding sites, but a lower precision in orientation as the moth allows itself to be drifted by the winds. Photo: Ian Woiwod. In Focus: Chapman, J.R., Nilsson, C., Lim, K.S., Bäckman, J., Reynolds, D.R. & Alerstam, T. (2015) Adaptive strategies in nocturnally migrating insects and songbirds: contrasting responses to winds. Journal of Animal Ecology, In press Insects and songbirds regularly migrate long distances across continents and seas. During these nocturnal migrations, they are exposed to a fluid medium, the air, in which they transport themselves by flight at similar speeds as the winds may carry them. It is crucial for an animal to select the most favourable flight conditions relative to winds to minimize the distance flown on a given amount of fuel and to avoid hazardous situations. Chapman et al. (2015a) showed contrasting strategies in how moths initiate migration predominantly under tailwind conditions, allowing themselves to drift to a larger extent and gain ground speed as compared to nocturnal songbird migrants. The songbirds use more variable flight strategies in relation to winds, where they sometimes allow themselves to drift, and at other occasions compensate for wind drift. This study shows how insects and birds have differentially adapted to migration in relation to winds, which is strongly dependent on their own flight capability, with higher flexibility enabling fine-tuned responses to keep a time programme and reach a goal in songbirds compared to in insects. © 2016 British Ecological Society.

Charred seed conglomerates of Linum usitatissimum (flax) and Camelina sativa (gold of pleasure) were found at Uppåkra 2:25, a Roman Iron Age site in Skåne, southern Sweden. The conglomerates showed no mixing with each other, as they were almost pure flax and gold of pleasure respectively. Together with other archaeobotanical data from the site, they provide new evidence on the use, processing and cultivation of these two plants in early Iron Age in Scandinavia. Metric analyses were applied to flax seeds from both conglomerates and other contexts at this site, and compared to seed assemblages from other Roman Iron Age sites in Europe. The comparison showed that the flax cultivation at Uppåkra 2:25 was intended for the production of oil-rich seeds. The contextual relationship indicates that both flax and gold of pleasure seeds were processed in a similar way and used for oil. Furthermore, the pure seed conglomerate of gold of pleasure suggests that this plant was not a weed, but rather an intentionally grown crop which was cultivated separately from flax. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Medronho B.,University of Algarve | Lindman B.,Lund University | Lindman B.,Nanyang Technological University
Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2014

Cellulose is a polymer so widely abundant and versatile that we can find it almost everywhere in many different forms and applications. Cellulose dissolution is a key aspect of many processes; the present treatise reviews the main achievements in the dissolution area. In particular, the main solvents used and underlying mechanisms are discussed. As is described, cellulose solvents are of highly different nature giving great challenges in the understanding and analyzing the subtle balance between different interactions. Recent work has much emphasized the role of cellulose charge and the concomitant ion entropy effects, as well as hydrophobic interactions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Fuentes C.,Lund University
International Journal of Consumer Studies | Year: 2014

The complexities of green consumption are often discussed. Studies bring to fore difficulties of choosing sustainable alternatives in a complex world. How are consumers to know what products to purchase in a market society with global commodity chains? Can consumers really trust corporations' environmental reporting? In arguing this, these studies are giving voice to some of the difficulties and anxieties people have to deal with in a consumer society. As others have argued, consumption involves work and being a consumer is increasingly a laborious and anxiety-producing activity. However, what these studies are missing is the fact that consumers do manage to consume green, at least some of them do. An interesting question is then, how is this complexity managed? The aim of this paper is to contribute to the field of green consumption by illustrating and conceptualizing how consumers practically manage green complexities when performing green shopping. The focus is on shopping practices. Drawing on an ethnographic study of the Nordic Nature Shop - a Swedish retailer chain of outdoor products - and making use of practice theory, this paper shows that consumers have different strategies and techniques to make their shopping practices more sustainable. One strategy used is to shop for things that last. Consumers focused then on finding quality outdoor products with 'timeless design'. Another strategy included instead consuming less. These consumers had different techniques that aimed at reducing their overall consumption of outdoors products. Finally, there were also those that focused on purchasing green products. Here, two techniques were talked about. While some focused on finding green brands, others looked at the product information in search on information concerning its manufacturing. In sum, the practice-based analysis showed that green complexities are managed through the development of various green shopping strategies. Green shopping, however, is not an uncomplicated accomplishment. Green shopping, the analysis suggests, is knowledge demanding for consumers and requires an enabling/supportive socio-material retailscape. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Hall S.A.,Lund University | Hall S.A.,European Spallation Source AB
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2013

The challenge of understanding how localized deformation modifies fluid flow in porous rock is addressed. New approaches are presented, based on neutron radiography and digital image analyses, to track fluid flow in rock specimens and to calculate flow velocity fields providing local flow measurements. The results show that neutron radiography, backed up by appropriate image analysis, is a very powerful tool in this context, being far more sensitive to the fluids in the rock than X-ray radiography. Analysis of neutron radiography images of water imbibition into a laboratory-deformed sandstone specimen has provided new measurements of local fluid flow velocities within a shear band, indicating that flow is faster and water storage is higher in the band (attributed to higher capillary forces associated with damage). © 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Skjoth C.A.,Lund University | Skjoth C.A.,University of Aarhus | Geels C.,University of Aarhus
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2013

We present here a dynamical method for modelling temporal and geographical variations in ammonia emissions in regional-scale chemistry transport models (CTMs) and chemistry climate models (CCMs). The method is based on the meteorology in the models and gridded inventories. We use the dynamical method to investigate the spatiotemporal variability of ammonia emissions across part of Europe and study how these emissions are related to geographical and year-to-year variations in atmospheric temperature alone. For simplicity we focus on the emission from a storage facility related to a standard Danish pig stable with 1000 animals and display how emissions from this source would vary geographically throughout central and northern Europe and from year to year. In view of future climate changes, we also evaluate the potential future changes in emission by including temperature projections from an ensemble of climate models. The results point towards four overall issues. (1) Emissions can easily vary by 20% for different geographical locations within a country due to overall variations in climate. The largest uncertainties are seen for large countries such as the UK, Germany and France. (2) Annual variations in overall climate can at specific locations cause uncertainties in the range of 20%. (3) Climate change may increase emissions by 0-40% in central to northern Europe. (4) Gradients in existing emission inventories that are seen between neighbour countries (e.g. between the UK and France) can be reduced by using a dynamical methodology for calculating emissions. Acting together these four factors can cause substantial uncertainties in emission. Emissions are generally considered among the largest uncertainties in the model calculations made with CTM and CCM models. Efforts to reduce uncertainties are therefore highly relevant. It is therefore recommended that both CCMs and CTMs implement a dynamical methodology for simulating ammonia emissions in a similar way as for biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) - a method that has been used for more than a decade in CTMs. Finally, the climate penalty on ammonia emissions should be taken into account at the policy level such as the NEC and IPPC directives. © 2013 Author(s).

Rummukainen M.,Lund University
Climatic Change | Year: 2013

Ongoing global warming not only involves changes in temperature and the global mean; it affects more or less every part of the climate. Regional temperature changes are often greater or smaller than corresponding changes in the global mean. In some cases the direction of change may also be different. For example, temperature changes are higher over land than over the ocean. Precipitation increases in some regions but decreases in others. Changes in extreme events may differ from changes in the corresponding mean. Present scientific knowledge clearly indicates that the already observed global trend towards warmer conditions will continue and that it will be accompanied by changes in yet other aspects of climate. This paper highlights, as a brief review, aspects of our changing climate from the available scientific knowledge with a bearing on the energy sector. Its focus is on temperature and precipitation, with some consideration of wind and sea level, among others. While uncertainties remain as far as the magnitude of future global-scale changes is concerned, and even more so their many regional patterns, significant changes are foreseen in, for example, global and regional temperature and precipitation, sea level rise, and in the characteristics of various extreme events. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Sunden F.,Helsingborg Hospital | Wullt B.,Lund University
International Journal of Urology | Year: 2016

Objectives: To study urinary interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and pyuria during episodes of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infection in the institutionalized elderly, and to investigate the role of interleukin-6 as a biomarker for differential diagnosis. Methods: Levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and pyuria were assessed in 35 older adults with asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infection to define possible diagnostic thresholds. In a two-phase intervention study, the antibiotic treatment for urinary tract infection before and after introduction of urinary interleukin-6 as a biomarker was then assessed. Results: Asymptomatic bacteriuria patients had no or low levels of interleukin-6, and low levels of interleukin-8 and pyuria. Women had lower interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 than men (P = 0.05). Interleukin-6 was the only marker showing significant increases during urinary tract infection episodes in patients with both asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection, in pooled (P = 0.042) and in paired intra-individual (P = 0.017) comparisons. In the intervention study lectures, the increased use of urine cultures and the introduction of interleukin-6 as a biomarker reduced antibiotic treatments by 20%. Antibiotic-treated urinary tract infection episodes had increased interleukin-6 as compared with urinary tract infection episodes not treated (P = 0.02), and as compared with asymptomatic bacteriuria patients (P < 0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of interleukin-6 (cut-off 25 pg/mL) differentiating asymptomatic bacteriuria from urinary tract infection was 57% and 80%, respectively. Conclusions: Urinary interleukin-6 shows promise as a biomarker to detect the transition from asymptomatic bacteriuria to symptomatic urinary tract infection in older adults. Further larger studies with robust methodology are warranted to determine whether development for near to patient testing would be worthwhile. © 2016 The Japanese Urological Association.

Valente A.J.M.,University of Coimbra | Soderman O.,Lund University
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2014

Cyclodextrins are able to act as host molecules in supramolecular chemistry with applications ranging from pharmaceutics to detergency. Among guest molecules surfactants play an important role with both fundamental and practical applications. The formation of cyclodextrin/surfactant host-guest compounds leads to an increase in the critical micelle concentration and in the solubility of surfactants. The possibility of changing the balance between several intermolecular forces, and thus allowing the study of, e.g., dehydration and steric hindrance effects upon association, makes surfactants ideal guest molecules for fundamental studies. Therefore, these systems allow for obtaining a deep insight into the host-guest association mechanism. In this paper, we review the influence on the thermodynamic properties of CD-surfactant association by highlighting the effect of different surfactant architectures (single tail, double-tailed, gemini and bolaform), with special emphasis on cationic surfactants. This is complemented with an assessment of the most common analytical techniques used to follow the association process. The applied methods for computation of the association stoichiometry and stability constants are also reviewed and discussed; this is an important point since there are significant discrepancies and scattered data for similar systems in the literature. In general, the surfactant-cyclodextrin association is treated without reference to the kinetics of the process. However, there are several examples where the kinetics of the process can be investigated, in particular those where volumes of the CD cavity and surfactant (either the tail or in special cases the head group) are similar in magnitude. This will also be critically reviewed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Lindgren J.,Lund University
Nature communications | Year: 2013

Mosasaurs are secondarily aquatic squamates that became the dominant marine reptiles in the Late Cretaceous about 98-66 million years ago. Although early members of the group possessed body shapes similar to extant monitor lizards, derived forms have traditionally been portrayed as long, sleek animals with broadened, yet ultimately tapering tails. Here we report an extraordinary mosasaur fossil from the Maastrichtian of Harrana in central Jordan, which preserves soft tissues, including high fidelity outlines of a caudal fluke and flippers. This specimen provides the first indisputable evidence that derived mosasaurs were propelled by hypocercal tail fins, a hypothesis that was previously based on comparative skeletal anatomy alone. Ecomorphological comparisons suggest that derived mosasaurs were similar to pelagic sharks in terms of swimming performance, a finding that significantly expands our understanding of the level of aquatic adaptation achieved by these seagoing lizards.

Bjorklund T.,Lund University | Kordower J.H.,Rush University Medical Center
Movement Disorders | Year: 2010

The once fantastic theoretical concept that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) would receive gene therapy in an attempt to alleviate their symptoms and potentially modify the course of their disease has become a reality. On the basis of positive preclinical data, four different gene therapy approaches are currently in Phase I or Phase II clinical trials. Some approaches are intended to increase levels of endogenous dopamine or enhance the function of the prodrug levodopa. Others are intended to normalize basal ganglia circuitry by reducing the PD-related overactivity of specific brain structures such as the subthalamic nucleus. Each is intended for symptomatic benefit. Finally, gene delivery of trophic factors that not only augment dopaminergic function but are potentially disease modifying has a strong preclinical database and are also in clinical trials. Each of these approaches is discussed in the present review. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

Nilsson P.M.,Lund University
Current Vascular Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Cardiovascular disease is multidimensional and new ideas are needed to develop the conventional risk factor paradigm that has been based on the Framingham Heart Study since more than 30 years. Traditional risk factors such as hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia and diabetes can only explain about 50% of the distribution of coronary heart disease whereas the inclusion of new risk markers or protective markers may increase the explained proportion up to 80% of myocardial infarction risk according to the INTERHEART study. Still there are substantial differences in cardiovascular risk between regions and populations that are hard to explain. Findings in the former Soviet Union geographical area in Eastern Europe could contribute to new and better understanding of cardiovascular risk as a reflection of ageing in general, as populations in these areas not only run a very high cardiovascular risk but also have a shorter mean life expectancy in general. New understanding of the interaction between genes and the environment in prediction of cardiovascular ageing could contribute to the development of more effective preventive strategies. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Ageberg E.,Lund University | Roos E.M.,University of Southern Denmark
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews | Year: 2015

Exercise is recommended as first-line treatment of degenerative knee disease. Our hypothesis is that neuromuscular exercise is feasible and at least as effective as traditionally used strength or aerobic training but aims to target more closely the sensorimotor deficiencies and functional instability associated with the degenerative knee disease than traditionally used training methods. © 2014 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Rummukainen M.,Lund University
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change | Year: 2016

Regional climate modeling is a dynamical downscaling technique applied to the results of global climate models (GCMs) in order to acquire more information on climate simulations and climate change projections. GCMs and regional climate models (RCMs) have undergone considerable development over the past few decades, and both have increased in resolution. The higher-resolution edge of RCMs compared to GCMs still remains, however. This has been demonstrated in a number of specific studies. As GCMs operate on relatively coarse resolutions, they do not resolve more variable land forms and similar features that shape regional-scale climates. RCMs operate on higher resolutions than GCMs, by a factor of 2-10. Some RCMs now explore resolutions down to 1-5 km. This adds value in regions with variable orography, land-sea and other contrasts, as well as in capturing sharp, short-duration and extreme events. In contrast, large-scale and time-averaged fields, not least over smooth terrain and on scales that have been already skillfully resolved in GCMs, are not much affected. RCMs also generate additional detail compared to GCMs when in climate projection mode. Compared to the present-day climate for which observations exist, here the added value aspect is more complex to evaluate. Nevertheless, added value is meaningfully underlined when there is a clear physical context for it to appear in. In addition to climate modeling and model evaluation-related added value considerations, a significant relevant aspect of added value is the provision of regional scale information, including climate change projections, for climate impact, adaptation, and vulnerability research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Nectar-feeding insects find flowers by 2 means, innate preferences and learned associations. When insects that hibernate as imagos (i.e., adults) start foraging after a long winter break, what guides them to new nectar rewards? Are innate preferences kept over such a long period? And are learned associations useful after long breaks? In a series of experiments I show here that, depending on previous experience, the European hummingbird hawkmoth, Macroglossum stellatarum can use both types of information to choose a first flower after periods of 1 or 3 weeks. What is remembered seems to depend on innate preferences of the moths. Moths trained to feed from 1 of 2 colors that are equally attractive to naive moths keep the learned preference. Animals trained to prefer a less attractive color to an innately preferred color loose the learned preference and return to the innate choice behavior. I conclude that hummingbird hawkmoths can keep innate and learned preferences over a long period and are able to use both types of information when searching nectar rewards after long periods of hibernation. © 2010 The Author.

Background: Little is known about early morphologic change occurring with an acute injury of the anterior cruciate ligament. Magnetic resonance imaging was used in this study to investigate the two-year change in cartilage thickness, bone marrow lesions, and joint fluid of knees with acute anterior cruciate ligament injury treated surgically or nonsurgically and to identify factors associated with these changes. Methods: Sixty-one subjects (sixteen women and forty-five men with a mean age of twenty-six years) with acute anterior cruciate ligament injury to a previously uninjured knee were examined with use of a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner at baseline and at three, six, twelve, and twenty-four months after the injury. Thirty-four subjects received rehabilitation and early anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (a median of 44.5 days after the injury), eleven subjects received rehabilitation and a delayed anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (408 days), and sixteen received rehabilitation alone. Morphologic measures were obtained from computer-assisted segmentation of magnetic resonance images. Factors tested for association were age, sex, activity level, treatment, and osteochondral fracture at baseline. Results: After twenty-four months, significant cartilage thinning occurred in the trochlea of the femur (mean, -4.3%; standard responsemean = 0.88), whereas significant cartilage thickening occurred in the centralmedial aspect of the femur (mean, +2.7%; standard response mean = 0.46). A younger age at the time of injury was a risk factor for thickening in the central medial aspect of femur, whereas older age at injury was a risk factor for thinning in the trochlea of the femur. Treatment of the torn anterior cruciate ligament was not related to these changes nor was activity level or an osteochondral fracture at baseline. Posttraumatic bone marrow lesions in the lateral aspect of the tibia resolved completely in fifty-four of fifty-eight knees (median, six months) and lesions in the lateral aspect of the femur resolved completely in forty-four of fortyseven knees (median, threemonths); however, thirty new bone marrow lesions developed in the lateral aspect of twenty-one knees over the two-year period. None of the factors were related to the development of bone marrow lesions. Conclusions: Morphologic change as visualized on magnetic resonance imaging occurs in the knee over the first two years after acute anterior cruciate ligament injury as demonstrated by cartilage thickening (central medial aspect of the femur), cartilage thinning (trochlea of the femur), the resolution of posttraumatic bone marrow lesions in the lateral part of the knee, and the development of new bone marrow lesions laterally. Age and male sex were independent risk factors for change in cartilage morphology. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2011 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

Leide-Svegborn S.,Lund University
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2010

The positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) camera is a combination of a PET camera and a CT. The image from the PET camera is based on the detection of radiation that is emitted from a radioactive tracer, which has been given to the patient as an intravenous injection. The radiation that is emitted from the radioactive tracer is more energetic than any other radiation used in medical diagnostic procedures and this requires special radiation protection routines. The CT image is based on the detection of radiation produced from an X-ray tube and transmitted through the patient. The radiation exposure of the personnel during the CT procedure is generally very low. Regarding radiation exposure of the patient, it is important to notice whether a CT scan has been performed prior to the PET/CT in order to avoid any unnecessary irradiation. The total effective dose to the patient from a PET/CT procedure is ~10 mSv. The major part comes from internal irradiation due to radiopharmaceuticals within the patients (e.g. 18F-FDG: ~6-7 mSv), and a minor part is due to the CT scan (low-dose CT scan: ~2-4 mSv). If a full diagnostic CT investigation is performed, the effective dose may be considerably higher. If the patient is pregnant, a PET/CT procedure should be avoided or postponed, unless it is vital for the patient. An interruption in breastfeeding is not necessary after a PET/CT procedure of the nursing mother. Close contact between the patient and a small child should however be avoided for a couple of hours after the administration of the radiopharmaceutical. The radiation dose to the personnel arises mainly due to handling of the radiopharmaceuticals (syringe withdrawal, injection, waste handling, etc.) and from close contact to the patient. This radiation dose can be limited by using the inverse-square law, i.e. by using the fact that the absorbed dose decreases substantially with increasing distance between the radiation source and the personnel. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.

Casalderrey-Solana J.,University of Barcelona | Mehtar-Tani Y.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Salgado C.A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Tywoniuk K.,Lund University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

We propose a new description of the jet quenching phenomenon observed in nuclear collisions at high energies in which coherent parton branching plays a central role. This picture is based on the appearance of a dynamically generated scale, the jet resolution scale, which controls the transverse resolution power of the medium to simultaneously propagating color probes. Since from the point of view of the medium all partonic jet fragments within this transverse distance act coherently as a single emitter, this scale allows us to rearrange the jet shower into effective emitters. We observe that in the kinematic regime of the LHC, the corresponding characteristic angle is comparable to the typical opening angle of high-energy jets such that most of the jet energy is contained within a non-resolvable color coherent inner core. Thus, a sizable fraction of the jets is unresolved, losing energy as a single parton without modifications of their intra-jet structure. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Mansson A.,Lund University
Energy Research and Social Science | Year: 2014

It is widely recognised that the presence of some fossil fuels and their transport routes can affect the risk of conflicts. Other parts of the energy system and contextual conditions (social, economic or political factors) also matter for such conflicts, but which and how is not as well researched. This paper develops a framework that links characteristics of energy systems with contextual conditions that if combined increases the risk of conflict. The framework also provides a brief theoretical background as well as examples of previous energy conflicts. Examples of energy system characteristic that can affect the risk of conflicts include geographical concentration of primary resources, the number and diversity of exporters on the international energy market, vulnerability of infrastructure to attacks, vulnerability of users to disruptions and externalities related to interconnections with other systems. Contextual conditions include, among other, the rationale of actors to engage in conflict under various circumstances. The capacity of humans and societies to adapt to change should be analysed together with the characteristics of the energy system that place stress on actors. The framework can serve as a tool to identify 'hotspots' and, develop more robust energy policies and strategies to anticipate and prevent conflicts. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lindahl B.D.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Tunlid A.,Lund University
New Phytologist | Year: 2015

Although hypothesized for many years, the involvement of ectomycorrhizal fungi in decomposition of soil organic matter remains controversial and has not yet been fully acknowledged as an important factor in the regulation of soil carbon (C) storage. Here, we review recent findings, which support the view that some ectomycorrhizal fungi have the capacity to oxidize organic matter, either by 'brown-rot' Fenton chemistry or using 'white-rot' peroxidases. We propose that ectomycorrhizal fungi benefit from organic matter decomposition primarily through increased nitrogen mobilization rather than through release of metabolic C and question the view that ectomycorrhizal fungi may act as facultative saprotrophs. Finally, we discuss how mycorrhizal decomposition may influence organic matter storage in soils and mediate responses of ecosystem C sequestration to environmental changes. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

Pedersen E.,Lund University
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2015

Urban densification increases exposure to noise, light, odour, and vibration in urban dwellings. Exposure from combined environmental stressors intruding into the home could increase the risk of adverse effects on wellbeing, even when the exposure is at a relatively low level. This study assesses the prevalence of annoyance with a combination of potential environmental stressors common in urban areas and the association with wellbeing. A questionnaire was sent by mail to residents in five areas in Halmstad (Sweden) with similar socioeconomic and housing characteristics but different exposure (response rate 56%; n = 385). Of the respondents, 50% were annoyed to some degree by at least one of the suggested stressors, most commonly by noise and vibration from local traffic. Structural equation modelling showed that annoyance led to lowered quality of life via the mediating construct residential satisfaction, which in turn was influenced by place attachment and perceived restoration possibilities in the dwelling. Stress had a negative impact on quality of life, but was not directly correlated to annoyance. Stress was however correlated with sensitivity. The findings suggest that dose-response relationships for environmental stressors should be studied in a broader context of environmental and individual factors. Also relatively low levels of exposure should be mitigated, especially if several stressors are present. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Cardena E.,Lund University | Carlson E.,National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology | Year: 2011

Acute stress disorder (ASD) was introduced into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) taxonomy in 1994 to address the lack of a specific diagnosis for acute pathological reactions to trauma and the role that dissociative phenomena play both in the short- and long-term reactions to trauma. In this review, we discuss the history and goals of the diagnosis and compare it with the diagnoses of acute stress reaction, combat stress reaction, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We also evaluate the research on the validity and limitations of ASD as a diagnosis, the relationship between peritraumatic dissociation and other symptomatology, the extent to which PTSD is predicted by previous ASD or peritraumatic dissociation, and other important issues such as impairment and risk factors related to ASD. We conclude with our recommendations for changes in DSM-5 criteria and the development of more sophisticated research that considers ASD as but one of two or possibly three common acute posttraumatic syndromes. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

A crucial stage in the interaction between pollinators and plants is the moment of physical contact between them, known as flower inspection, or handling. Floral guides - conspicuous colour markings, or structural features of flower corollas - have been shown to be important in the inspecting behaviour of many insects, particularly in diurnal species. For the nocturnal hawkmoth Manduca sexta tactile input has an important role in flower inspection, but there is no knowledge about the use of visual floral guides in this behaviour. I carried out a series of experiments to first, evaluate the putative role of floral guides during flower inspection and second, to explore how simultaneous tactile and visual guides could influence this behaviour. Results show that visual floral guides affect flower inspection by M. sexta. Moths confine proboscis placement to areas of higher light reflectance regardless of their chromaticity, but do not appear to show movements in any particular direction within these areas. I also recorded inspection times, finding that moths can learn to inspect flowers more efficiently when visual floral guides are available. Additionally, I found that some visual floral guides can affect the body orientation that moths adopt while hovering in front of horizontal models. Finally, when presented with flower models offering both visual and tactile guides, the former influenced proboscis placement, whereas the latter controlled proboscis movements. Results show that innate inspection behaviour is under multimodal sensory control, consistent with other components of the foraging task. Fine scale inspection movements (elicited by diverse floral traits) and the tight adjustment between the morphology of pollinators and flowers appear to be adaptively integrated, facilitating reward assessment and effective pollen transfer. © 2010 The Company of Biologists Ltd.

The effect of temperature on the adiabatic laminar burning velocities of CH4 + air and H2 + air flames was analyzed. Available measurements were interpreted using correlation SL = SL0 (T/T0)α. Particular attention was paid to the variation of the power exponent α with equivalence ratio at fixed (atmospheric) pressure. Experimental data and proposed empirical expressions for α as a function of equivalence ratio were summarized. They were compared with predictions of detailed kinetic models in methane + air and hydrogen + air flames. Unexpected non-monotonic behavior of α was found in rich methane + air flames. Modeling results are further examined using sensitivity analysis to elucidate the reason of particular dependences of the power exponent α on equivalence ratio. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Guzman J.L.,University of Almeria | Hagglund T.,Lund University
Journal of Process Control | Year: 2011

This paper describes new simple tuning rules for design of feedforward compensators. The problem of feedforward from load disturbances is analyzed, and it is shown that the feedback controller should be taken into account in the feedforward design process. Simple rules based on IAE minimization with restrictions on the process output overshoot and the high-frequency gain of the compensator are then derived. Several simulations are presented along the paper to show the advantages of the proposed design rules. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

This article makes a contribution to the critique of market-based mechanisms for climate and energy policy. It explores the environmental effectiveness of market instruments by engaging a broadly conceived "fossil fuel landscape", or the material, social, and political inertia of fossil energy dependence, as a factor delimiting policy outcomes. The argument is developed through a focus on the idea of economic efficiency as a key ideological construct underlying market-based policy, and draws on examples from two different market instruments, namely the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, and the Flemish tradable green certificate scheme. I argue that an understanding of the shortcomings of these, and similar, policies requires acknowledgment of the political and socio-economic power that emanates from the temporal dynamics of fossil fuel capitalism, which are reproduced when economic efficiency becomes the key focus of climate policy. © Antipode Foundation.

Thompson L.H.,University of Melbourne | Bjorklund A.,Lund University
Neurobiology of Disease | Year: 2015

Pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells, ESCs, and induced pluripotent stem cells, iPSCs) have the capacity to generate neural progenitors that are intrinsically patterned to undergo differentiation into specific neuronal subtypes and express in vivo properties that match the ones formed during normal embryonic development. Remarkable progress has been made in this field during recent years thanks to the development of more refined protocols for the generation of transplantable neuronal progenitors from pluripotent stem cells, and the access to new tools for tracing of neuronal connectivity and assessment of integration and function of grafted neurons. Recent studies in brains of neonatal mice or rats, as well as in rodent models of brain or spinal cord damage, have shown that ESC- or iPSC-derived neural progenitors can be made to survive and differentiate after transplantation, and that they possess a remarkable capacity to extend axons over long distances and become functionally integrated into host neural circuitry. Here, we summarize these recent developments in the perspective of earlier studies using intracerebral and intraspinal transplants of primary neurons derived from fetal brain, with special focus on the ability of human ESC- and iPSC-derived progenitors to reconstruct damaged neural circuitry in cortex, hippocampus, the nigrostriatal system and the spinal cord, and we discuss the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that determine the growth properties of the grafted neurons and their capacity to establish target-specific long-distance axonal connections in the damaged host brain. © 2015.

Rummukainen M.,Lund University
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change | Year: 2012

Climate and weather extremes are sporadically recurring events that may have major local or regional impacts on the society and the environment. These events are typically related to unusually high or low temperature, prolonged dry or wet conditions, heavy precipitation, or extreme winds. Extreme events are part of the overall climate and weather alongside average conditions and variability, and thus are not unexpected as such. Climate change is expected to affect not only means but also variability and extremes. Some inferences can be based on past and present observations, but analyses of especially rare events are hampered by the availability of long time series. Over time, depending on how far the on-going global warming takes us from the present and the past climate conditions, the weather and climate statistics may well come to shift in ways that are well outside observational data. This may lead to shifts in frequency, intensity and geographical distribution of different extremes. Indeed, projected changes in some extremes over the 21st century are quite robust, such as generally increasing warm and decreasing cold extremes. Possible changes in some other aspects, for example storms, remain much more uncertain. Science-based information both on robust findings and on relevant uncertainties on changing extremes can provide useful information for sectorial planning, disaster risk prevention and overall reduction of societal vulnerability related to climate and weather. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Higher availability of future climate data sets, generated by regional climate models (RCMs) with fine temporal and spatial resolutions, improves and facilitates the impact assessment of climate change. Due to significant uncertainties in climate modeling, several climate scenarios should be considered in the impact assessment. This increases the number of simulations and size of data sets, complicating the assessment and decision making. This article suggests an easy-to-use method to decrease the number of simulations for the impact assessment of climate change in energy and building studies. The method is based on synthesizing three sets of weather data out of one or more RCMs: one typical and two extremes. The method aims at decreasing the number of weather data sets without losing the quality and details of the original future climate scenarios. The application of the method is assessed for an office building in Geneva and the residential building stock in Stockholm.Results show that using the synthesized data sets provides an accurate estimation of future conditions. Variations and uncertainties of future climate are represented by the synthesized data. In the case of synthesizing weather data using multiple climate scenarios, the number of simulations and the size of data sets are decreased enormously. Combining the typical and extreme data sets enables to have better probability distributions of future conditions, very similar to the original RCM data. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Ahren B.,Lund University
Journal of Diabetes Investigation | Year: 2012

During recent years, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition has been included in the clinical management of type2 diabetes, both as monotherapy and as add-on to several other therapies. DPP-4 inhibition prevents the inactivation of the incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). This results in stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon secretion, and there is also a potential β-cell preservation effect, as judged from rodent studies; that is, it might target the key islet dysfunction in the disease. In type2 diabetes. This reduces 24-h glucose levels and reduces HbA 1c by ≈0.8-1.1% from baseline levels of 7.7-8.5%. DPP-4 inhibition is safe, with a very low risk for adverse events including hypoglycemia, and it prevents weight gain. The present review summarizes the studies on the influence of DPP-4 inhibition on islet function. © 2011 Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Hagglund T.,Lund University
Control Engineering Practice | Year: 2011

The paper describes a method for automatic diagnosis of stiction in control valves. The diagnosis is performed using a shape analysis of the wave form of the oscillations that appear in the process output during stick-slip motion. The procedure is automatic in the sense that no process information is assumed except the one that is already available in the controllers. The procedure can be used both online and off-line. Results from industrial tests are provided in the paper. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Struyf E.,University of Antwerp | Conley D.J.,Lund University
Biogeochemistry | Year: 2012

The annual fixation of dissolved Si (DSi) into terrestrial vegetation has been estimated to range from 60 to 200 Tmole, or 10-40 times more than the yearly export of DSi and biogenic Si (BSi) from the terrestrial geobiosphere to the coastal zone. Ecosystems form a large filter between primary mobilization of DSi from silicate weathering and its eventual export to the oceans, and a large reservoir of BSi accumulates in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Although a number of synthesis activities within the last decade have discussed biological transformations in the terrestrial Si cycle, the timescales at which BSi is stored and recycled within ecosystems, BSi persistence and reactivity throughout soil profiles, the dependence of the BSi storage and recycling on ecological processes, the feedbacks to hydrology, the interaction with man's activities and ultimately the global relevance in Si budgets are poorly constrained. Here we discuss 5 key controls on the ability of ecosystems to filter and control the export of DSi: ecosystem biodiversity, BSi dissolution rates and reactivity, hydrology, interaction with the geosphere and anthropogenic impacts. These controls need to be further studied to better quantify the global and local importance of the terrestrial biogeochemical Si cycle and specifically the BSi reservoir in ecosystems. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Fruhwald Hansson E.,Lund University
Engineering Structures | Year: 2011

Collapses of timber structures are negative for the competitiveness of timber on the construction market. The question is what can be done to reduce the risk for failure in timber structures in the future. For this purpose a comprehensive survey and analysis of failures in 127 timber structures have been made. The present paper summarises the results from this survey with an analysis of the underlying causes and associated conclusions and recommendations. The most common cause of failure is related to weaknesses in or lack of strength design (41.5%), followed by poor principles during erection (14.1%), on-site alterations (12.5%) and insufficient or lack of design with respect to environmental actions (11.4%). In total, about half of the failures are caused by the designer and about one fourth of the failures are caused by the personnel working at the building site. Wood quality, production methods and production principles only cause a small part (together about 11%) of the failures. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Lingas A.,Lund University
Algorithmica (New York) | Year: 2011

We use randomness to exploit the potential sparsity of the Boolean matrix product in order to speed up the computation of the product. Our new fast output-sensitive algorithm for Boolean matrix product and its witnesses is randomized and provides the Boolean product and its witnesses almost certainly. Its worst-case time performance is expressed in terms of the input size and the number of non-zero entries of the product matrix. It runs in time Õn 2s ω/2-1, where the input matrices have size n×n, the number of non-zero entries in the product matrix is at most s, ω is the exponent of the fast matrix multiplication and Õ(f(n))denotes O(f(n)log d n) for some constant d. By the currently best bound on ω, its running time can be also expressed as Õn 2s 0.188. Our algorithm is substantially faster than the output-sensitive column-row method for Boolean matrix product for s larger than n 1.232 and it is never slower than the fast Õn ω -time algorithm for this problem. By applying the fast rectangular matrix multiplication, we can refine our upper bound further to the form Õn ω1/2log ns,1,1), where ω(p,q,t) is the exponent of the fast multiplication of an n p ×n q matrix by an n q ×n t matrix. We also present a partial derandomization of our algorithm as well as its generalization to include the Boolean product of rectangular Boolean matrices. Finally, we show several applications of our output-sensitive algorithms. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Nave G.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Johansson S.,Lund University
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series | Year: 2013

The spectrum of singly ionized iron (Fe II) has been recorded using high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) and grating spectroscopy over the wavelength range 900 Å to 5.5 μm. The spectra were observed in high-current continuous and pulsed hollow cathode discharges using FT spectrometers at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ and Imperial College, London and with the 10.7 m Normal Incidence Spectrograph at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Roughly 12,900 lines were classified using 1027 energy levels of Fe II that were optimized to measured wavenumbers. The wavenumber uncertainties of lines in the FT spectra range from 10-4 cm-1 for strong lines around 4 μm to 0.05 cm -1 for weaker lines around 1500 Å. The wavelength uncertainty of lines in the grating spectra is 0.005 Å. The ionization energy of (130,655.4 ± 0.4) cm-1 was estimated from the 3d 6(5D)5g and 3d6(5D)6h levels. © 2013 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Ahlgren S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Di Lucia L.,Lund University
Biotechnology for Biofuels | Year: 2014

The issue of indirect land use changes (ILUC) caused by the promotion of transport biofuels has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In this paper, we reviewed the current literature on modelling work to estimate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) caused by ILUC of biofuels. We also reviewed the development of ILUC policies in the EU. Our review of past modelling work revealed that most studies employ economic equilibrium modelling and focus on ethanol fuels, especially with maize as feedstock. It also revealed major variation in the results from the models, especially for biodiesel fuels. However, there has been some convergence of results over time, particularly for ethanol from maize, wheat and sugar cane. Our review of EU policy developments showed that the introduction of fuel-specific ILUC factors has been officially suggested by policymakers to deal with the ILUC of biofuels. The values proposed as ILUC factors in the policymaking process in the case of ethanol fuels are generally in line with the results of the latest modelling exercises, in particular for first-generation ethanol fuels from maize and sugar cane, while those for biodiesel fuels are somewhat higher. If the proposed values were introduced into EU policy, no (first-generation) biodiesel fuel would be able to comply with the EU GHG saving requirements. We identified a conflict between the demand from EU policymakers for exact, highly specific values and the capacity of the current models to supply results with that level of precision. We concluded that alternative policy approaches to ILUC factors should be further explored. © 2014 Ahlgren and Di Lucia; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Edvinsson L.,Lund University
Headache | Year: 2015

In this retrospective, Dr. Lars Edvinsson recounts early steps and milestones in our understanding of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the trigeminovascular system and its role in migraine. The discovery of the presence and function of CGRP and other neuropeptides in the cerebral vasculature and its sensory innervation is described. He relates the seminal finding that CGRP is uniquely released during migraine and the journey to develop blockers of CGRP effects. Now, over 30 years since its discovery, CGRP has become the target for a number of promising novel treatments for migraine patients. © 2015 American Headache Society.

Arneth A.,Lund University | Niinemets U.,Estonian University of Life Sciences
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2010

Climate-herbivory interactions have been largely debated vis-à-vis ecosystem carbon sequestration. However, invertebrate herbivores also modify emissions of plant biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Over the shorter term, they do this by the induction of de novo synthesis of a plethora of compounds; but invertebrates also affect the relative proportions of constitutively BVOCs-emitting plants. Thus, invertebrate-BVOCs interactions have potentially important implications for air quality and climate. Insect outbreaks are expected to increase with warmer climate, but quantitative understanding of BVOCs-invertebrate ecology, climate connections and atmospheric feedback remain as yet elusive. Examination of these interactions requires a description of outbreaks in ecosystem models, combined with quantitative observations on leaf and ecosystem level. We review here recent advances and propose a strategy for inclusion of invertebrate-BVOCs relationships in terrestrial ecosystem models. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Persson C.,Lund University
Clinical and Experimental Allergy | Year: 2014

Primary lysis of eosinophils liberates free eosinophil granules (FEGs) releasing toxic proteins in association with bronchial epithelial injury repair. Eosinophil lysis may be significantly pathogenic. Bronchial mucosal FEGs are associated with uncontrolled asthma, severe asthma, aspirin-sensitive asthma, and lethal asthma. FEGs in the bronchial wall may characterize severe asthma without sputum eosinophilia. Excessive numbers of sputum FEGs occur in severe exacerbations of asthma and are reduced along with clinical improvement. Occurrence of FEGs affects interpretation of other sputum biomarkers including numbers of eosinophils, ECP, and eosinophil-stained macrophages. Thus, eosinophil lysis produces FEGs as bronchial biomarkers of severe asthma. Blood eosinophils in severe asthma seem primed exhibiting a propensity to lyse that is greater the more severe the asthma. Proclivity of blood eosinophils to lyse also distinguished three levels of severity among children with exacerbations of asthma. Numerous FEGs releasing toxic proteins occur in association with grave derangement and shedding of epithelium in severe asthma. Subepithelial FEGs correlate negatively with intact bronchial epithelium in clinically uncontrolled asthma. Significant correlations between sputum ECP, Creola bodies, and severity of asthma exacerbations have also been demonstrated. Hence, eosinophil lysis apparently causes epithelial desquamation in severe asthma. Exaggerated epithelial repair in turn would contribute to inflammatory and remodelling features of severe asthma. Perseverance of FEGs together with maintained disease activity, despite treatment with 'eosinophil-depleting' steroids and anti-IL5 biologicals, agrees with the possibility that eosinophil lysis is worthy target for novel anti-asthma drugs. Priming and lysis of eosinophils, and protein release from FEGs, are regulated and can be targeted. Eosinophil lysis and FEGs belong to the disease picture of severe asthma and need consideration in asthma studies concerned with phenotypes, biomarkers, roles of epithelial injury/repair, and targeting novel drugs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

RuliSek L.,Gilead Sciences | Ryde U.,Lund University
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2013

In this article, we review recent theoretical work that has complemented the extensive experimental data available for the multicopper oxidases (MCO) and led to the elucidation of the reaction mechanism of this class of enzymes. The MCOs couple four one-electron oxidations of substrates at the mononuclear type 1 copper (Cu-T1) site with the four-electron reduction of dioxygen at the trinuclear copper cluster (TNC). The TNC consists of three copper ions arranged in a unique triangular fashion. In its oxidised form and in some experimentally observed intermediates (the peroxy and native intermediates), this leads to a magnetic coupling of the unpaired electrons of the three copper ions, resulting in unusual spectroscopic features. By correlating experimental and theoretical data, an unambiguous mapping between the structural, energetic and spectroscopic properties of the various intermediates in the MCO reaction cycle can be established. In terms of theory, these studies involved quantum mechanics (QM; density-functional theory and multi-reference self-consistent field) calculations, combined QM and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) modelling, ranging from standard QM/MM optimisations to the combination of QM/MM optimisation with EXAFS spectroscopy and QM/MM free-energy perturbations to accurately address phenomena such as the Cu-T1 → TNC electron transfer, as well as the reduction potentials and acid constants of all the putative intermediates in the MCO reaction cycle. In summary, we try to demonstrate in this review that the MCOs are not only an attractive playground for theoretical methods, but the results of the calculations (when carefully correlated with and benchmarked against experimental data) can also be used to draw unambiguous conclusions about MCO structure and reactivity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

Sward P.,Lund University
Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA | Year: 2010

Contralateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are together with the risk of developing osteoarthritis of the knee and the risk of re-rupture/graft failure important aspects to consider after an ACL injury. The aim of this review was to perform a critical analysis of the literature on the risk factors associated with a contralateral ACL injury. A better understanding of these risk factors will help in the treatment of patients with unilateral ACL injuries and in the development of interventions designed to prevent contralateral ACL injuries. A Medline search was conducted to find studies investigating risk factors for a contralateral ACL injury, as well as studies where a contralateral ACL injury was the outcome of the study. Twenty studies describing the risk of a contralateral ACL rupture, or specific risk factors for a contralateral ACL injury, were found and systematically reviewed. In 13 of these studies, patients were followed prospectively after a unilateral ACL injury. The evidence presented in the literature shows that the risk of sustaining a contralateral ACL injury is greater than the risk of sustaining a first time ACL injury. Return to a high activity level after a unilateral ACL injury was the most important risk factor of sustaining a contralateral ACL injury. There was inconclusive evidence of the relevance of factors such as female gender, family history of ACL injuries, and a narrow intercondylar notch, as risk factors for a contralateral ACL injury. Risk factors acquired secondary to the ACL injury, such as altered biomechanics and altered neuromuscular function, affecting both the injured and the contralateral leg, most likely, further increase the risk of a contralateral ACL injury. This literature review indicates that the increased risk of sustaining a contralateral ACL injury should be contemplated, when considering the return to a high level of activity after an ACL injury.

Monami M.,Section of Geriatric Cardiology and Medicine | Ahren B.,Lund University | Dicembrini I.,Obesity Agency | Mannucci E.,Diabetes Agency
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Aims: Preliminary data from randomized trials with metabolic outcomes have shown that treatment with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) could be associated with a reduced incidence of major cardiovascular events (MACE). The present meta-analysis is aimed at verifying this protective effect, collecting all available data from randomized trials. Methods: A comprehensive search for published and unpublished trials with a duration ≥24 weeks comparing DPP4i with placebo or other drugs was performed, retrieving all MACE reported as serious adverse events together with death from any cause. Mantel-Haenzel odds ratio (MH-OR) was calculated with random effect models for MACE, myocardial infarction, stroke and mortality. When available, effects on glycated haemoglobin, lipid profile and blood pressure were also assessed and used for the estimation of the modification of risk for myocardial infarction using the UKPDS risk engine. Results: A total of 70 trials, enrolling 41959 patients with a mean follow-up of 44.1 weeks, was collected and included in the analysis. The MH-OR (95% Confidence Interval) was 0.71[0.59;0.86], 0.64[0.44;0.94], 0.77[0.48;1.24] and 0.60[0.41;0.88] for MACE, myocardial infarction, stroke and mortality, respectively. Conclusions: Treatment with DPP4i reduces the risk of cardiovascular events (particularly myocardial infarction) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. The reduction in the incidence of myocardial infarction is greater than what predicted on the basis of conventional risk factors, suggesting a role for other mechanisms. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Jakobsson U.,Lund University
Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology | Year: 2010

Objectives: The aim was to investigate the prevalence of chronic pain in different age groups and pain locations, as well as to identify variables associated with chronic pain. Methods: This cross-sectional survey had a randomized age-stratified sample comprising 826 respondents aged 18102 years. Comparisons were made across age groups and pain locations. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with chronic pain. Results: The overall pain prevalence rate was 46, with a variance of 2755 across age groups. The prevalence increased up to the 6074-year age group, after which it remained more or less constant. The pain sites differed across age groups. Forty-six per cent of the respondents had not received any diagnosis or did not know the reason for their pain, while 21 had no pain management. Several complaints (e.g. appetite loss, constipation, fatigue, depressed mood) were both more prevalent and more severe among those in pain than those with no pain. The regression analysis showed that body mass index (BMI), fatigue, sleep, and mobility problems were significantly associated with chronic pain. Conclusions: Chronic pain is common and constitutes a major public health problem. Interventions should not only be focused on the pain per se but should also include coexisting factors. © 2010 Taylor & Francis on license from Scandinavian Rheumatology Research Foundation.

Vladimirov A.A.,Lund University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We suggest the modified matching procedure for TMD PDF to the integrated PDF aimed to increase the amount of perturbative information in the TMD PDF expression. The procedure consists in the selection and usage of the non-minimal operator basis, which restricts the expansion to desired general behavior. The implication of OPE allows to systematic account of the higher order corrections. In the case of TMD PDF we assume the Gaussian behavior, which suggests Laguerre polynomial basis as the best for the convergence of OPE. We present the leading and next-to-leading expression of TMD PDF in this basis. The obtained perturbative expression for the TMD PDF is valid in the wide region of b T (we estimate this region as b T2 - 3 GeV-1 depending on x). © 2014 The Author(s).

Olsson N.,Lund University
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP | Year: 2011

Antibody-based microarrays are a rapidly evolving affinity-proteomic methodology that recently has shown great promise in clinical applications. The resolution of these proteomic analyses is, however, directly related to the number of data-points, i.e. antibodies, included on the array. Currently, this is a key bottleneck because of limited availability of numerous highly characterized antibodies. Here, we present a conceptually new method, denoted global proteome survey, opening up the possibility to probe any proteome in a species-independent manner while still using a limited set of antibodies. We use context-independent-motif-specific antibodies directed against short amino acid motifs, where each motif is present in up to a few hundred different proteins. First, the digested proteome is exposed to these antibodies, whereby motif-containing peptides are enriched, which then are detected and identified by mass spectrometry. In this study, we profiled extracts from human colon tissue, yeast cells lysate, and mouse liver tissue to demonstrate proof-of-concept.

Flensburg C.,Lund University
Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement | Year: 2012

A BFKL dipole model, and its event generator DIPSY, developed for pp collisions is extended to initial states of heavy ion collisions. All tuning is made for γ* p and pp inclusive and minimum bias data, leaving the extension to heavy ions model independent. Eccentricities are calculated and compared to other common inital state models.

The dopamine precursor L-DOPA has been the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) for over 40 years. However, the response to this treatment changes during the progression of PD, and most patients develop dyskinesias (abnormal involuntary movements) and motor fluctuations within a few years of L-DOPA therapy. There is wide consensus that these motor complications depend on both pre- and post-synaptic disturbances of nigrostriatal dopamine transmission. Several presynaptic mechanisms converge to generate large dopamine swings in the brain concomitant with the peaks-and-troughs of plasma L-DOPA levels, while post-synaptic changes engender abnormal functional responses in dopaminoceptive neurons. While this general picture is well-accepted, the relative contribution of different factors remains a matter of debate. A particularly animated debate has been growing around putative players on the presynaptic side of the cascade. To what extent do presynaptic disturbances in dopamine transmission depend on deficiency/dysfunction of the dopamine transporter, aberrant release of dopamine from serotonin neurons, or gliovascular mechanisms? And does noradrenaline (which is synthetized from dopamine) play a role? This review article will summarize key findings, controversies, and pending questions regarding the presynaptic mechanisms of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Intriguingly, the debate around these mechanisms has spurred research into previously unexplored facets of brain plasticity that have far-reaching implications to the treatment of neuropsychiatric disease. © 2014 Cenci.

In jawed vertebrates, development of an adaptive immune-system is essential for protection of the born organism against otherwise life-threatening pathogens. Myeloid cells of the innate immune system are formed early in development, whereas lymphopoiesis has been suggested to initiate much later, following emergence of definitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Herein, we demonstrate that the embryonic lymphoid commitment process initiates earlier than previously appreciated, prior to emergence of definitive HSCs, through establishment of a previously unrecognized entirely immune-restricted and lymphoid-primed progenitor. Notably, this immune-restricted progenitor appears to first emerge in the yolk sac and contributes physiologically to the establishment of lymphoid and some myeloid components of the immune-system, establishing the lymphomyeloid lineage restriction process as an early and physiologically important lineage-commitment step in mammalian hematopoiesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Stankovski P.,Lund University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2010

We present the concept of greedy distinguishers and show how some simple observations and the well known greedy heuristic can be combined into a very powerful strategy (the Greedy Bit Set Algorithm) for efficient and systematic construction of distinguishers and nonrandomness detectors. We show how this strategy can be applied to a large array of stream and block ciphers, and we show that our method outperforms every other method we have seen so far by presenting new and record-breaking results for Trivium, Grain-128 and Grain v1. We show that the greedy strategy reveals weaknesses in Trivium reduced to 1026 (out of 1152) initialization rounds using 245 complexity - a result that significantly improves all previous efforts. This result was further improved using a cluster; 1078 rounds at 254 complexity. We also present an 806-round distinguisher for Trivium with 244 complexity. Distinguisher and nonrandomness records are also set for Grain-128. We show nonrandomness for the full Grain-128 with its 256 (out of 256) initialization rounds, and present a 246-round distinguisher with complexity 242. For Grain v1 we show nonrandomness for 96 (out of 256) initialization rounds at the very modest complexity of 27, and a 90-round distinguisher with complexity 239. On the theoretical side we define the Nonrandomness Threshold, which explicitly expresses the nature of the randomness limit that is being explored. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Psouni E.,Lund University | Apetroaia A.,University of Reading
Attachment and Human Development | Year: 2014

Secure base scripts (SBS) are thought of as the earliest, rudimentary mental representations of attachment, comprising temporally and causally related events occurring in interactions between children and their attachment figures. SBS have been studied in preschool children, adolescents and adults, but there is little research relating SBS to other attachment measures in middle childhood. Here, the Secure Base Script Test (SBST), a narrative-based measure of attachment scripts in middle childhood, was developed and evaluated. In two studies with 7-12-year-olds (total N = 261), high internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and discriminant validity was established. SBS knowledge was consistent across different contexts and relationships and converged strongly with security and coherence in representations assessed by the Friends and Family Interview and moderately with self-reported attachment security. Furthermore, SBS knowledge predicted children's capacity to respond to distress in an adaptive way. Our findings may be taken to provide some first evidence for generalized scripted attachment knowledge already in middle childhood. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Alenius E.,Lund University
Computers and Fluids | Year: 2014

The dynamics of a confined thick orifice plate jet, at Mach 0.4, are studied with dynamic mode decomposition (DMD), of the velocity from a large eddy simulation (LES). The jet exhibits strong periodic structures, due to an initially laminar shear layer, and a non-deterministic switching is observed between an axisymmetric and an azimuthal jet mode. The DMD captures the shape of these structures as different dynamic modes, but (by definition) not their true time-evolution. In order to study the time-evolution of semi-periodic structures in the flow, such as the jet modes that come and go in time, it is suggested to use DMD for identifying the shape of the structures and then calculate time-coefficients for them, by expressing the velocity field as a linear combination of the most important dynamic modes. These time-coefficients are then shown to capture the physics of the flow; they oscillate at the frequency of the corresponding mode, within an envelope with a non-deterministically varying period, representing the mode switching. Additionally, a time variation of the strength of the jet, represented by mode zero, is found to be related to this switching. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Mulinari S.,Lund University
Journal of the History of the Neurosciences | Year: 2012

Monoamine theories associate depression with reduced brain monoamine levels. These theories achieved broad popularity in the mid-1960s. The present article reviews the historical development of monoamine theories and their subsequent impact on biomedical research. Alleged divisions between West European and US researchers over competing versions of the theories are investigated using bibliometrics. Subsequently, the application of monoamine theories in the NIMH Collaborative Program on the Psychobiology of Depression is covered. The article argues that the impact of monoamine theories is best explained by the ability of researchers, governmental agencies, and pharmaceutical companies to invoke theories that advance various projects and agendas. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Raberg L.,Lund University
Journal of Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2012

The 'trade-off' hypothesis for virulence evolution assumes that between-host transmission rate is a positive and saturating function of pathogen exploitation and virulence, but there are as yet few tests of this assumption, in particular for vector-borne pathogens. Here, I show that the infectivity (probability of transmission) of the tick-borne bacterium Borrelia afzelii from two of its natural rodent hosts (bank vole and yellow-necked mouse) to its main tick vector increases asymptotically with increasing exploitation (measured as bacterial load in skin biopsies). Hence, this result provides support for one of the basic assumptions of the 'trade-off hypothesis'. Moreover, there was no difference in infectivity between bank voles and yellow-necked mice despite bacterial loads being on average an order of magnitude higher in bank voles, most likely because ticks took larger blood meals from mice. This shows that interspecific variation in host resistance does not necessarily translate into a difference in infectivity. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

Kalaitzakis E.,Lund University
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Patients with liver cirrhosis exhibit several features of gut dysfunction which may contribute to the development of cirrhosis complications as well as have an impact on nutritional status and health-related quality of life. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in cirrhosis and their pathophysiology probably involves factors related to liver disease severity, psychological distress, and gut dysfunction (e.g., increased gastric sensitivity to distension and delayed gut transit). They may lead to reduced food intake and, thus, may contribute to the nutritional status deterioration in cirrhotic patients. Although tense ascites appears to have a negative impact on meal-induced accommodation of the stomach, published data on gastric accommodation in cirrhotics without significant ascites are not unanimous. Gastric emptying and small bowel transit have generally been shown to be prolonged. This may be related to disturbances in postprandial glucose, insulin, and ghrelin levels, which, in turn, appear to be associated to insulin resistance, a common finding in cirrhosis. Furthermore, small bowel manometry disturbances and delayed gut transit may be associated with the development of small bowel bacterial overgrowth. Finally, several studies have reported intestinal barrier dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis (especially those with portal hypertension), which is related to bacterial translocation and permeation of intestinal bacterial products, e.g., endotoxin and bacterial DNA, thus potentially being involved in the pathogenesis of complications of liver cirrhosis. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

Recent years have seen an increasing interest in asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) as a method for the fractionation and characterization of macromolecules and colloidal particles. In this paper utilization of AF4 in food applications is reviewed. Instrumental considerations are discussed as well as which properties can be assessed by AF4 and adequate detection systems. Furthermore, published literature on analysis of food macromolecules with AF4 is critically reviewed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Pedersen M.G.,Lund University
Biophysical Journal | Year: 2011

Secretion from many endocrine cells is a result of calcium-regulated exocytosis due to Ca 2+ influx. Using the patch-clamp technique, voltage pulses can be applied to the cells to open Ca 2+ channels, resulting in a measurable Ca 2+ current, and evoke exocytosis, which can be seen as an increase in membrane capacitance. A common tool for evaluating the relation between Ca 2+ influx and exocytosis is to plot the increase in capacitance (ΔC m) as a function of the integral of the measured Ca 2+ current (Q). When depolarizations of different lengths are imposed, the rate of exocytosis is typically higher for shorter than for longer pulses, which has been suggested to result from depletion of a granule pool or from Ca 2+ current inactivation. It is here demonstrated that ΔC m as a function of Q can reveal whether Ca 2+ current inactivation masquerades as pool depletion. Moreover, it is shown that a convex, cooperativity-like, relation between ΔC m and Q surprisingly cannot occur as a result of cooperative effects, but can result from delays in the exocytotic process or in Ca 2+ dynamics. An overview of expected ΔC m-versus-Q relations for a range of explicit situations is given, which should help in the interpretation of data of depolarization-evoked exocytosis in endocrine cells. © 2011 Biophysical Society.

Burger R.,University of Concepcion | Diehl S.,Lund University | Nopens I.,Ghent University
Water Research | Year: 2011

The aim of this contribution is partly to build consensus on a consistent modelling methodology (CMM) of complex real processes in wastewater treatment by combining classical concepts with results from applied mathematics, and partly to apply it to the clarification-thickening process in the secondary settling tank. In the CMM, the real process should be approximated by a mathematical model (process model; ordinary or partial differential equation (ODE or PDE)), which in turn is approximated by a simulation model (numerical method) implemented on a computer. These steps have often not been carried out in a correct way. The secondary settling tank was chosen as a case since this is one of the most complex processes in a wastewater treatment plant and simulation models developed decades ago have no guarantee of satisfying fundamental mathematical and physical properties. Nevertheless, such methods are still used in commercial tools to date. This particularly becomes of interest as the state-of-the-art practice is moving towards plant-wide modelling. Then all submodels interact and errors propagate through the model and severely hamper any calibration effort and, hence, the predictive purpose of the model. The CMM is described by applying it first to a simple conversion process in the biological reactor yielding an ODE solver, and then to the solid-liquid separation in the secondary settling tank, yielding a PDE solver. Time has come to incorporate established mathematical techniques into environmental engineering, and wastewater treatment modelling in particular, and to use proven reliable and consistent simulation models. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Hallberg H.,Lund University
Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2014

The present study elaborates on a 2D level set model of polycrystal microstructures that was recently established by adding the influence of anisotropic grain boundary energy and mobility on microstructure evolution. The new model is used to trace the evolution of grain boundary character distribution during grain growth. The employed level set formulation conveniently allows the grain boundary characteristics to be quantified in terms of coincidence site lattice (CSL) type per unit of grain boundary length, providing a measure of the distribution of such boundaries. In the model, both the mobility and energy of the grain boundaries are allowed to vary with misorientation. In addition, the influence of initial polycrystal texture is studied by comparing results obtained from a polycrystal with random initial texture against results from a polycrystal that initially has a cube texture. It is shown that the proposed level set formulation can readily incorporate anisotropic grain boundary properties and the simulation results further show that anisotropic grain boundary properties only have a minor influence on the evolution of CSL boundary distribution during grain growth. As anisotropic boundary properties are considered, the most prominent changes in the CSL distributions are an increase of general low-angle Σ1 boundaries as well as a more stable presence of Σ3 boundaries. The observations also hold for the case of an initially cube-textured polycrystal. The presence of this kind of texture has little influence over the evolution of the CSL distribution. Taking into consideration the anisotropy of grain boundary properties, grain growth alone does not seem to be sufficient to promote any significantly increased overall presence of CSL boundaries. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Modern cells present no signs of a putative prebiotic RNA world. However, RNA coding is not a sine qua non for the accumulation of catalytic polypeptides. Thus, cellular proteins spontaneously fold into active structures that are resistant to proteolysis. The law of mass action suggests that binding domains are stabilized by specific interactions with their substrates. Random polypeptide synthesis in a prebiotic world has the potential to initially produce only a very small fraction of polypeptides that can fold spontaneously into catalytic domains. However, that fraction can be enriched by proteolytic activities that destroy the unfolded polypeptides and regenerate amino acids that can be recycled into polypeptides. In this open system scenario the stable domains that accumulate and the chemical environment in which they are accumulated are linked through self coding of polypeptide structure. Such open polypeptide systems may have been the precursors to the cellular ribonucleoprotein (RNP) world that evolved subsequently. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Knowledge of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is required to detect and follow impairment of renal function, to allow correct dosage of drugs cleared by the kidneys, and for the use of nephrotoxic contrast media. Correct determination of GFR requires invasive techniques, which are expensive, slow and not risk-free. Therefore, GFR-prediction equations based solely upon cystatin C or creatinine and anthropometric data or upon cystatin C, creatinine and anthropometric data have been developed. The combined prediction equations display the best diagnostic performance, but in several easily identifiable clinical situations (e.g. abnormal muscle mass, treatment with large doses of glucocorticoids) prediction equations based upon either cystatin C or creatinine are better than the combined equations. In Lund, where cystatin C has been used as a GFR-marker in the clinical routine since 1994, a strategy based upon this knowledge has therefore been developed. This comprises simultaneous use of a cystatin C-based and a creatinine-based GFR-prediction equation. If the GFRs predicted agree, the mean value is used as a reliable GFR-estimate. If the GFRs predicted do not agree, clinical data is evaluated to identify reasons for not using one of the two prediction equations and the GFR predicted by the other one is used. If no reasons for the difference in predicted GFRs are found, an invasive gold standard determination of GFR is performed. If the GFRs predicted agree for a patient, the creatinine value is reliably connected to a specific GFR and can be used to follow changes in GFR of that patient. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

Papareddy P.,Lund University
PLoS pathogens | Year: 2010

The coagulation system is characterized by the sequential and highly localized activation of a series of serine proteases, culminating in the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin, and formation of a fibrin clot. Here we show that C-terminal peptides of thrombin, a key enzyme in the coagulation cascade, constitute a novel class of host defense peptides, released upon proteolysis of thrombin in vitro, and detected in human wounds in vivo. Under physiological conditions, these peptides exert antimicrobial effects against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, mediated by membrane lysis, as well as immunomodulatory functions, by inhibiting macrophage responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. In mice, they are protective against P. aeruginosa sepsis, as well as lipopolysaccharide-induced shock. Moreover, the thrombin-derived peptides exhibit helical structures upon binding to lipopolysaccharide and can also permeabilize liposomes, features typical of "classical" helical antimicrobial peptides. These findings provide a novel link between the coagulation system and host-defense peptides, two fundamental biological systems activated in response to injury and microbial invasion.

Krupinski P.,Lund University
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2010

The phytohormone auxin plays an essential role in many aspects of plant growth and development. Its patterning, intercellular transport, and means of signaling have been extensively studied both in experiments and computational models. Here, we present a review of models of auxin-regulated development in different plant tissues. This includes models of organ initiation in the shoot apical meristem, development of vascular strands in leafs and stems, and auxin-related functioning in roots. The examples show how mathematical modeling can help to examine expected and unexpected behavior of the system, challenge our knowledge and hypotheses, obtain quantitative results, or suggest new experiments and ways to approach a problem.

Hesslow G.,Lund University
Brain Research | Year: 2012

It is proposed that thinking is simulated interaction with the environment. Three assumptions underlie this 'simulation' theory of cognitive function. Firstly, behaviour can be simulated in the sense that we can activate motor structures, as during a normal overt action, but suppress its execution. Secondly, perception can be simulated by internal activation of sensory cortex in a way that resembles its normal activation during perception of external stimuli. The third assumption ('anticipation') is that both overt and simulated actions can elicit perceptual simulation of their most probable consequences. A large body of evidence, mainly from neuroimaging studies, that supports these assumptions, is reviewed briefly. The theory is ontologically parsimonious and does not rely on standard cognitivist constructs such as internal models or representations. It is argued that the simulation approach can explain the relations between motor, sensory and cognitive functions and the appearance of an inner world. It also unifies and explains important features of a wide variety of cognitive phenomena such as memory and cognitive maps. Novel findings from recent developments in memory research on the similarity of imaging and memory and on the role of both prefrontal cortex and sensory cortex in declarative memory and working memory are predicted by the theory and provide striking support for it. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The Cognitive Neuroscience". © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kronsell A.,Lund University
Local Environment | Year: 2013

Cities are crucial to mitigating climate change and can serve as sites for innovations, providing examples of ways to conduct effective politics in transport, energy and land-use. What does it take to become a model for climate politics? This article argues that a few innovative measures will not suffice. A common vision based on broad legitimacy is crucial to achieving this position. Using a theoretical framework on input and output legitimacy with the City of Freiburg as the case, this article explores the political dimensions of the climate innovative city. The study shows that a specific kind of "green conservative" politics and a consensual view on climate issues across parties have been very important to creating political legitimacy. This has been supported by extraordinary and extensive citizen engagement in combination with the actual output, i.e. what environmental policies have delivered. The legitimacy for the Green City model also means that Freiburg is viewed as a highly livable city, in turn, creating self-enforcing dynamics that challenge its innovative potential. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Berling P.,Lund University | Martinez-de-Albeniz V.,University of Navarra
Operations Research | Year: 2011

In this paper we consider the problem of a firm that faces a stochastic (Poisson) demand and must replenish from a market in which prices fluctuate, such as a commodity market. We describe the price evolution as a continuous stochastic process and we focus on commonly used processes suggested by the financial literature, such as the geometric Brownian motion and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. It is well known that under variable purchase price, a price-dependent base-stock policy is optimal. Using the single-unit decomposition approach, we explicitly characterize the optimal base-stock level using a series of threshold prices. We show that the base-stock level is first increasing and then decreasing in the current purchase price. We provide a procedure for calculating the thresholds, which yields closed-form solutions when price follows a geometric Brownian motion and implicit solutions under the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck price model. In addition, our numerical study shows that the optimal policy performs much better than inventory policies that ignore future price evolution, because it tends to place larger orders when prices are expected to increase. © 2011 INFORMS.

The immune response is able to control cytomegalovirus infection in most subjects. However, in some patient groups the virus is not well contained resulting in disease and severe morbidity. The development of efficacious vaccines is therefore a high priority. Antibodies may contribute to protection against disease caused by CMV but the most efficient targets for protective humoral immunity are not precisely known. Glycoprotein B (gB) is a protein that is targeted by virus-neutralizing antibodies. One epitope on gB, AD-2, is poorly immunogenic following natural infection and vaccination. It is consequently not effectively exploited as a target for antibodies by the immune system. However, antibodies specific for this epitope, when they develop, display important functional activities that may play a role in protection against infection. In this study critical features of human antibody recognition of this epitope are re-assessed based on structural and immunochemical data. The analysis suggests that the immune system may only be able to develop an AD-2 specific antibody response through rare, very specific rearrangement events that by chance create a naïve B cell that can be recruited into an AD-2 specific immune response. These results reinvigorate the notion that if we are to be able to effectively exploit AD-2 specific humoral immunity we need to readdress the nature of the antigen incorporated into vaccines so as to more effectively recruit B cells into the response against this epitope. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Massoumi R.,Lund University
Future Oncology | Year: 2011

The post-translational modification of different proteins via direct ubiquitin attachment is important for various cellular processes. Dysregulation of components of the ubiqutin system have been linked to many diseases including cancer. CYLD is a deubiquitination enzyme that can cleave the lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chains from target proteins and regulate cell survival or cell proliferation. Since loss of CYLD expression can be observed in different types of human cancer, it is now well established that CYLD acts as a tumor suppressor gene. Besides its loss of function in human tumors by gene deletion or mutation, CYLD expression can be downregulated at the RNA level if necessary through transcriptional regulation or at the protein level through post-translational modifications. This article summarizes recent advances that link CYLD to different types of human cancer. Identification of CYLD-mediated signaling pathways during the progression of cancer will provide a solid foundation for diagnosis and lead to the development of novel tools for cancer therapy. © 2011 Future Medicine Ltd.

Zhang S.,CAS Institute of Physics | Xu H.,CAS Institute of Physics | Xu H.,Lund University
ACS Nano | Year: 2012

Seeking better plasmonic waveguides is of critical importance for minimizing photonic circuits into the nanometer scale. We have made a theoretical study of the properties of surface plasmon polaritons in a metallic nanowire over substrate (NWOS) configuration. The dielectric substrate breaks the symmetry of the system and mediates the coupling of different primary wire plasmons. The lowest order hybridized mode can be used for subwavelength plasmonic waveguiding for NWOS with thin wire, for a low-permittivity substrate, and in the shorter wavelength region. For NWOS with a high-permittivity substrate, leaky radiation into the substrate raises the propagation losses so that the propagation distance is shorter in the longer wavelength region. By simply adding a high-permittivity layer onto the low-permittivity substrate, we show that leaky radiation can be blocked and high-performance plasmonic waveguiding can be extended to the near-infrared region. Importantly, the NWOS configuration is compatible with current silicon technologies and can be designed into various deep subwavelength active devices such as electro-optical or all-optical modulators. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Kordower J.H.,Rush University Medical Center | Bjorklund A.,Lund University
Movement Disorders | Year: 2013

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder for which there is presently no cure. Pharmacological remedies targeting the dopaminergic network are relatively effective at ameliorating motor deficits, especially in the early stages of the disease, but none of these therapies are curative and many generate their own problems. Recent advances in PD research have demonstrated that gene delivery of trophic factors, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin, in particular, can provide structural and functional recovery in rodent and nonhuman primate models of PD. Similar success has been gleaned in open-label clinical trials, although this has yet to be realized in double-blinded analyses. This work reviews the field of trophic factor gene delivery for PD. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

Turesson C.,Lund University | Turesson C.,Skane University Hospital
Current Opinion in Rheumatology | Year: 2013

Purpose of Review: To discuss recent findings on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of extra-articular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and provide an update on the literature on treatment of patients with extra-articular RA (ExRA) manifestations. Recent Findings: ExRA is associated with increased comorbidity and mortality. Several surveys suggest that some ExRA manifestations, in particular vasculitis, occur less frequently than previously reported. This is probably due to improved overall control of disease activity. Active RA with high disease activity is associated with increased risk of severe ExRA manifestations. Studies on the impact of treatment with biologics on the occurrence of ExRA are inconclusive. Circulating immune complexes and T cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ExRA. The genetic background and related disease mechanisms may be somewhat different in manifestations such as vasculitis and interstitial lung disease. Limited data support a benefit from treatment with cyclophosphamide, TNF-inhibitors or rituximab in patients with severe ExRA. Summary: ExRA remains a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in some patients. Further studies of the pathogenesis of systemic involvement and on the effect of treatment on such mechanisms may be helpful for further improvement of the management of RA. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ahuja S.,Lund University
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2013

PURPOSE. Progressive dynamic, relative quantitative changes were compared in glycans associated with retinal proteins of wild type (wt) and retinal degeneration 1 (rd1) mice during neonatal development and degeneration of retinae. METHODS. Proteins extracted from retinae of postnatal days 2 (PN2), PN7, and PN14 wt and rd1 mice were labeled with Cy3-fluorescent dye. Glycome of these proteins was quantified relatively by lectin microarray technique. Net fluorescence emitted by individual complexes formed between 45 lectins and Cy3-labeled proteins was measured by evanescent-field fluorescence-assisted microarray reader. RESULTS. GlcNAcβ1-oligomer and high-mannose/Mana1-6Man were major glycans associated with the proteins of PN2, PN7, and PN14 wt and rd1 mice retinae. Gal/GalNAc/Man3-core-bi-/ tri-antennary-complex, Sia2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc, and high-mannose glycans were conjugated mainly to proteins from PN7 rd1 and PN14 wt retinae, respectively. With increasing neonatal age, mannosylated, GlcNAcβ, and sialylated (minor component) glycans were increased, and fucosylated GlcNAc/Galβ glycans were decreased significantly in wt retinal proteins. This trend was less evident in PN14 rd1 retinal proteins. Mouse retina was almost devoid of Siaα2-6 (except WGA bound Sia), Fucα1-2, and Gal/GalNAc-containing glycans. STL reacting GlcNAc oligomers were high in PN2 rd1 retinae. CONCLUSIONS. Quantitative dynamic, relative variation in high-mannose and GlcNAc glycans, Siaα2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc associated with proteins from PN2, PN7, and PN14 wt and rd1 mice retinae suggested that these glycans participate in retinal development and degeneration, and may be used as markers for retinal electrophysiologic integrity during transplantation/therapy studies; Siaα2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-specific Agrocybe cylindracea lectin and other lectins may be used to enrich/purify retinal ribbon synapse glycoproteins and other glycoproteins including rhodopsin. Further investigations are required. © 2013 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

Bjorklund A.,Lund University | Kordower J.H.,Rush University Medical Center
Movement Disorders | Year: 2013

The idea to use transplants of dopamine-producing cells to substitute for the lost midbrain dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) goes back to the 1970s. In this review we give an overview of the history of cell transplantation in animal models of PD, and summarize the experience gained from the open-label and placebo-controlled clinical trials performed so far using intrastriatal transplants of human fetal dopamine neuroblasts. Further development of this therapeutic approach face numerous challenges, for example in the development of protocols that allow generation of fully functional and safe midbrain dopamine neurons from stem cells. Based on recent promising advancements, efforts are now being made to develop standardized and efficient protocols, and adapt these protocols to good laboratory practice (GLP)/good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions, to move this technology closer to clinical translation. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

Moller P.,Lund University
Sedimentary Geology | Year: 2010

Hummocky moraine with dispersed agglomerations of ribbed moraine - here named 'Åsnen-type ribbed moraine' - forms a 20-40km wide zone over Småland, south Sweden, terminated to the north by a sharp boundary to streamlined terrain. The hummocky/ribbed moraine zone can be geomorphologically linked to the subaqueous Göteborg Moraine, formed at an oscillation/stand-still phase during the deglaciation of the Swedish west coast. Based on detailed sedimentological and structural investigations of ribbed moraine ridges it is concluded that diamict sequences and associated sorted sediment were deposited due to passive melt-out from stagnant, debris-rich ice with synsedimentary deposition of sorted sediments, preferentially at a melting ice/bed interface. To accommodate for the geomorphological expression, such an interpretation further implies that debris-rich ice formed in an intermediate adfreezing zone between ice at the pressure-melting point and a frontal frozen zone at deglaciation. Basal debris-rich ice was stacked into transversally arranged zones (controlled moraine), forming ribbed moraine 'embryos', the active phase of ridge formation. The stacked sequences of debris-rich ice eventually melted out beneath a stable and melt-retarding supraglacial ablation complex to form the final moraine ridges, the passive phase of ridge formation. In areas with no stable supraglacial ablation complex, the resulting landform after final de-icing was a hummocky moraine landscape. Internal composition of moraine hummocks suggests that most of them are composed of sediment gravity flow sediments, intercalated with stream-deposited sediments, all resting on a platform of subglacial melt-out till. De-icing of the zone now occupied by hummocky and ribbed moraine took a considerable time; deglacial 14C age differences from lake basins on either side of the geomorphic boundary to the streamlined terrain indicate a separation between active and stagnant ice along that boundary, and that it took another 200-300yr for the stagnant ice zone to melt during the final formation of present-day landforms. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Thorpe M.J.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Rippe L.,Lund University | Fortier T.M.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Kirchner M.S.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Rosenband T.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology
Nature Photonics | Year: 2011

We demonstrate two-stage laser stabilization based on a combination of Fabry-Pérot and spectral-hole burning techniques. The laser is first pre-stabilized by the Fabry-Pérot cavity to a fractional-frequency stability of σy(τ) < 1 ×10-13. A pattern of multiple spectral holes written in the absorption spectrum of Eu 3+:Y2SiO5 serves to further stabilize the laser to σy(τ)≤6 ×10-16 for 2s ≤ τ ≤ 8s. We also measure the frequency sensitivity of Eu3+:Y 2SiO5 spectral holes to environmental perturbations including temperature (16 kHz K-2), pressure (211.4 Hz Pa -1) and acceleration (7 × 10-12 g-1). Each spectral hole sensitivity parameter is lower than the corresponding parameter for Fabry-Pérot cavities, suggesting that spectral holes can be more frequency-stable. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Theander S.S.,Lund University | Wetterberg L.,Karolinska Institutet
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2010

The aim was to perform a bibliometric study, and compare the quantity of publications on schizophrenia with the total medical literature in Medline during 57years, 1950-2006.The annual additions of literature to Medline are continually increasing and form the Medline growth curve. Comparisons of the number of publications on schizophrenia, or any other disease, to this curve, may be used to estimate the research activity. Methods for the identification of relevant references to papers on schizophrenia were evaluated and three different samples were operationally defined, retrieved and counted.During 1950-2006, 16.28 million references were added to Medline. Nearly 68. 000, 0.42%, references were related to schizophrenia. The percentage of papers on schizophrenia among the psychiatric literature decreased from 5.2 to 2.6%. The present study indicates that the number of references on schizophrenia in Medline has followed the general increase of medical publications. This pattern differs compared to some other research fields such as dementia, HIV, and peptic ulcer.Samples of references on schizophrenia may be retrieved in Medline by operational definitions of search methods. The quantity of schizophrenia research during 57years has kept pace with the total medical literature. One interpretation of the results is that more resources are needed to enhance research activities on schizophrenia. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Wahl H.-W.,University of Heidelberg | Iwarsson S.,Lund University | Oswald F.,Goethe University Frankfurt
Gerontologist | Year: 2012

Purpose of the Study: The effects of the physical-spatial-technical environment on aging well have been overlooked both conceptually and empirically. In the spirit of M. Powell Lawton's seminal work on aging and environment, this article attempts to rectify this situation by suggesting a new model of how older people interact with their environment. Design and Methods: Goals of the paper include (a) integration of the essential elements of the ecology and aging literature, particularly in regard to Lawton's research, (b) development of connections between traditional theories of ecology of aging and life span developmental models of aging well, (c) acknowledgment of the pronounced historical and cohort-related changes affecting the interactions of older people with their environment, and (d) discussion of the implications of this analysis for concepts and theories of aging well. Results: The model builds on a pair of concepts: environment as related to agency and belonging, founded in motivational psychology, and developmental science. Implications: After describing the model's key components, we discuss its heuristic potential in four propositions for future gerontological research and identify implications of the model for future empirical research. © The Author 2012.

Bejerholm U.,Lund University
Occupational Therapy in Mental Health | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to illuminate the concept of occupational balance and to study its relation to occupational engagement as assessed by the Profiles of Occupational Engagement in people with Schizophrenia(POES), health related factors, and quality of life among 72 persons with schizophrenia. Three constructs: being under-occupied, being over-occupied, and having occupational balance, were developed to help assess occupational balance. The inter-reliability testing of occupational balance resulted in good agreement on average. The descriptive statistics showed that 32 participants were deemed to be under-occupied, 35 participants hadoccupational balance, while five participants were over-occupied. Significant statistical differences were found between the subgroups of being under-occupied and having occupational balance regarding negative symptoms, sense of coherence and quality of life. In clinical practice, the assessment of occupational balance could help occupational therapists to optimize the design of time-use interventions. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Due to the recent European legislations posing a ban of animal tests for safety assessment within the cosmetic industry, development of in vitro alternatives for assessment of skin sensitization is highly prioritized. To date, proposed in vitro assays are mainly based on single biomarkers, which so far have not been able to classify and stratify chemicals into subgroups, related to risk or potency. Recently, we presented the Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection (GARD) assay for assessment of chemical sensitizers. In this paper, we show how the genome wide readout of GARD can be expanded and used to identify differentially regulated pathways relating to individual chemical sensitizers. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of action of a range of skin sensitizers through pathway identification, pathway classification and transcription factor analysis and related this to the reactive mechanisms and potency of the sensitizing agents. By transcriptional profiling of chemically stimulated MUTZ-3 cells, 33 canonical pathways intimately involved in sensitization to chemical substances were identified. The results showed that metabolic processes, cell cycling and oxidative stress responses are the key events activated during skin sensitization, and that these functions are engaged differently depending on the reactivity mechanisms of the sensitizing agent. Furthermore, the results indicate that the chemical reactivity groups seem to gradually engage more pathways and more molecules in each pathway with increasing sensitizing potency of the chemical used for stimulation. Also, a switch in gene regulation from up to down regulation, with increasing potency, was seen both in genes involved in metabolic functions and cell cycling. These observed pathway patterns were clearly reflected in the regulatory elements identified to drive these processes, where 33 regulatory elements have been proposed for further analysis. This study demonstrates that functional analysis of biomarkers identified from our genomics study of human MUTZ-3 cells can be used to assess sensitizing potency of chemicals in vitro, by the identification of key cellular events, such as metabolic and cell cycling pathways.

Frequent hyperglycaemia is associated with oxidative stress and subclinical inflammation, and thus increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Possibilities of modulating glycaemia, insulinaemia and perceived satiety for bread products were investigated, with emphasis on the course of glycaemia expressed as a glycaemic profile (defined as the duration of the glucose curve above the fasting concentration divided by the incremental glucose peak). For this purpose white wheat bread was supplemented with whole grain corn flour with an elevated amylose content and different types and levels of guar gum. The bread products were characterised in vitro for release of starch degradation products and content of resistant starch. Fibre related fluidity following enzyme hydrolysis was also studied. By combining medium weight guar gum and whole grain corn flour with an elevated amylose content, the course of glycaemia, insulinaemia and subjective appetite ratings were improved compared to the reference white wheat bread. In addition, the combination beneficially influenced the content of resistant starch. Fluidity measurements showed potential to predict the glycaemic profile.

Shannon O.,Lund University
Platelets | Year: 2015

Bacteria that enter the bloodstream will encounter components of the cellular and soluble immune response. Platelets contribute to this response and have emerged as an important target for bacterial pathogens. Bacteria produce diverse extracellular proteins and toxins that have been reported to modulate platelet function. These interactions can result in complete or incomplete platelet activation or inhibition of platelet activation, depending on the bacteria and bacterial product. The nature of the platelet response may be highly relevant to disease pathogenesis. © 2015 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.

The paper clarifies the effects of sewage sludge application on the heavy metal concentrations in soil and plant fractions of acid pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) on sandy soils in a south to north temperature gradient in Sweden. 20tdwha-1 of sewage sludge was applied in 50-60year old pine forests from Brösarp in South Sweden to Jukkasjärvi in the northern parts of the country.Sewage sludge fertilization only to a minor degree effected the concentrations of heavy metals in the soil. However, in some of the research areas there was a limited increase of Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn both in the humus and in the upper mineral layers. The concentrations of most heavy metals in current pine needles were unaffected by application of 20tha-1 of sewage sludge. A limited uptake of Cu and Ni was found in current shoots of Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Kazemzadeh A.,Lund University
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2011

Design of ultrawideband absorbers with bandwidth ratios larger than 10:1 is investigated. It is explained that if there is no constraint on the total thickness of the absorber, achieving large bandwidths is straightforward. The problem becomes challenging when the minimization of the total thickness is considered. It is shown that for a given frequency response, the total thickness of a nonmagnetic absorber cannot be less than a theoretical limit. If a design method can reduce the total thickness to the theoretical limit level, its superiority over other design methods is doubtless. It is demonstrated that the capacitive circuit absorber approach has this unique feature. In order to clarify the design ideas and techniques, the optimal absorber is developed in different stages. It is shown that unequal periods for the low-pass frequency selective surfaces are essential for attaining the optimal performance. © 2006 IEEE.

Sanchez D.,University of the Balearic Islands | Linke H.,Lund University
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2014

The field of nanoscale thermoelectrics began with a clear motivation for better performances of waste heat recovery processes by lowering the system dimensionality. Although this original inspiration still drives many recent developments, the field has also evolved to address fundamental questions on charge and energy transport across quantum conductors in the presence of both voltage and temperature differences. This 'focus on' collection provides new perspectives in the field and reports on the latest developments, both theoretically and experimentally. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

Pedersen M.G.,University of Padua | Pedersen M.G.,Lund University
Biophysical Journal | Year: 2010

Electrical activity in pancreatic β-cells plays a pivotal role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by coupling metabolism to calcium-triggered exocytosis. Mathematical models based on rodent data have helped in understanding the mechanisms underlying the electrophysiological patterns observed in laboratory animals. However, human β-cells differ in several aspects, and in particular in their electrophysiological characteristics, from rodent β-cells. Hence, from a clinical perspective and to obtain insight into the defects in insulin secretion relevant for diabetes mellitus, it is important to study human β-cells. This work presents the first mathematical model of electrical activity based entirely on published ion channel characteristics of human β-cells. The model reproduces satisfactorily a series of experimentally observed patterns in human β-cells, such as spiking and rapid bursting electrical activity, and their response to a range of ion channel antagonists. The possibility of Human Ether-a-Go-Go-related- and leak channels as drug targets for diabetes treatment is discussed based on model results. © 2010 by the Biophysical Society.

Mowat A.M.,University of Glasgow | Agace W.W.,Lund University | Agace W.W.,Technical University of Denmark
Nature Reviews Immunology | Year: 2014

The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clinically important pathogens. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere in the body. In this Review, we detail the anatomical and physiological distinctions that are observed in the small and large intestines, and we suggest how these may account for the diversity in the immune apparatus that is seen throughout the intestine. We describe how the distribution of innate, adaptive and innate-like immune cells varies in different segments of the intestine and discuss the environmental factors that may influence this. Finally, we consider the implications of regional immune specialization for inflammatory disease in the intestine. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Devuyst O.,University of Zurich | Devuyst O.,Catholic University of Louvain | Rippe B.,Lund University
Kidney International | Year: 2014

Peritoneal dialysis involves diffusive and convective transports and osmosis through the highly vascularized peritoneal membrane. The capillary endothelium offers the rate-limiting hindrance for solute and water transport. It can be functionally described in terms of a three-pore model including transcellular, ultrasmall pores responsible for free-water transport during crystalloid osmosis. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) corresponds to the ultrasmall pore located in endothelial cells. Studies in Aqp1 mice have shown that deletion of AQP1 is reflected by a 50% decrease in ultrafiltration and a disappearance of the sodium sieving. Haploinsufficiency in AQP1 is also reflected by a significant attenuation of water transport. Conversely, studies in a rat model and in PD patients have shown that the induction of AQP1 in peritoneal capillaries by corticosteroids is reflected by increased water transport and ultrafiltration, without affecting the osmotic gradient and small-solute transport. Recent data have demonstrated that a novel agonist of AQP1, predicted to stabilize the open-state conformation of the channel, modulates water transport and improves ultrafiltration. Whether increasing the expression of AQP1 or gating the already existing channels would be clinically useful in PD patients remains to be investigated. © 2013 International Society of Nephrology.

Cichocki F.,University of Minnesota | Sitnicka E.,Lund University | Bryceson Y.T.,Karolinska University Hospital | Bryceson Y.T.,University of Bergen
Seminars in Immunology | Year: 2014

Bone marrow-derived natural killer (NK) cells constitute the major subset of cytotoxic lymphocytes in peripheral blood. They provide innate defense against intracellular infection or malignancy and contribute to immune homeostasis. Large numbers of NK cells are also present in tissues, including the liver and uterus, where they can mediate immunosurveillance but also play important roles in tissue remodeling and vascularization. Here, we review the pathways involved in NK cell lineage commitment and differentiation, discussing relationships to other lymphocyte populations and highlighting genetic determinants. Characterizing NK cells from distinct tissues and during infections have revealed subset specializations, reflecting inherent cellular plasticity. In this context, we discuss how different environmental and inflammatory stimuli may shape NK cells. Particular emphasis is placed on genes identified as being critical for NK cell development, differentiation, and function from studies of model organisms or associations with disease. Such studies are also revealing important cellular redundancies. Here, we provide a view of the genetic framework constraining NK cell development and function, pinpointing molecules required for these processes but also underscoring plasticity and redundancy that may underlie robust immunological function. With this view, built in redundancy may highlight the importance of NK cells to immunity. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Edstedt Bonamy A.-K.,Karolinska Institutet | Kallen K.,Karolinska Institutet | Norman M.,Lund University
Pediatrics | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: Adolescents and young adults born preterm have elevated blood pressure (BP). The objective of this study was to investigate if BP is elevated at 2.5 years of age after an extremely preterm birth (EXPT). METHODS: In a regional subset of the national population-based cohort Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden Study, BP at 2.5 years of age was studied in 68 survivors of EXPT (gestational age: 23.6-26.9 weeks; mean ± SD birth weight: 810 ± 164 g), and 65 matched controls born at term. RESULTS: At follow-up at 2.5 years of corrected age, EXPT children had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) z scores than controls born at term, according to pediatric BP nomograms by age, gender, and height. The proportion of SBP ≥90th percentile was 44% (30 of 68) in EXPT children and 23% (15 of 65) in controls (P = .01). In logistic regression analyses stratified according to gender, EXPT was associated with an odds ratio for a SBP ≥90th percentile of 3.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-8.81) among boys. The corresponding odds ratio among EXPT girls was 2.18 (95% confidence interval: 0.62-7.61). In EXPT children, SBP and DBP z scores were inversely correlated to catch-up growth from 36 weeks' postmenstrual age to follow-up at 2.5 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born extremely preterm have elevated office SBP and DBP at a corrected age of 2.5 years. This finding might have implications for their cardiovascular health later in life. Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Viral gene therapy of malignant brain tumors has been restricted by the limited vector distribution within the tumors. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and other precursor cells have shown tropism for gliomas, and these cells are currently being explored as potential vehicles for gene delivery in glioma gene therapy. To investigate MSC migration in detail after intratumoral and extratumoral implantation through syngeneic and orthotopic glioma models. Adult rat bone marrow-derived MSCs were transduced to express enhanced green fluorescent protein and implanted either directly into or at a distance from rat gliomas. We found no evidence of long-distance MSC migration through the intact striatum toward syngeneic D74(RG2), N32, and N29 gliomas in the ipsilateral hemisphere or across the corpus callosum to gliomas located in the contralateral hemisphere. After intratumoral injection, MSCs migrated extensively, specifically within N32 gliomas. The MSCs did not proliferate within tumors, suggesting a low risk of malignant transformation of in vivo grafted cell vectors. Using a model for surgical glioma resection, we found that intratumorally grafted MSCs migrate efficiently within glioma remnants after partial surgical resection. The findings point to limitations for the use of MSCs as vectors in glioma gene therapy, although intratumoral MSC implantation provides a dense and tumor-specific vector distribution.

Dahlback B.,Lund University
Seminars in Immunopathology | Year: 2012

The integrity of our bodies is under constant threat by external forces. Blood coagulation and inflammatory pathways are important, highly efficient defence systems that support health and well-being in both normal and challenged conditions. Being potentially dangerous for the own organism, they are kept under strict control by anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Coagulation and inflammatory pathways are closely integrated by extensive crosstalk and tend to function in concert. They comprise a large number of cellular and molecular actors, which interact in extremely complex manners. A basic principle governing these interactions is the mutual activation of the pathways. Thus, the activation of coagulation leads to concomitant activation of inflammatory pathways, mirrored by the initiation of coagulation by inflammatory pathways. Efficient anticoagulant systems not only keep coagulation reactions under strict control but also exert control on inflammatory reactions. During inflammation, these anticoagulant/anti-inflammatory systems are repressed allowing full activation of coagulation and inflammation. Dysregulation of the delicate balance between these systems contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Urban water scarcity is increasingly seen as a governance issue, not least in cities like Hyderabad, India, where the demand for urban water exceeds the available supply to the extent that some low priority areas in the city receive water for only a few hours on alternate days. Based on a multi-level perspective in transition studies, this study explores the major interplay between actors in the urban water regime and analyzes how that influences access to water among the urban poor. The findings show how the practices of the consolidated regime are environmentally, socially, and economically unsustainable. In investigating the driving forces behind the attributes of the urban water regime, we draw attention to the impact of landscape pressures, i.e., international donors' influence on water policy, and initiatives at the regime and niche levels. Further, and in response to that, we investigate potential niche experiments promoting water access for the urban poor. Accordingly, it is suggested that socio-technical and socio-political "niche" experiments could be combined into a citizen-based challenge against the existing urban regime practices and the dominant discourses at the landscape level. Here water harvesting techniques could be a viable niche innovation with citizen involvement to be scaled-up in an enabling institutional setting. This requires a coalition of social movement and political action, providing an arena for a new vision in the water sector that would replace the one imposed by landscape forces represented by international donors. © 2014 by the author(s).

Turova T.S.,Lund University
Combinatorics Probability and Computing | Year: 2011

We study the 'rank 1 case' of the inhomogeneous random graph model. In the subcritical case we derive an exact formula for the asymptotic size of the largest connected component scaled to log n. This result complements the corresponding known result in the supercritical case. We provide some examples of applications of the derived formula. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010.

A new influenza virus that was first detected in people in April 2009, was initially referred to colloquially as "swine flu", since it contained genes from swine, avian and human influenza viruses. It can, however, not be transmitted by eating pork or dealing with pigs. In Egypt, several hundred thousand pigs were killed in May, in spite of advice from global health authorities that such an action was unnecessary. Pigs are raised and consumed mainly by the Christian minority, which constitute some 10% of the population. Health Ministry estimated there were between 300,000-350,000 pigs in Egypt. This paper will analyze the Egyptian health policy for controlling the pandemic H1N1 flu, exploring its context, content, process, and actors. The analysis is based on the Leichter Context, which refers to systemic factors-political, economic and social, both national and international-that may have an effect on health policy, and is based on data collected from literature review and policy documents. The International health officials said the swine flu virus that has caused worldwide fear is not transmitted by pigs, and that pig slaughters do nothing to stop its spread. The WHO stopped using the term "swine flu" to avoid confusion. In Egypt, even the editor of a pro-government newspaper criticized the order to slaughter: "Killing (pigs) is not a solution, otherwise, we should kill the people, because the virus spreads through them," wrote Abdullah Kamal of the daily Rose El-Youssef. The World Health organization also criticized the decision. The extinction of the Egyptian pigs is an example of how a health issue can be used to persecute a minority within a country. Although the current influenza has nothing whatsoever to do with pigs, the previous name of the epidemic was used as an argument to violate the rights of the Christian minority in Egypt.

Polymorphisms affecting Toll-like receptor (TLR) structure appear to be rare, as would be expected due to their essential coordinator role in innate immunity. Here, we assess variation in TLR4 expression, rather than structure, as a mechanism to diversify innate immune responses. We sequenced the TLR4 promoter (4,3 kb) in Swedish blood donors. Since TLR4 plays a vital role in susceptibility to urinary tract infection (UTI), promoter sequences were obtained from children with mild or severe disease. We performed a case-control study of pediatric patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) or those prone to recurrent acute pyelonephritis (APN). Promoter activity of the single SNPs or multiple allelic changes corresponding to the genotype patterns (GPs) was tested. We then conducted a replication study in an independent cohort of adult patients with a history of childhood APN. Last, in vivo effects of the different GPs were examined after therapeutic intravesical inoculation of 19 patients with Escherichia coli 83972. We identified in total eight TLR4 promoter sequence variants in the Swedish control population, forming 19 haplotypes and 29 genotype patterns, some with effects on promoter activity. Compared to symptomatic patients and healthy controls, ABU patients had fewer genotype patterns, and their promoter sequence variants reduced TLR4 expression in response to infection. The ABU associated GPs also reduced innate immune responses in patients who were subjected to therapeutic urinary E. coli tract inoculation. The results suggest that genetic variation in the TLR4 promoter may be an essential, largely overlooked mechanism to influence TLR4 expression and UTI susceptibility.

Lundh L.-G.,Lund University | Dahlstrom O.,Linkoping University
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology | Year: 2013

Previous prevalence rates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents have varied considerably. In the present cross-sectional study, prevalence rates, characteristics and functions of NSSI were assessed in a large randomized community sample consisting of 3,060 (50.5 % female) Swedish adolescents aged 15-17 years. The suggested criteria for NSSI disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, (DSM-5) were used to assess prevalence rates with the aim of arriving at a more precise estimate. Out of the whole sample, 1,088 (35.6 %) adolescents (56.2 % female) reported at least one episode of NSSI during the last year, of which 205 (6.7 %) met suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder diagnosis. The NSSI disorder diagnosis was significantly more common in girls (11.1 % vs. 2.3 %, χ 2 (1, N = 3046) = 94.08, p < 0.001, cOR = 5.43, 95 % CI [3.73, 7.90]). The NSSI disorder group consisted of significantly more smokers and drug users compared to adolescents with NSSI that did not meet DSM-5 criteria for NSSI disorder, and also differed concerning demographic variables. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on reported functions of NSSI, with the aim of validating Nock and Prinstein's (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72:885-890, 2004, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114:140-146, 2005) four-factor model on a Swedish community sample, resulting in a close to acceptable fit. A two-factor model (social and automatic reinforcement) resulted in a slightly better fit. The most frequently reported factors were positive and negative automatic reinforcement. A majority of functions were significantly more often reported by girls than boys. The implications of the suggested DSM-5 criteria and reported functions are discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Effiom E.O.,Lund University
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

To assess ecological consequences of bushmeat hunting in African lowland rainforests, we compared paired sites, with high and low hunting pressure, in three areas of southeastern Nigeria. In hunted sites, populations of important seed dispersers-both small and large primates (including the Cross River gorilla, Gorilla gorilla diehli)-were drastically reduced. Large rodents were more abundant in hunted sites, even though they are hunted. Hunted and protected sites had similar mature tree communities dominated by primate-dispersed species. In protected sites, seedling communities were similar in composition to the mature trees, but in hunted sites species with other dispersal modes dominated among seedlings. Seedlings emerging 1 year after clearing of all vegetation in experimental plots showed a similar pattern to the standing seedlings. This study thus verifies the transforming effects of bushmeat hunting on plant communities of tropical forests and is one of the first studies to do so for the African continent.

Edvinsson L.,Lund University | Villalon C.M.,CINVESTAV | Maassenvandenbrink A.,Erasmus University Rotterdam
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Migraine is a neurovascular disorder characterized by recurrent unilateral headaches accompanied by nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. Current theories suggest that the initiation of a migraine attack involves a primary event in the central nervous system (CNS), probably involving a combination of genetic changes in ion channels and environmental changes, which renders the individual more sensitive to environmental factors; this may, in turn, result in a wave of cortical spreading depression (CSD) when the attack is initiated. Genetically, migraine is a complex familial disorder in which the severity and the susceptibility of individuals are most likely governed by several genes that vary between families. Early PET studies have suggested the involvement of a migraine active region in the brainstem. Migraine headache is associated with trigeminal nerve activation and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from the trigeminovascular system. Administration of triptans (5-HT 1B/1D receptor agonists) causes the headache to subside and the levels of CGRP to normalize. Moreover, administration of CGRP receptor antagonists aborts the headache. Recent immunohistochemical and pharmacological results suggest that the trigeminal system has receptors for CGRP; further, 5-HT1B/1D receptors, which inhibit the action of CGRP in pain transmission when activated, have been demonstrated. This offers an explanation for the treatment response. The present review provides an updated analysis of the basic mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of migraine and the various pharmacological approaches (including 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists, CGRP receptor antagonists and glutamate receptor antagonists) that have shown efficacy for the acute treatment of this disorder. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Inc. All rights reserved.

Nilsson J.H.,Lund University
Current Issues in Tourism | Year: 2011

Slow Food has gained considerable attention as a social movement trying to counteract increasing globalisation in eating habits and food production. Cittáslow, a network of towns, are working with qualitative local urban development, based on similar principles as Slow Food. The 'slow' movements could be expected to have influences on tourism development. This possible connection has been neglected in the scientific tourism literature. Based on a study in three Cittáslow towns in Northern Italy, this article concentrates on how destination development is conducted in a Cittáslow context, unveiling some contradictions between the commercial sides of tourism and the non-commercial ethos of the Cittáslow movement. The studied towns were involved in various efforts in the field of sustainable planning, thereby also improving destination specific resources and local identity. One example is their focus on 'slow' events, mainly based on local gastronomy. Tourism marketing was, however, only of secondary importance; which mirrors some scepticism towards mass tourism and commercialisation, and even against marketing as such. Despite this, the Cittáslow concept may have an indirect potential for tourism development by improving product development and increased visibility. The risks involved concern gentrification and overexploitation. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Sparr E.,Lund University
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society | Year: 2013

The skin is a barrier membrane that separates environments with profoundly different water contents. The barrier properties are assured by the outer layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), which controls the transepidermal water loss. The SC acts as a responding membrane, since its hydration and permeability vary with the boundary condition, which is the activity of water at the outer surface of the skin. We show how this boundary condition can be changed by the application of a barrier cream that makes a film with a high resistance to the transport of water. We present a quantitative model that predicts hydration and water transport in SC that is covered by such a film. We also develop an experimental method for measuring the specific resistance to water transport of films made of occluding barrier creams. Finally, we combine the theoretical model with the measured properties of the barrier creams to predict how a film of cream changes the activity of water at the outer surface of the SC. Using the known variations of SC permeability and hydration with the water activity in its environment (i.e. the relative humidity), we can thus predict how a film of barrier cream changes SC hydration.

This article critically studies the hegemonic discursive construction of the EU's current (2012) economic crisis, as it is articulated by political and economic elites and by mass media. The study focuses on the political economy of the particular crisis and through the critical concept of reification, the study emphasizes the hegemonic naturalization of the economic crisis by the "free market" economistic ideology. The article problematizes the positioning of Greece as the "crisis epicentre" in Europe, understanding Greece as a scapegoat and as a laboratory where political strategies of capitalist restructuring of the EU are performed. Through the frame analysis of Bild-Zeitung's headlines on the coverage of crisis-struck Greece, the article discusses a) the "culturalization" of the crisis and the diversion from a structural public debate on the global economic crisis b) the disciplinary function of crisis' publicity, related to social control and the production of new, neoliberal social subjectivities c) the alienating effect of the culturalist crisis discourses to transnational publics, resulting to the misrecognition of the ideological and structural reasons of the given crisis, the misrecognition of the effects of the crisis and crisis-politics in people's lives, the misrecognition of popular socio-political struggles in countries worse struck by crisis politics, and the eclipse of transnational solidarity and identification to the common issues that European people in particular are facing.

Inflammation has been proposed to be important in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. An early feature of inflammation is the release of cytokines leading to increased expression of endothelial activation markers such as vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Here we investigated the impact of diabetes and dyslipidemia on VCAM-1 expression in mouse retinal vessels, as well as the potential role of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα). Expression of VCAM-1 was examined by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy in vessels of wild type (wt), hyperlipidemic (ApoE(-/-)) and TNFα deficient (TNFα(-/-), ApoE(-/-)/TNFα(-/-)) mice. Eight weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes resulted in increased VCAM-1 in wt mice, predominantly in small vessels (<10 μm). Diabetic wt mice had higher total retinal TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA than controls; as well as higher soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) in plasma. Lack of TNFα increased higher basal VCAM-1 protein and sVCAM-1, but failed to up-regulate IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA and VCAM-1 protein in response to diabetes. Basal VCAM-1 expression was higher in ApoE(-/-) than in wt mice and both VCAM-1 mRNA and protein levels were further increased by high fat diet. These changes correlated to plasma cholesterol, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, but not to triglycerides levels. Diabetes, despite further increasing plasma cholesterol in ApoE(-/-) mice, had no effects on VCAM-1 protein expression or on sVCAM-1. However, it increased ICAM-1 mRNA expression in retinal vessels, which correlated to plasma triglycerides. Hyperglycemia triggers an inflammatory response in the retina of normolipidemic mice and up-regulation of VCAM-1 in retinal vessels. Hypercholesterolemia effectively promotes VCAM-1 expression without evident stimulation of inflammation. Diabetes-induced endothelial activation in ApoE(-/-) mice seems driven by elevated plasma triglycerides but not by cholesterol. Results also suggest a complex role for TNFα in the regulation of VCAM-1 expression, being protective under basal conditions but pro-inflammatory in response to diabetes.

Vladimirov A.A.,Lund University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Abstract: We present the generating function approach to the perturbative exponentiation of correlators of a product of Wilson lines and loops. The exponentiated expression is presented in closed form as an algebraic function of correlators of known operators, which can be seen as a generating function for web diagrams. The expression is naturally split onto two parts: the exponentiation kernel, which accumulates all non-trivial information about web diagrams, and the defect of exponentiation, which reconstructs the matrix exponent and is a function of the exponentiation kernel. The detailed comparison of the presented approach with existing approaches to exponentiation is presented as well. We also give examples of calculations within the generating function exponentiation, namely, we consider different configurations of light-like Wilson lines in the multi-gluon-exchange-webs (MGEW) approximation. Within this approximation the corresponding correlators can be calculated exactly at any order of perturbative expansion by only algebraic manipulations. The MGEW approximation shows violation of the dipole formula for infrared singularities at three-loop order. © 2015, The Author(s).

Nilsson P.M.,Lund University
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2012

Cardiovascular risk increases with chronological as well as biological aging, and one marker of this might be telomere length. The telomere cap is located at the end of the DNA helix and serves to protect its end. This is an evolutionary adaptation which has resulted in stabilization of the DNA strand within the chromosome. During the life course, telomeres tend to shorten in most cells, with the exception of germ line cells and cells that do not undergo cell division, as well as cancer cells. Telomeres are typically shorter in men than in women and continue to shorten over the life-span. In certain conditions this shortening is enhanced, especially in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. There is evidence to suggest that telomere length could be a potential marker of early vascular aging in individuals with a burden of cardiovascular risk factors that might speed up the aging process. © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Rylander D.,Lund University
Parkinsonism and Related Disorders | Year: 2012

L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia is a major problem in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Today there are few anti-dyskinetic treatments available for the patients, and all of them have major limitations. Recent findings have revealed an important role of the serotonin system in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. In the parkinsonian brain, serotonin axon terminals can compensate for the dopamine loss by converting L-DOPA into dopamine and releasing it as a false neurotransmitter. However, the terminals represent an aberrant source of dopamine release, increasing the risk for dyskinesia. In line with this, a relatively high density of serotonin axon fibres in striatum has been reported in dyskinetic animals and patients. Furthermore, serotonin can influence dyskinesia by modulating glutamate or GABA signalling in the basal ganglia via receptors located on nonserotonergic neurons. Through either mechanism, modulation of certain serotonin receptors has been shown to reduce the severity of dyskinetic movements. The serotonin system represents an interesting target for developing anti-dyskinetic treatments. Future therapies may take advantage of the synergistic effect produced by the modulation of different serotonin receptors or pursue a region-specific modulation of certain receptors. Moreover, morphological or biochemical features of the serotonin system could be used to develop biomarkers for patient stratification in clinical trials of anti-dyskinetic compounds. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Strickland M.S.,Yale University | Rousk J.,Bangor University | Rousk J.,Lund University
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

An expectation in soil ecology is that a microbial communities' fungal:bacterial dominance indicates both its response to environmental change and its impact on ecosystem function. We review a selection of the increasing body of literature on this subject and assess the relevance of its expectations by examining the methods used to determine, the impact of environmental factors on, and the expected ecosystem consequences of fungal:bacterial dominance. Considering methods, we observe that fungal:bacterial dominance is contingent on the actual measure used to estimate it. This has not been carefully considered; fungal:bacterial dominance of growth, biomass, and residue indicate different, and not directly relatable aspects, of the microbial community's influence on soil functioning. Considering relationships to environmental factors, we found that shifts in fungal:bacterial dominance were not always in line with the general expectation, in many instances even being opposite to them. This is likely because the traits expected to differentiate bacteria from fungi are often not distinct. Considering the impact of fungal:bacterial dominance on ecosystem function, we similarly found that expectations were not always upheld and this too could be due to trait overlap between these two groups. We explore many of the potential reasons why expectations related to fungal:bacterial dominance were not met, highlighting areas where future research, especially furthering a basic understanding of the ecology of bacteria and fungi, is needed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Erjefalt J.S.,Lund University
European Respiratory Review | Year: 2014

By virtue of their undisputed role in allergy, the study of airway mast cells has focused on nasal and bronchial mast cells and their involvement in allergic rhinitis and asthma. However, recent mechanistic and human studies suggest that peripheral mast cells also have an important role in asthma, as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory infections and lung fibrosis. Pathogenic roles include immune-modulatory, pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic activities. Importantly, mast cells also actively downregulate inflammation and participate in the defence against respiratory infections. Another complicating factor is the notorious mast cell heterogeneity, where each anatomical compartment of the lung harbours site-specific mast cell populations. Alveolar mast cells stand out as they lack the cardinal expression of the high affinity IgE receptor. Supporting the emerging concept of alveolar inflammation in asthma, alveolar mast cells shift to a highly FceRI-expressing phenotype in uncontrolled asthma. Site-specific and disease-associated mast cell changes have also recently been described in most other inflammatory conditions of the lung. Thus, in the exploration of new anti-mast cell treatment strategies the search has widened to include the lung periphery and the delicate task of identifying which of the countless potential roles are the critical disease modifying ones in a given clinical situation. © ERS 2014.

Ahren B.,Lund University | Dimas A.L.,Research Center Clinica Del Pacifico | Miossec P.,Sanofi S.A. | Saubadu S.,Sanofi S.A. | Aronson R.,LMC Diabetes & Endocrinology
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE-To examine the efficacy and safety of lixisenatide (20 μg once daily, administered before the morning or evening meal) as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes insufficiently controlled with metformin alone. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-This was a 24-week, randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled study in 680 patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes (HbA1c 7-10% [53-86 mmol/mol]). Patients were randomized to lixisenatide morning (n = 255), lixisenatide evening (n = 255), placebo morning (n = 85), or placebo evening (n = 85) injections. RESULTS-Lixisenatide morning injection significantly reduced mean HbA1c versus combined placebo (mean change -0.9% [9.8 mmol/mol] vs. -0.4% [4.4 mmol/mol]; least squares [LS] mean difference vs. placebo -0.5% [5.5 mmol/mol], P < 0.0001). HbA 1c was significantly reduced by lixisenatide evening injection (mean change -0.8% [8.7 mmol/mol] vs. -0.4% [4.4 mmol/mol]; LS mean difference -0.4% [4.4 mmol/mol], P < 0.0001). Lixisenatide morning injection significantly reduced 2-h postprandial glucose versus morning placebo (mean change -5.9 vs. -1.4 mmol/L; LS mean difference -4.5 mmol/L, P < 0.0001). LS mean difference in fasting plasma glucose was significant in both morning (-0.9 mmol/L, P < 0.0001) and evening (-0.6 mmol/L, P = 0.0046) groups versus placebo. Mean body weight decreased to a similar extent in all groups. Rates of adverse events were 69.4%in both lixisenatide groups and 60.0%in the placebo group. Rates for nausea and vomiting were 22.7 and 9.4% for lixisenatide morning and 21.2 and 13.3% for lixisenatide evening versus 7.6 and 2.9% for placebo, respectively. Symptomatic hypoglycemia occurred in 6, 13, and 1 patient for lixisenatide morning, evening, and placebo, respectively, with no severe episodes. CONCLUSIONS-In patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin, lixisenatide 20 μg once daily administered in the morning or evening significantly improved glycemic control, with a pronounced postprandial effect, and was well tolerated. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

Complexes of oppositely charged polymers and surfactants (OCPS) in water come in many varieties, including liquid-crystalline materials, soluble complexes, structured nanoparticles, and water-insoluble surface layers. The range of available structures and properties increases even further with the addition of other amphiphilic substances that may enter, or even dissolve, the complexes, depending on the nature of the additive. Simple operations may change the properties of OCPS systems dramatically. For instance, dilution with water can induce a phase separation in an initially stable OCPS solution. More complicated processes, involving chemical reactions, can be used to either create or disintegrate OCPS particles or surface layers. The richness of their properties has made OCPS mixtures ubiquitous in everyday household products, such as shampoos and laundry detergents, and also attractive ingredients in the design of new types of responsive particles, surfaces, and delivery agents of potential use in future applications. A challenge for the rational design of an OCPS system is, however, to obtain a good fundamental understanding of how to select molecular shapes and sizes and how to tune the hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions such that the desired properties are obtained. Recent studies of OCPS phase equilibria, using a strategy where the minimum number of components is always used to address a particular question, have brought out general rules and trends that can be used for such a rational design. Those fundamental studies are reviewed here, together with more application-oriented studies where fundamental learning has been put to use. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Ahren B.,Lund University
Diabetologia | Year: 2012

Although it is well established that the pancreatic islets are innervated by autonomic nerves, the detailed islet innervation pattern is still unclear. In this issue ofDiabetologia (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-012-2699-6) novel details of the islet neuroanatomy and its plasticity in experimental diabetes are described. By using a 3-dimensional (3-D) imaging technique, it has been shown that, in islets fromnormalmice, sympathetic nerves mainly form a neurovascular complex in addition to innervating peripherally located islet alpha cells. There are also pronounced changes in islet neuroanatomy in experimental diabetes. These findings suggest novel neural-islet regulatory mechanisms as well as neural involvement in the development of diabetes, and therefore advance both basic and clinical knowledge of islet neurobiology. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Rusek F.,Lund University | Fertonani D.,Qualcomm
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2012

We consider the problem of bounding the information rate of intersymbol interference channels via simulation-based algorithms. The adopted approach, which is based on a general class of reduced-complexity receivers that includes several previously studied receivers as special cases, leads to provable upper and lower bounds on the information rate of interest. As a by-product of the information-theoretic investigations, novel insights on the design of efficient reduced-complexity receivers are also provided, since the proposed lower bounds are known to be achievable by practical receivers. In many scenarios, our novel approach significantly outperforms the existing ones, for all practical values of the signal-to-noise ratio. © 2012 IEEE.

Nordstrom C.-H.,Lund University
Child's Nervous System | Year: 2010

It is of obvious clinical importance to monitor cerebral metabolism-in particular, cerebral energy metabolism and indicators of cellular damage-online at the bedside. The technique of cerebral microdialysis provides the opportunity for continuous monitoring of metabolic changes in the tissue before they are reflected in peripheral blood chemistry or in systemic physiological parameters. The basic idea of microdialysis is to mimic the function of a blood capillary by positioning a thin dialysis tube in the tissue and to be used to analyze the chemical composition of the interstitial fluid. The biochemical variables used during routine monitoring were chosen to cover important aspects of cerebral energy metabolism (glucose, pyruvate and lactate), to indicate excessive interstitial levels of excitatory transmitter substance (glutamate) and to give indications of degradation of cellular membranes (glycerol). Furthermore, pharmokinetic studies can be conducted using microdialysis. This article discusses technical and physiological aspects of microdialysis, and its clinical applications in brain injury. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Eriksson M.,Lund University
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2010

Soft-tissue sarcomas are rare diseases with >50 subtypes. Surgery is the most important treatment in localized disease, sometimes combined with radiotherapy. Chemotherapy is used as palliation in advanced disease, sometimes also with a potential to decrease tumour size and eradicate micro-metastases, making meaningful surgery possible. The role of chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment in localized disease is not finally settled. Doxorubicin and ifosfamide are the two drugs with the best established response rates in soft-tissue sarcoma, and a combination of these drugs has been a 'gold standard' for several years. However, there is an emerging knowledge of the biology and sensitivity to treatment for different histological subtypes. New drugs such as gemcitabine, taxanes and trabectedin have been explored in several studies, showing promising results. Even if most studies have encompassed many different subtypes and were limited in size, knowledge related to specific treatment for different subtypes is emerging. Examples are trabectedin in liposacoma and leiomyosarcoma, and taxanes in angiosarcoma. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

Gustafsson M.,Lund University
Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2010

The forward scattering sum rule relates the extinction cross section integrated over all wavelengths with the polarizability dyadics. It is useful for deriving bounds on the interaction between scatterers and electromagnetic fields, antenna bandwidth and directivity and energy transmission through sub-wavelength apertures. The sum rule is valid for linearly polarized plane waves impinging on linear, passive and time translational invariant scattering objects in free space. Here, a time-domain approach is used to clarify the derivation and the used assumptions. The time-domain forward scattered field defines an impulse response. Energy conservation shows that this impulse response is the kernel of a passive convolution operator, which implies that the Fourier transform of the impulse response is a Herglotz function. The forward scattering sum rule is finally constructed from integral identities for Herglotz functions. © 2010 The Royal Society.

This paper makes a distinction between three theoretical frameworks that have been highly influential in the discourse on innovation, competitiveness and sustainability: sectoral systems of innovation (SSI), technological innovation systems (TIS) and socio-technical systems (ST-Systems). These frameworks share a common systems approach to innovation but are often positioned as different bodies of literature that correspond to different epistemic communities. This paper is explorative and conceptual in nature. It presents a systematic comparative review of SSI, TIS and ST-Systems based on the following analytical dimensions: (1) system boundaries, (2) actors and networks, (3) institutions, (4) knowledge, (5) dynamics and (6) policy approach. In the concluding section commonalities and differences, of the three approaches, are presented and suggestions for complimentarily are made. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lassance J.-M.,Lund University
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2010

The European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB; Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a widely recognized pest of agricultural significance over much of the northern hemisphere. Because of the potential value of pheromone-based control, there has been considerable effort devoted to elucidation of the ECB chemical ecology. The species is polymorphic regarding its female-produced pheromone. Partly because of this feature, over the years the ECB has become a model to study pheromone evolution. This review should assist in identifying new areas of pheromone research by providing an overview of the literature produced on this subject for the ECB since the late 1960's. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Bryder D.,Lund University | Sigvardsson M.,Linkoping University
Current Opinion in Immunology | Year: 2010

Even though the development of B lymphoid cells from hematopoietic stem cells is one of the most carefully investigated models of cell differentiation in adult mammalians, a set of recent findings has to a large extent increased our understanding for how B lymphoid commitment is achieved. These include the identification of IKAROS, PU.1 and E2A as transcription factors responsible for lymphoid lineage priming in multipotent cells, as well as the identification of EBF1 dependent B lineage restricted progenitors among cells lacking expression of the classical B lineage markers CD19 or B220. The insight that the B cell identity may be defined at an earlier stage then previously thought, allows for an increased understanding of B lymphoid development likely to unravel molecular mechanisms of high relevance also for other differentiation processes within as well as outside of the hematopoietic system. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Hamamoto I.,Lund University | Hamamoto I.,Niels Bohr Institute
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010

The recent experimental data on Coulomb breakup of the nucleus Ne31 are interpreted in terms of deformation. The measured large one-neutron removal cross section indicates that the ground state of Ne31 is either an s halo or a p halo. The data can be most easily interpreted as the spin of the ground state being 3/2- coming from either the Nilsson level [330 1/2] or the Nilsson level [321 3/2] depending on the neutron separation energy Sn. However, the possibility of 1/2+ coming from [200 1/2] is not excluded. It is suggested that if the large ambiguity in the measured value of Sn of Ne31, 0.29±1.64 MeV, can be reduced by an order of magnitude, say to be ±100 keV, one may get a clear picture of the spin-parity of the halo ground state. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Roger K.,ESPCI ParisTech | Cabane B.,ESPCI ParisTech | Cabane B.,Lund University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Impure at heart: A pH-dependent negative charge of the interface between a hydrophobic phase and water results from the reaction of hydroxide ions with traces of fatty acids, contained in the hydrophobic phase (see scheme). This reaction explains the uptake of hydroxide ions by the interface with a large free energy change. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Ahren B.,Lund University
European Diabetes Nursing | Year: 2013

Incretin therapy is a glucose-lowering therapy which has attracted great interest during recent years. It is based on the antidiabetic action of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which involves both stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon secretion. This results in lowering of both fasting and postprandial glycaemia. Incretin therapy is either with GLP-1 receptor agonists or with inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), which is the enzyme which inactivates endogenous GLP-1. The GLP-1 receptor agonists are injected subcutaneously once or twice daily or once weekly. The DPP-4 inhibitors are oral tablets taken once or twice daily. Both therapies reduce HbA1c without weight gain, and for GLP-1 receptor agonists with a weight reduction. Incretin therapy is safe with very few adverse events and an additional value of the therapy is a very low risk for hypoglycaemia. Incretin therapy is efficient both in monotherapy and in combination with metformin, sulphonylureas, thiazolidinediones and insulin. Its main indication is as add-on to metformin in patients who are insufficiently controlled on metformin alone, and an important indication is also in combination with insulin therapy. The experienced value of incretin therapy for patient care will most likely result in increased use of this therapy during the coming years. © 2013 FEND.

Ahren B.,Lund University
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism | Year: 2011

Incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes is based on the antidiabetic effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and instituted by GLP-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors targeting the key islet defects of the disease. The treatment is clinically efficient and safe, and associated with a low risk of adverse events. It can be used both in early and late stages of the disease and both as monotherapy and add-on to other therapies. Current research on the future of incretin-based therapy focuses on optimizing its place in diabetes treatment and examines its potential in type 1 diabetes, in subjects with obesity without type 2 diabetes and in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Other studies aim at prolonging the duration of action of the GLP-1 receptor agonists to allow weekly administration, and to develop orally GLP-1 receptor agonists. Furthermore, other investigators focus on stimulation of GLP-1 secretion by activating GLP-1-producing L-cells or using gene therapy. Finally, also other gastro-entero-pancreatic bioactive peptides are potential targets for drug development as are synthetic peptides engineered as co-agonists stimulating more than one receptor. We can therefore expect a dynamic development within this field in the coming years. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Olsson G.,Lund University
Water Research | Year: 2012

ICA - instrumentation, control and automation - is a hidden technology. It is ubiquitous in all industrial processes, including water and wastewater treatment systems. Still, as long as everything works fine, it is not noted but when things go wrong it will be observed. ICA has now about forty years of history in water and wastewater systems and is well recognized. One early attitude was that ICA will be a necessary burden to be added to a plant in order to correct for a poor design. However, the key reason for ICA is the fact that all processes are subject to disturbances, externally via the wastewater influent, from the customers in a water supply system, or from operations in one unit process that will propagate as a disturbance to another unit within a plant.This paper is an attempt to describe the development of ICA in water and wastewater systems. Most of it is based on personal experiences with all their limitations. No single paper can fairly describe the development that is documented in thousands of research papers, practiced by so many operators and process engineers and implemented in so many treatment systems. Still, the hope is that the paper can give a flavour of the most important ingredients of this fascinating development. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Lidgren L.,Lund University
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Rheumatology | Year: 2012

The Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010 started as a Swedish initiative in 1996 leading to the UN declaration 1999 followed by the WHO launch 2000. A ten year multidisciplinary and global endeavor moving musculoskeletal conditions onto the research and health agenda is now recognized. Some lessons learned during the journey are presented. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Svensson E.I.,Lund University
Organisms Diversity and Evolution | Year: 2012

During the last decade, the ecological theory of adaptive radiation, and its corollary "ecological speciation", has been a major research theme in e Volutionary biology. Briefly, this theory states that speciation is mainly or largely the result of divergent selection, arising from niche differences between populations or incipient species. Reproductive isolation evolves either as a result of direct selection on mate preferences (e.g. reinforcement), or as a correlated response to divergent selection ("by-product speciation"). Although there are now many tentative examples of ecological speciation, I argue that ecology's role in speciation might have been overemphasised and that non-ecological and non-adaptive alternatives should be considered more seriously. Specifically, populations and species of many organisms often show strong evidence of niche conservatism, yet are often highly reproductively isolated from each other. This challenges niche-based ecological speciation and reveals partial decoupling between ecology and reproductive isolation. Furthermore, reproductive isolation might often e Volve in allopatry before ecological differentiation between taxa or possibly through learning and antagonistic sexual interactions, either in allopatry or sympatry. Here I discuss recent theoretical and empirical work in this area, with some emphasis on odonates (dragonflies and damselflies) and suggest some future avenues of research. A main message from this paper is that the ecology of species differences is not the same as ecological speciation, just like the genetics of species differences does not equate to the genetics of speciation. © Gesellschaft für Biologische Systematik 2012.

In an attempt to discover novel growth factors for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), we have assessed cytokine responses of cord blood (CB)-derived CD34(+) cells in a high-content growth factor screen. We identify the immunoregulatory chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28 (CCL28) as a novel growth factor that directly stimulates proliferation of primitive hematopoietic cells from different ontogenetic origins. CCL28 enhances the functional progenitor cell content of cultured cells by stimulating cell cycling and induces gene expression changes associated with survival. Importantly, addition of CCL28 to cultures of purified putative hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) significantly increases the ability of the cells to long-term repopulate immunodeficient mice compared with equivalent input numbers of fresh cells. Together, our findings identify CCL28 as a potent growth-promoting factor with the ability to support the in vitro and in vivo functional properties of cultured human hematopoietic cells.

Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction (MI) by adhering to the site of a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque. The aim of this study was to screen for differences in the micro RNA (miRNA) content of platelets from patients with myocardial infarction and control patients, to investigate a possible release of miRNAs from activated platelets and to elucidate whether platelet-derived miRNAs could act as paracrine regulators of endothelial cell gene expression. Using RNA-seq, we found 9 differentially expressed miRNAs in patients compared with healthy controls, of which 8 were decreased in patients. Of these, miR-22, -185, -320b, and -423-5p increased in the supernatant of platelets after aggregation and were depleted in thrombi aspirated from MI patients, indicating the release of certain miRNAs from activated platelets. To confirm that endothelial cells could take up the released platelet miRNAs, transfer of both fluorescently labeled miRNA and exogenous cel-miR-39 from activated platelets to endothelial cells was shown. Finally, a possible paracrine role of released platelet miR-320b on endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression was shown. Thus, platelets from patients with MI exhibit loss of specific miRNAs, and activated platelets shed miRNAs that can regulate endothelial cell gene expression.

In order to increase access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children, paediatric HIV care has been introduced in health centres in Ethiopia, where patients are managed by health professionals with limited training. To compare outcomes of paediatric HIV care in hospital and health centre clinics and to determine risk factors for death and loss to follow-up (LTFU). Retrospective comparison of patient characteristics and outcomes among children managed in a public hospital and all five public health centres in the uptake area. Among 1,960 patients (health centres 572, hospital clinic 1,388), 34% were lost to follow-up, 2% died, 14% were transferred out, and 46% remained in care. Children initiating ART in the hospital clinic had lower median CD4 cell counts (age <1 year: 575 vs. 1,183 cells/mm3, p=0.024; age 1-5 years: 370 vs. 598 cells/mm3, p<0.001; age >5 years: 186 vs. 259 cells/mm3, p<0.001), and a higher proportion were <1 year of age (22% vs. 15%, p=0.025). ART initiation rates and retention in care were similar between children managed in health centres and in the hospital clinic (36% vs. 37% and 47% vs. 46%, respectively). Among patients starting ART, mortality was associated with age <1 year [hazard ratio (HR) 12.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5, 41]. LTFU was associated with CD4 cell counts <350 cells/mm3 (HR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.0), weight-for-age z-scores below -4 (HR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.4, 5.6), and age <5 years (1-5 years: HR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.5; <1 year: HR 3.3; 95% CI: 1.6, 6.6). Outcomes of HIV care were similar for Ethiopian children managed in a hospital clinic or in health centres. However, patients treated at the hospital clinic had characteristics of more advanced disease. Rates of LTFU were high in both types of health facility.

Hatti-Kaul R.,Lund University
Crop Science | Year: 2010

Biorefi ning of crops for production of power, transport fuels, and a diverse array of chemicals has potential for providing signifi cant added economic value to biomass. A shift in the industrial resource base from fossil resources to biomass also requires a shift in the technology base for producing, handling, and processing of raw materials. Biotechnology will play an important role in providing tools for different stages ranging from biomass production, treatment, and valorization to various products. First generation refi neries have raised some critical issues related to land use and insuffi cient environmental benefi ts due to energy-intensive cultivation of crops. The abundant residual lignocellulosic biomass will constitute an important feedstock for the future biorefi neries so as to have a minimal impact on the food availability. Necessary investments in technological development will be needed to realize the benefi ts of the new bioeconomy in the long term. © Crop Science Society of America.

Dekker S.,Lund University
Safety Science | Year: 2011

This review explores the social causes and psychological and organizational consequences of the criminalization of human error in aviation and healthcare. Increasing prevalence of criminal prosecution is seen as a threat to the health and safety of employees and entire safety-critical systems in many industries, but initiatives to counter or mitigate the trend are local and haphazard. Social causes such as a greater societal risk consciousness and intolerance of failure are examined, as well as organizational consequences for disclosure and incident reporting. Psychological consequences of the criminalization of human error are evaluated in terms of employee ill-health, an area that is under-investigated. The criminalization of professional mistakes seems to be an increasingly prevalent phenomenon at the intersection of safety work, sociology, criminology and legal as well as social justice. This paper reviews possible research directions into the criminalization of professional mistake in aviation and healthcare, in the hope of stimulating debate and eventually legitimating it as a topic of study in its own right. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Carr A.J.,University of Oxford | Robertsson O.,Lund University | Graves S.,University of Adelaide | Price A.J.,University of Oxford | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Knee-replacement surgery is frequently done and highly successful. It relieves pain and improves knee function in people with advanced arthritis of the joint. The most common indication for the procedure is osteoarthritis. We review the epidemiology of and risk factors for knee replacement. Because replacement is increasingly considered for patients younger than 55 years, improved decision making about whether a patient should undergo the procedure is needed. We discuss assessment of surgery outcomes based on data for revision surgery from national joint-replacement registries and on patient-reported outcome measures. Widespread surveillance of existing implants is urgently needed alongside the carefully monitored introduction of new implant designs. Developments for the future are improved delivery of care and training for surgeons and clinical teams. In an increasingly ageing society, the demand for knee-replacement surgery will probably rise further, and we predict future trends. We also emphasise the need for new strategies to treat early-stage osteoarthritis, which will ultimately reduce the demand for joint-replacement surgery.

Edvinsson L.,Lund University
Cephalalgia | Year: 2011

Background: Symptoms associated with primary headaches are linked to cranial vascular activity and to the central nervous system (CNS). Review: The central projections of sensory nerves from three cranial vessels are described in order to further understand pain mechanisms involved in primary headaches. Tracers that label small and large calibre primary afferent fibres revealed similar distributions for the central terminations of sensory nerves in the superficial temporal artery, superior sagittal sinus and middle meningeal artery. The sensory nerve fibres from the vessels pass through both the trigeminal and rostral cervical spinal nerves and terminate in the ventrolateral part of the C1-C3 dorsal horns and the caudal and interpolar divisions of the spinal trigeminal nucleus. The C-fibre terminations were located mainly in the superficial layers (Rexed laminae I and II), and the Aδ-fibres terminated in the deep layers (laminae III and IV). The rostral projections from the ventrolateral C1-C2 dorsal horn revealed terminations in the medial and lateral parabrachial nuclei, the cuneiform nucleus, the periaqueductal gray, the deep mesencephalic nucleus, the thalamic posterior nuclear group and its triangular part, and the thalamic ventral posteromedial nucleus. The terminations in the pons and midbrain were predominately bilateral, whereas those in the thalamus were confined to the contralateral side. Conclusions: The observations, done in rats with the understanding that similar trigeminovascular organization exists in man, reveal vascular projections into the brainstem and some aspects of the central regions putatively involved in the central processing of noxious craniovascular signals. © International Headache Society 2011.

Persson J.L.,Lund University
APMIS | Year: 2013

In this mini-review, progress in our understanding of the link between miRNAs and cytokines in inflammatory skin diseases is highlighted with focus on miR-155 in mycosis fungoides (MF). MF is the most common variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and is characterized by malignant T-cell proliferation in a chronic inflammatory environment in affected skin. Recent data show that miR-155 is expressed in situ by both malignant and non-malignant T cells, induced via the STAT5 signal pathway and IL-2Rbeta/gamma cytokines, and thus suggest the importance of miR-155 in malignant proliferation, clinical diagnosis, and prognosis in CTCL. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

We consider a random synaptic pruning in an initially highly interconnected network. It is proved that a random network can maintain a self-sustained activity level for some parameters. For such a set of parameters a pruning is constructed so that in the resulting network each neuron/node has almost equal numbers of in- and out-connections. It is also shown that the set of parameters which admits a self-sustained activity level is rather small within the whole space of possible parameters. It is pointed out here that the threshold of connectivity for an auto-associative memory in a Hopfield model on a random graph coincides with the threshold for the bootstrap percolation on the same random graph. It is argued that this coincidence reflects the relations between the auto-associative memory mechanism and the properties of the underlying random network structure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Neural Coding". © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Persson B.R.R.,Lund University | Holm E.,Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2011

The radionuclides 210Po and 210Pb widely present in the terrestrial environment are the final long-lived radionuclides in the decay of 238U in the earth's crust. Their presence in the atmosphere is due to the decay of 222Rn diffusing from the ground. The range of activity concentrations in ground level air for 210Po is 0.03-0.3 Bq m-3 and for 210Pb 0.2-1.5 Bq m-3. In drinking water from private wells the activity concentration of 210Po is in the order of 7-48 mBq l-1 and for 210Pb around 11-40 mBq l-1. From water works, however, the activity concentration for both 210Po and 210Pb is only in the order of 3 mBq l-1. Mosses, lichens and peat have a high efficiency in capturing 210Po and 210Pb from atmospheric fallout and exhibit an inventory of both 210Po and 210Pb in the order of 0.5-5 kBq m-2 in mosses and in lichens around 0.6 kBq m-2. The activity concentrations in lichens lies around 250 Bq kg-1, dry mass.Reindeer and caribou graze lichen which results in an activity concentration of 210Po and 210Pb of about 1-15 Bq kg-1 in meat from these animals. The food chain lichen-reindeer or caribou, and Man constitutes a unique model for studying the uptake and retention of 210Po and 210Pb in humans. The effective annual dose due to 210Po and 210Pb in people with high consumption of reindeer/caribou meat is estimated to be around 260 and 132 μSv a-1 respectively. In soils, 210Po is adsorbed to clay and organic colloids and the activity concentration varies with soil type and also correlates with the amount of atmospheric precipitation. The average activity concentration levels of 210Po in various soils are in the range of 20-240 Bq kg-1.Plants become contaminated with radioactive nuclides both by absorption from the soil (supported Po) and by deposition of radioactive fallout on the plants directly (unsupported Po). In fresh leafy plants the level of 210Po is particularly high as the result of the direct deposition of 222Rn daughters from atmospheric deposition. Tobacco is a terrestrial product with high activity concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb. The overall average activity concentration of 210Po is 13 ± 2 Bq kg-1. It is rather constant over time and by geographical origin.The average median daily dietary intakes of 210Po and 210Pb for the adult world population was estimated to 160 mBq day-1 and 110 mBq day-1, corresponding to annual effective doses of 70 μSv a-1 and 28 μSv a-1, respectively. The dietary intakes of 210Po and 210Pb from vegetarian food was estimated to only 70 mBq day-1 and 40 mBq day-1 corresponding to annual effective doses of 30.6 μSv a-1 and 10 μSv a-1, respectively. Since the activity concentration of 210Po and 210Pb in seafood is significantly higher than in vegetarian food the effective dose to populations consuming a lot of seafood might be 5-15 fold higher. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Samuelsson C.,Lund University
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2011

Any confined air volume holding radon ( 222Rn) gas bears a memory of past radon concentrations due to 210Pb (T 1/2 = 22 y) and its progenies entrapped in all solid objects in the volume. The efforts of quantifying past radon exposures by means of the left-behind long-lived radon progenies started in 1987 with this author's unsuccessful trials of removing 214Po from radon exposed glass objects. In this contribution the history and different techniques of assessing radon exposure to man in retrospect will be overviewed. The main focus will be on the implantation of alpha recoils into glass surfaces, but also potential traps in radon dwellings will be discussed. It is concluded that for a successful retrospective application, three crucial imperatives must be met, i.e. firstly, the object must persistently store a certain fraction of the created 210Pb atoms, secondly, be resistant over decades towards disturbances from the outside and thirdly, all 210Pb atoms analysed must originate from airborne radon only.For large-scale radon epidemiological studies, non-destructive and inexpensive measurement techniques are essential. Large-scale studies cannot be based on objects rarely found in dwellings or not available for measurements. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Lindeberg S.,Lund University
Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer | Year: 2012

Introduction: Increasing evidence suggests that optimal food choice is critical for sizable prevention of western diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The Mediterranean diet is an important step in this direction. Moreover, substantially lower rates of Western disease, even compared to Mediterranean countries, have been observed among hunter-gatherers and other non-western populations (Lindeberg 2010). Observational studies and controlled trials support the notion that an evolutionary perspective is helpful when designing food models for optimal human health. Discussion: However, sustainable health for the individual patient is not enough: environmental sustainability must also be considered. Are fish and fruit sustainable for everyone? Are starchy root vegetables a better option than cereal grains? Is locally produced meat an underestimated wholesome food? These and other questions need to be addressed in order to cut greenhouse gases and the consumption of (blue) water and nonrenewable energy. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Mutations resulting in constitutive activation of signaling pathways that regulate ribosome biogenesis are among the most common genetic events in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, whether ribosome biogenesis presents as a therapeutic target to treat AML remains unexplored. Perturbations in ribosome biogenesis trigger the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP)–Mdm2–p53 ribosomal stress pathway, and induction of this pathway has been shown to have therapeutic efficacy in Myc-driven lymphoma. In the current study we address the physiological and therapeutic role of the 5S RNP–Mdm2–p53 pathway in AML. By utilizing mice that have defective ribosome biogenesis due to downregulation of ribosomal protein S19 (Rps19), we demonstrate that induction of the 5S RNP–Mdm2–p53 pathway significantly delays the initiation of AML. However, even a severe Rps19 deficiency that normally results in acute bone marrow failure has no consistent efficacy on already established disease. Finally, by using mice that harbor a mutation in the Mdm2 gene disrupting its binding to 5S RNP, we show that loss of the 5S RNP–Mdm2–p53 pathway is dispensable for development of AML. Our study suggests that induction of the 5S RNP–Mdm2–p53 ribosomal stress pathway holds limited potential as a single-agent therapy in the treatment of AML.Leukemia advance online publication, 17 June 2016; doi:10.1038/leu.2016.159. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Patients diagnosed with RA have an increased risk of some cancers. However, limited data are available on the important issue of prognosis of RA patients with cancer. RA patients were identified from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register by linkage to the Cancer Registry. Follow-up of patients was started from the date of diagnosis of cancer through year 2006. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated in cancer patients with RA compared with subjects without RA. A total of 1,411,163 cancer patients were identified in the database, of whom 6309 had a previous hospitalization for RA. Compared with all cancer patients without RA, patients with RA had a worse prognosis, with an HR of 1.29 and 1.31 for cause-specific and overall survival, respectively. For specific cancer sites, skin and breast cancers and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma showed worst survival. Age stratification did not change the results. Cancer patients with a previous hospitalization for RA had a worse prognosis for all and many site-specific cancers compared with patients without RA, independent of age at diagnosis and tumour staging. Improvement of survival for cancer patients with RA may require a multidisciplinary approach to accommodate the comorbidity.

Vihinen M.,Lund University | Vihinen M.,University of Tampere
Genome Research | Year: 2014

Ontology organizes and formally conceptualizes information in a knowledge domain with a controlled vocabulary having defined terms and relationships between them. Several ontologies have been used to annotate numerous databases in biology and medicine. Due to their unambiguous nature, ontological annotations facilitate systematic description and data organization, data integration and mining, and pattern recognition and statistics, as well as development of analysis and prediction tools. The Variation Ontology (VariO) was developed to allow the annotation of effects, consequences, and mechanisms of DNA, RNA, and protein variations. Variation types are systematically organized, and a detailed description of effects and mechanisms is possible. VariO is for annotating the variant, not the normal-state features or properties, and requires a reference (e.g., reference sequence, reference-state property, activity, etc.) compared to which the changes are indicated. VariO is versatile and can be used for variations ranging from genomic multiplications to single nucleotide or amino acid changes, whether of genetic or nongenetic origin. VariO annotations are position-specific and can be used for variations in any organism. © 2014 Hansen et al.

Berntorp E.,Lund University
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2013

Long-term prophylaxis is not as well known in Von Willebrand disease (VWD) as in hemophilia but attempts to evaluate prophylaxis scientifically in VWD have started. A few cohort studies have been reported. In an international effort the Von Willebrand disease prophylaxis network (VWD PN) has been formed to investigate the role of prophylaxis in clinically severe VWD (e.g., patients with type 3 VWD) that is nonresponsive to other treatments. Findings from the VWD PN studies will hopefully provide more robust evidence for which patients might best benefit from prophylaxis and for appropriate dosing regimens for prophylaxis in patients with VWD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Aging of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) leads to several functional changes, including alterations affecting self-renewal and differentiation. Although it is well established that many of the age-induced changes are intrinsic to HSCs, less is known regarding the stability of this state. Here, we entertained the hypothesis that HSC aging is driven by the acquisition of permanent genetic mutations. To examine this issue at a functional level in vivo, we applied induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell reprogramming of aged hematopoietic progenitors and allowed the resulting aged-derived iPS cells to reform hematopoiesis via blastocyst complementation. Next, we functionally characterized iPS-derived HSCs in primary chimeras and after the transplantation of re-differentiated HSCs into new hosts, the gold standard to assess HSC function. Our data demonstrate remarkably similar functional properties of iPS-derived and endogenous blastocyst-derived HSCs, despite the extensive chronological and proliferative age of the former. Our results, therefore, favor a model in which an underlying, but reversible, epigenetic component is a hallmark of HSC aging.

Antiochia R.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Gorton L.,Lund University
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2014

This paper describes the development and performance of the first fructose biosensor based on a commercial screen-printed graphene electrode (SPGE). The electrode was modified with an osmium-polymer, which allowed the efficient wiring of the enzyme fructose dehydrogenase (FDH). The immobilization of both osmium-polymer and FDH was realized in an easy way. Aliquots of 10 μL Os-polymer and 10 μL FDH were thoroughly mixed with poly(ethylene glycol) (400) diglycidyl ether (PEDGE) and deposited on the electrode surface and left there to dry overnight. The biosensor exhibits a detection limit of 0.8 μM, a linear range between 0.1 and 8 mM, high sensitivity to fructose (2.15 μA cm-2/mM), good reproducibility (RSD = 1.9%), fast response time (3 s) and a stability of 2 months when stored in the freezer. The proposed fructose biosensor was tested in real food samples and validated with a commercial spectrophotometric enzymatic kit. No significant interference was observed with the proposed biosensor. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Gouras G.K.,Lund University
International Journal of Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Age-related misfolding and aggregation of disease-linked proteins in selective brain regions is a characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Although neuropathological aggregates that characterize these various diseases are found at sites other than synapses, increasing evidence supports the idea that synapses are where the pathogenesis begins. Understanding these diseases is hampered by our lack of knowledge of what the normal functions of these proteins are and how they are affected by aging. Evidence has supported the idea that neurodegenerative disease-linked proteins have a common propensity for prion protein-like cell-to-cell propagation. However, it is not thought that the prion-like quality of these proteins/peptides that allows their cell-to-cell transmission implies a role for human-to-human spread in common age-related neurodegenerative diseases. It will be important to better understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms governing the role of these aggregating proteins in neural function, especially at synapses, how their propagation occurs and how pathogenesis is promoted by aging. © 2013 Gunnar K. Gouras.

Jacobs J.,University of Toronto | Stanfors M.,Lund University
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health | Year: 2013

Context: In the United States, unintended pregnancies disproportionately affect minority populations. Persistent disparities in contraceptive use between black and Hispanic women and white women have been identified, but it is unclear whether racial and ethnic differences in use of the most effective methods have changed. Methods: Data on 4,727 women from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth and 5,775 women from the 2006-2010cycle were used to examine the association between race and ethnicity and women's choice of reversible contraceptives according to level of method effectiveness. Stepwise multinomial logistic regressions were used to identify changes in this association between cycles. Analyses controlled for demographic, socioeconomic, family, religious, behavioral and geographic characteristics. Results: The proportion of women using the most effective reversible contraceptive methods increased from 46% in 1995 to 53% in 2006-2010. In 1995, black and Hispanic women's use of the most effective reversible contraceptives did not differ from that of white women. By 2006-2010, however, black women were substantially less likely than white women to use highly effective reversible contraceptive methods rather than no method (relative risk ratio, 0.6). An analysis that combined the two data sets and included a term for the interaction between survey year and race and ethnicity found that relative to white women, black women were less likely in 2006-2010 than in 1995 to use more effective methods rather than no method (0.6). Conclusions: Further research is needed to identify factors that may be causing racial and ethnic disparities in contraceptive decisions to widen. © 2013 by the Guttmacher Institute.

Conducting social-ecological system (SES) research in fisheries aimed at aiding the implementation of a management plan that achieves sustainable outcomes remains a significant challenge. Using the Ostrom (2009) [1] diagnostic SES framework is widely utilized and acknowledged as an integral tool for research on SESs. The purpose of this article is to highlight and illustrate a comprehensive and holistic protocol for operationalizing SES framework research and development for adaptively managing small-scale fisheries. The conceptual approach, displayed in an illustrative framework, and article structure are framed around the following six key steps: (1) contextually updating the SES framework, (2) classify the fishery with the updated framework, (3) indentify and analyze data gaps and as many system component interactions as possible, (4) recognize multiple outcomes, (5) develop an adaptive management plan, and (6) implement the management plan and monitor the system. The illustrative conceptual approach additionally integrates stakeholder involvement and system feedbacks. The implementation and support for each step is elaborated on along with exemplary literature relating to the specific case studies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Andersson Djurfeldt A.,Lund University
Global Food Security | Year: 2015

The article reviews evidence on African urbanization trends and consequences of these for the smallholder sector and rural food security. Urban growth is less rapid than often assumed and consumption rather than production driven, while liberalized trade regimes have globalized food systems. Urban insecurity and rural poverty are handled through self-provisioning arrangements in both rural and urban areas, which may undermine the role of urban areas as sources of demand for rural produce. Smallholders in rural areas close to existing urban areas are likely to benefit most from growing markets for high value products. Food security must be the priority for marginal areas untouched by urbanization. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Fast M.,Lund University | Palme T.,University of Stavanger
Energy | Year: 2010

The objective of this study has been to create an online system for condition monitoring and diagnosis of a combined heat and power plant in Sweden. The system in question consisted of artificial neural network models, representing each main component of the combined heat and power plant, connected to a graphical user interface. The artificial neural network models were integrated on a power generation information manager server in the computer system of the combined heat and power plant, and the graphical user interface was made available on workstations connected to this server. The plant comprised a Siemens SGT800 gas turbine with a heat recovery steam generator as well as a bio-fueled boiler and its steam cycle. Steam from the heat recovery steam generator and the bio-fueled boiler expanded together in a common steam turbine, producing both electricity and heat. The artificial neural network models were trained with operational data from the components of the combined heat and power plant. Accurate predictions from the ANN (Artificial neural network) models in combination with an undemanding integration in the power plant's computer system were some of the main conclusions from this study. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mehra D.,Lund University
Global health action | Year: 2012

In Uganda, adolescent pregnancy often results in adverse maternal and neonatal health outcomes. In this context, low use of contraception and high rates of maternal mortality rate make preventing unwanted pregnancies critical. The objective was to determine the relationship between non-use of contraception and sociodemographic factors, alcohol consumption, and types of partner(s) among Ugandan university students. In 2010, 1,954 students at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda participated in a cross-sectional study whereby a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess sociodemographic factors, alcohol consumption, and sexual behaviour including the use of contraceptives. Multivariable logistic regression was used for the analysis and data were stratified by sex. 1,179 students (60.3% of the study population) reported that they were sexually active. Of these, 199 (18.6%) did not use contraception in their last sexual encounter. Students currently not in a relationship had higher odds of non-use of contraception (odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.7). The association remained statistically significant for both males and females after controlling for age, sexual debut, area of growing up, and educational level of the household head. Socio-demographic determinants of age (22 or younger), early sexual debut (at age 16 years or earlier), and a rural background were significant for males but not for females. A synergistic effect between not currently being in a relationship and early sexual debut were also observed to have an effect on the non-use of contraception. Non-use of contraception among Ugandan university students differs for males and females, possibly due to gendered power relations. Sexual and reproductive health policies and programmes should be designed to take these differences into account.

Bijnens J.,Lund University | Ecker G.,University of Vienna
Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science | Year: 2014

We review the status of the coupling constants of chiral Lagrangians in the meson sector, the so-called low-energy constants (LECs). We emphasize the chiral SU(2) and SU(3) Lagrangians for the strong interactions of light mesons and discuss the theoretical and experimental input for determining the corresponding LECs. In the two-flavor sector, we review the knowledge of the O(p4) LECs from both continuum fits and lattice QCD analyses. For chiral SU(3), next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO) effects play a much greater role. Our main new results are fits of the LECs Li at both next-to-leading order (NLO) and NNLO, making extensive use of the available knowledge of NNLO LECs. We compare our results with available lattice determinations. We then discuss resonance saturation of LECs and the convergence of chiral SU(3) to NNLO. Finally, we review the status of predictions for the LECs of chiral Lagrangians with dynamical photons and leptons. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Ahman M.,Lund University
Energy Policy | Year: 2010

The last 20 years efforts to find a long-term and large-scale biofuel alternative to petrol and diesel for the transport sector have been intensified with a focus on liquid biofuels, such as ethanol, methanol and Fischer-Tropsh diesel derived from wood. The large-scale production of biomethane has so far largely been overlooked in comparative studies that focus on the long-term renewable options. The aim of this article fills this gap and to provide a broad and systematic assessment of the future potential of biomethane compared to other biofuels. In order to become a large-scale option, biomethane production from woody biomass via gasification needs to be developed and commercialized. However, biomethane exhibits a clear development path with relatively low financial and technical risks starting with local solutions utilizing wet biomass resources towards medium and eventually large-scale gasification with economics similar to liquid second generation biofuels. The disadvantage of being a gaseous fuel is not insurmountable and can furthermore be relaxed by the integration and dual-use of the existing distribution system for natural gas. This assessment concludes that more emphasize should be given to biomethane as a large-scale option given the opportunity to use woody biomass from gasification. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

In order to fully understand pathogen induced natural variation in fitness in wild animal populations it is important to identify and study the degree of non-synonymous alleles in genes that code for components of the immune system. This study investigates the degree of natural genetic variation at 6 innate immune genes belonging to the β-defensin family within a single population of birds, the great tits Parus major. In 40 adult individuals, all belonging to the same local population in Wytham Woods, Oxford, UK, screened across 6 different β-defensin genes, all but one individual showed non-synonymous heterozygosity within the exon coding for the mature defensin peptide. The non-synonomous variation was thus associated with the part of the defensin gene that directly interacts with potential pathogens. Within the sample, 31 different genotypes were identified across the 6 different loci. Much of the found allelic variation affected the amino acid composition, which in turn alter the net charge and hydrophilicity of the produced peptide; properties associated with the efficiency of binding to and rupture pathogens. This study demonstrates that non-synonymous genetic variation exists at β-defensins genes, a part of the immune system that forms an important first line of defence against various pathogens. Understanding the degree of underlying genetic variation at different parts of the immune system will help achieve a holistic view of the reasons behind individual variation in pathogen susceptibility, as well as why individuals are affected differently once they become infected. © 2014 The Author.

Edvinsson L.,Lund University | Linde M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Linde M.,Gothenburg University
The Lancet | Year: 2010

Although the triptan drugs provide effective relief from migraine for many patients, a substantial number of affected individuals are unresponsive to these compounds, and such therapy can also lead to a range of adverse effects. Telcagepant represents a new class of antimigraine drug - the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor blockers. This compound exerts its effects by blocking receptors for the calcitonin-gene-related peptide at several sites in the trigeminal and central nervous systems, resulting in pain relief. Telcagepant does not cause vasoconstriction, a major limitation in the use of triptans. Comparisons with triptans in clinical trials for acute treatment of migraine attacks revealed clinical effects similar to those of triptans but better than those of placebo. Telcagepant might provide hope for those who have a poor response to, or are unable to use, older drugs. In patients who need prophylaxis because of frequent attacks of migraine, topiramate is a first-line drug for migraine prevention in many countries; it is generally safe and reasonably well tolerated. Data suggest that topiramate could aid reversion of chronic migraine to episodic migraine. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Lernmark A.,Lund University
Pediatric Diabetes | Year: 2016

The etiology of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-associated organ-specific autoimmune diseases is incomplete. In type 1 diabetes and celiac disease, the strongest associations are with the HLA-DR3-DQ2 and DR4-DQ8 haplotypes, whereas the DQB1*06:02 allele has a strong negative association. In contrast, narcolepsy, especially as recently triggered by the Pandemrix® H1N1 vaccine (GlaxoKlineSmith (GSK), Brentford, Middlesex, UK), did not seem to develop without at least one copy of the latter allele. The overall hypothesis is that the role of these different HLA haplotypes, especially in Finland and Sweden, is related to the immune response to infectious agents that are common in these two populations. The high incidence of both type 1 diabetes and celiac disease in Scandinavia may be the result of the HLA-DR3-DQ2 and DR4-DQ8 haplotypes, and the DQB1*06:02 allele are common because they protected people from succumbing to common infections. The timing of dissecting the autoimmune response is critical to understand the possible role of environmental factors. First, an etiological trigger may be a common virus infecting beta cells or with antigens inducing beta-cell cross reactivity. Second, an autoimmune reaction may ensue, perhaps in response to beta-cell apoptosis or autophagy, resulting in autoantigen-specific T cells and autoantibodies. It is critical in at-risk children to dissect the immune response prior to the appearance of autoantibodies in order to identify cellular reactions in response to environmental factors that are able to induce an HLA-associated immune reaction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is an established glucose-lowering strategy for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. DPP-4 inhibitors reduce both fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels, resulting in reduced HbA1c with low risk for hypoglycaemia and weight gain. They act primarily by preventing inactivation of the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, thereby prolonging the enhanced endogenous levels of these hormones after meal ingestion. This in turn causes islet and extrapancreatic effects, including increased glucose sensing in islet alpha and beta cells. These effects result in increased insulin secretion and decreased glucagon secretion being more effective in hyperglycaemic states and reduced insulin secretion and increased glucagon secretion being more effective during hypoglycaemia. Other secondary pharmacological actions of DPP-4 inhibitors include mobilisation and burning of fat during meals, decrease in fat extraction from the gut, reduction of fasting lipolysis and liver fat and increase in LDL particle size. These actions contribute to the clinical effects of DPP-4 inhibition, and the reduced demand for insulin could also lead to a durability benefit. This review summarises the current knowledge of the secondary pharmacological actions of DPP-4 inhibitors that lead to improved glucose regulation in patients with type 2 diabetes, focusing on alpha and beta cell function and lipid metabolism. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Blomberg M.I.,Linkoping University | Kallen B.,Lund University
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess, in a large data set from Swedish Medical Health Registries, whether maternal obesity and maternal morbid obesity were associated with an increased risk for various structural birth defects. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,049,582 infants born in Sweden from January 1, 1995, through December 31, 2007, with known maternal weight and height data. Women were grouped in six categories of body mass index (BMI) according to World Health Organization classification. Infants with congenital birth defects were identified from three sources: the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, the Register of Birth Defects, and the National Patient Register. Maternal age, parity, smoking, and year of birth were thought to be potential confounders and were included as covariates in the adjusted odds ratio analyses. RESULTS: Ten percent of the study population was obese. Morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40) occurred in 0.7%. The prevalence of congenital malformations was 4.7%, and the prevalence of relatively severe malformations was 3.2%. Maternal prepregnancy morbid obesity was associated with neural tube defects OR 4.08 (95% CI 1.87-7.75), cardiac defects OR 1.49 (95% CI 1.24-1.80), and orofacial clefts OR 1.90 (95% CI 1.27-2.86). Maternal obesity (BMI ≥ 30) significantly increased the risk of hydrocephaly, anal atresia, hypospadias, cystic kidney, pes equinovarus, omphalocele, and diaphragmatic hernia. CONCLUSION: The risk for a morbidly obese pregnant woman to have an infant with a congenital birth defect is small, but for society the association is important in the light of the ongoing obesity epidemic. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Steinthorsdottir M.,University of Stockholm | Vajda V.,Lund University
Gondwana Research | Year: 2015

The stomatal index (a measure of stomatal density) of an extinct Australian Early Jurassic araucariacean conifer species, Allocladus helgei Jansson, is used to reconstruct the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (pCO2) in the Early Jurassic. The fossil leaves are preserved in a single bed, palynologically dated to late Pliensbachian (~185-183Mya). Atmospheric pCO2 is estimated from the ratios between the stomatal index of A. helgei and the stomatal indices of three modern analogs (nearest living equivalent plants). CO2 concentration in the range of ~750-975ppm was calibrated from the fossil material, with a best-estimated mean of ~900ppm. The new average pCO2 determined for the late Pliensbachian is thus similar to, although ~10% lower, than previously inferred minimum concentrations of ~1000, based on data from the Northern Hemisphere, but may help constrain pCO2 during this period. Our results are the first pCO2 estimates produced using Jurassic leaves from the Southern Hemisphere and show that i) paleo-atmospheric pCO2 estimates are consistent at a global scale, though more investigations of Southern Hemisphere material are required, and ii) the stomatal proxy method can now be used without the context of relative change in pCO2 when applying the correct methodology. © 2014.

A method for solving the change in capacitance (or charge) if an object is introduced in a parallel plate capacitor is developed. The integral representation of the potential is exploited in a systematic way to solve the potential everywhere inside the capacitor. In particular, the change in capacitance is extracted. The method shows similarities with the null field approach for solving dynamic problems. © 2012 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Pero R.W.,Lund University
Current Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Hippuric acid has been a major human metabolite for years. However, there is no well-known documented health benefit associated with it except for excretion of environmental-toxic exposures of aromatic compounds such as toluene, or from dietary protein degradation and re-synthesis by intestinal microflora metabolism of quinic acid via the shikimate pathway. Thus hippuric acid can appear in humans as an excretory product from natural or unnatural sources. It has been believed over the years that the major source of urinary hippuric acid levels in humans has come from environmental toxic solvent exposures. However, more recently it was been shown that approximately 1-2 mM hippuric acid is excreted daily in the urine, even in the absence of organic solvent exposure, signalling abundant metabolic dietary sources of hippuric acid are also apparent. One of these has been dietary proteins. The other is from the well-documented presence of quinic acid in healthy colored foodstuffs. Quinic acid is a key metabolite associated with the shikimate pathway existing only in plants, and it is responsible for essental amino acid biosynthesis such as tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyro-sine. Here we review the evidence that the human gastrointestinal tract microflora are responsible for quinic acid metabolism not only to hippuric acid, but more importantly to efficacious antioxidant amino acids and vitamins. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Sjodahl M.,Lund University
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2015

ColorFull, a C++ package for treating QCD color structure, is presented. ColorFull, which utilizes the trace basis approach, is intended for interfacing with event generators, but can also be used as a stand-alone package for squaring QCD amplitudes, calculating interferences, and describing the effect of gluon emission and gluon exchange. © 2015, The Author(s).

Gullstrand J.,Lund University
Food Policy | Year: 2011

This paper focuses on sunk export costs in the Swedish food and beverage sector. Its purpose is threefold. First, it investigates whether the estimation of the importance of sunk costs is sensitive to persistence bilateral (firm-destination) effects such as specific market knowledge compared to firm-specific effects such as managerial skills or product quality. Second, it analyses the effects of firm and market characteristics on firms' export decisions. Third, it tests whether the importance of sunk costs varies with destination as well as firm characteristics. The main results are: (1) that firm-destination effects are more important than general, unobserved firm characteristics, (2) that more productive and larger firms are more likely to export and that firms' expectations from exporting increase with market size and exchange rate stability, and (3) that the importance of sunk export costs varies with firm and market characteristics. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Jorgren F.,Lund University
Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland | Year: 2010

Despite advances in rectal cancer treatment, local recurrence (LR) remains a significant problem. To select high-risk patients for different treatment options aimed at reducing LR, it is essential to identify LR risk factors. Local recurrence and survival rates of 4153 patients registered 1995-1997 in the Swedish Rectal Cancer Registry were analysed. LR risk factors were analysed by multivariate methods. For LR patients the registry was validated and additional data retrieved. The 5-year overall and cancer-specific survival rates were 45% and 62% respectively. LR was registered in 326 (8%) patients. After R0-resections for tumours in TNM stages I-III, LR developed in 10% of tumours at 0-5 cm, 8% at 6-10 cm and 6% at 11-15 cm above the a