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Nantes, France

Espinosa-Munoz L.,Agro ParisTech | Espinosa-Munoz L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Symoneaux R.,LUNAM | Renard C.M.G.C.,University of Avignon | And 3 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The main objectives of this work are to better understand the effect of the structural parameters on the sensory perception of apple puree's texture. For this reason, a grinding-separation procedure was established in order to vary pulp content and particle size. The validation of the procedure was made by comparing laboratory samples and commercial products. It was observed that a third parameter, serum viscosity, should be included to complete the strategy; it was therefore modified by the addition of pectin. Thus two experimental designs were constructed, the first one for the effect of the pulp content and the particle size on the sensory properties, and the second one for the effect of thickening of the continuous phase and the admixing of purees with different particle sizes. A sensory descriptive profile was conducted: the most important attributes to describe the texture of apple purees were consistency and graininess. The thickening of the continuous phase led to an increase of the consistency perception and to a decrease of the graininess perception. Pulp content, particle size and serum viscosity are key structural parameters to master the texture of apple purees. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Joannis C.,LUNAM | Hannouche A.,University Paris Est Creteil | Chebbo G.,University Paris Est Creteil | Chebbo G.,Lebanese University
Urban Water Journal | Year: 2015

This paper presents a method for assessing the respective contributions of the variations of flow-rate and concentration of any pollution parameter to the variations of the mass discharge of the same parameter. This method uses a specially designed decomposition of variance, which gives a priority to the information provided by flow-rates, either directly, or through the correlation between flow-rates and concentrations. To demonstrate the potential interest of this method, data monitored on two catchments in the city of Paris (France) are processed according this method, with turbidity being used as a surrogate for suspended solids concentration. Results show that volumes provide a fairly good evaluation of masses at the scale of whole events. Inside any particular event, concentrations are major contributors to the variations of mass discharge, despite the correlations between flow rate and concentration which may be observed for many rain events. © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

Califano C.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Marquez-Martinez L.A.,CICESE | Moog C.H.,LUNAM
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2011

In this note the Extended Lie bracket operator is introduced for the analysis and control of nonlinear time-delay systems (NLTDS). This tool is used to characterize the integrability conditions of a given submodule. The obtained results have two fundamental outcomes. First, they define the necessary and sufficient conditions under which a given set of nonlinear one-forms in the n-dimensional delayed variables x(t),⋯,x(t-sD) D, with D constant but unknown, are integrable, thus generalizing the well known fundamental Frobenius Theorem to delay systems. Secondly, they set the basis for the extension to this context of the geometric approach used for delay-free systems. The effectiveness of the results is shown by solving the problem of the equivalence of a NLTDS to an accessible Linear Time-Delay System (LTDS) by bicausal change of coordinates. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Gabrieli F.,University of Padua | Artoni R.,LUNAM | Santomaso A.,University of Padua | Cola S.,University of Padua
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2013

Small quantities of liquid in a granular material control the flow dynamics as well as the triggering and jamming phases. In order to study this problem, some experimental collapse tests conducted in a rectangular box were reproduced with a 1:1 scale numerical model using the Discrete Element Method. In simulations the effect of the capillary bridges has been investigated implementing a mid-range attractive force between particles based on the minimum energy approach. Also a bonding-debonding mechanism was incorporated in the algorithm and the volume of each sessile drop on the particle surface was considered during its motion. The influence of some variables was investigated with respect to the final slope profiles and the runout lengths: the initial liquid content, the particle size, the solid density, the liquid surface tension, and the liquid-solid contact angle. Also the crucial effect of the confinement walls on the collapse phenomenon was investigated: wet particles adhere to the lateral walls providing a higher flow resistance in comparison to the same material in dry conditions. It was observed that particles with largest path-lengths are localized near the movable wall at a middle-height of the initial column sample. Other particles at the surface moves in a rigid way especially if they were wet and with a low solid density. The "fidelity" of each particle with respect to the nearest neighbours was evaluated allowing to recognize the emergence of clusters of particles and rigid parts, to extract the failure surface and to localize where debonding mechanisms concentrate in the wet case. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC. Source

Cattin L.,Jean Rouxel Institute | Nguyen D.T.,Jean Rouxel Institute | Morsli M.,LUNAM | Bernede J.C.,LUNAM
Journal of Polymer Engineering | Year: 2011

MoO3/Ag/MoO3 structures have been grown and characterized. It is shown that the transmittance of the films increases when the silver thickness increase from 8 to 10 nm, whereas further increase induces transmittance decrease. The study of the variation of the conductivity vs. Ag thickness shows that the MoO3/Ag/MoO3 structures become highly conductive when the Ag thickness reaches 10 nm. Therefore, the optimum structure is obtained when the silver thickness is 10 nm. These MoO 3/Ag/MoO3 structures have been used as anode in glass/anode/CuPc (35 nm)/C60(40 nm)/Alq3 (9 nm)/Al (120 nm) organic solar cells. These anodes permit achievable promising results, even if their efficiencies stay slightly smaller than that achieved with ITO based devices. © 2011 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston. Source

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