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Chrostowski L.,University of British Columbia | Flueckiger J.,University of British Columbia | Lin C.,University of Delaware | Hochberg M.,University of Delaware | And 6 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

This paper describes design methodologies developed for silicon photonics integrated circuits. The approach presented is inspired by methods employed in the Electronics Design Automation (EDA) community. This is complemented by well established photonic component design tools, compact model synthesis, and optical circuit modelling. A generic silicon photonics design kit, as described here, is available for download at © 2014 SPIE.

Chowdhury M.H.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Ray K.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Johnson M.L.,University of Virginia | Gray S.K.,Argonne National Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2010

There is presently a worldwide effort to increase the speed and decrease the cost of DNA sequencing as exemplified by the goal of the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) to sequence a human genome for under $1000. Several high throughput technologies are under development. Among these, single strand sequencing using exonuclease appear very promising. However, this approach requires complete labeling of at least two bases at a time, with extrinsic high quantum yield probes. This is necessary because nucleotides absorb in the deep ultraviolet (UV) and emit with extremely low quantum yields. Hence intrinsic emission from DNA and nucleotides is not being exploited for DNA sequencing. In the present paper we consider the possibility of identifying single nucleotides using their intrinsic emission. We used the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to calculate the effects of aluminum nanoparticles on nearby fluorophores that emit in the UV. We find that the radiated power of UV fluorophores is significantly increased when they are in close proximity to aluminum nanostructures. We show that there will be increased localized excitation near aluminum particles at wavelengths used to excite intrinsic nucleotide emission. Using FDTD simulation we show that a typical DNA base when coupled to appropriate aluminum nanostructures leads to highly directional emission. Additionally we present experimental results showing that a thin film of nucleotides show enhanced emission when in close proximity to aluminum nanostructures. Finally we provide Monte Carlo simulations that predict high levels of base calling accuracy for an assumed number of photons that is derived from the emission spectra of the intrinsic fluorescence of the bases. Our results suggest that single nucleotides can be detected and identified using aluminum nanostructures that enhance their intrinsic emission. This capability would be valuable for the ongoing efforts toward the $1000 genome. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Wang Y.,University of British Columbia | Shi W.,Laval University | Wang X.,Lumerical Solutions Inc. | Lu Z.,University of British Columbia | And 4 more authors.
Optics Letters | Year: 2015

We present a methodology to design broadband grating couplers using one-dimensional subwavelength gratings. Using the presented method, we design subwavelength grating couplers (SWGCs) with 1-dB bandwidths ranging from 50 to 90 nm. Our designed SWGCs have competitive coupling efficiency, as high as -3.8 dB for the fundamental TE mode, and state-of-the-art back reflections, as low as -23 dB. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

Wang X.,University of British Columbia | Wang X.,Lumerical Solutions Inc. | Wang Y.,University of British Columbia | Flueckiger J.,University of British Columbia | And 6 more authors.
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

We present waveguide Bragg gratings with misaligned sidewall corrugations on a silicon-on-insulator platform. The grating strength can be tuned by varying the misalignment between the corrugations on the two sidewalls. This approach allows for a wide range of grating coupling coefficients to be achieved with precise control, and substantially reduces the effects of quantization error due to the finite mask grid size. The experimental results are in very good agreement with simulations using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

Das P.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics | Chini T.K.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics | Pond J.,Lumerical Solutions Inc.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

We report the spatial maps of the localized surface plasmon resonances associated photon emission in a truncated tetrahedral gold nanoparticle on a silicon substrate. Site-specific cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and imaging in a scanning electron microscope shows stronger photon emission in the visible range near the tips of the particle in contact with the substrate compared to the edges of the particle. Strong local field variations on a length scale as short as 19 nm are resolved. We also perform FDTD simulations of both the spectra and, for the first time, the full cathodoluminescence images. Excellent agreement is obtained with the experimental results, and the detailed information available from the simulated results makes it possible to identify the signature of out-of-plane higher order modes in the truncated tetrahedral gold particle. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Pacradouni V.,Lumerical Solutions Inc. | Klein J.,Lumerical Solutions Inc. | Pond J.,Lumerical Solutions Inc.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2016

We present numerical results on the effect of backscattering at the junctions of double bus ring resonators in a Vernier ring hybrid laser design. The structure is comprised off a pair of III-V gain media evanescently coupled to a silicon on insulator racetrack comprised of a pair of double bus ring resonators coupled together through straight and flared waveguide sections. We show how the small backscattering at the ring resonator junctions has the effect of splitting and shifting the resonances off the clockwise and counter clockwise propagating modes thereby modifying the feedback spectrum from the ideal case. We then simulate results such as light current (LI) curves, relative intensity noise (RIN) and laser spectrum, and compare the laser performance including backscattering effects with the ideal case. © 2016 SPIE.

McGuire D.,Lumerical Solutions Inc. | Liu A.,Lumerical Solutions Inc.
Optics InfoBase Conference Papers | Year: 2013

Characterizations of electro-optic modulators in a variety of configurations were determined from physics-based simulation of the electrical and optical behaviour. Ultimately, the complete transmission response was determined as a function of applied bias. Advanced Photonics Congress. © OSA 2013.

Pond J.,Lumerical Solutions Inc. | Kawano M.,Lumerical Solutions Inc.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

Nano-scale structures have been proposed as a low cost mechanism to enhance solar cell efficiency. Computer simulations can be used to rapidly and cheaply prototype and optimize these novel designs, however the simulations are challenging due to the geometric complexity, the highly dispersive materials, and the necessity of performing broadband simulations over the solar spectrum. We show how the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in conjunction with particle swarm optimization (PSO) can be used to efficiently optimize these designs. We apply the method to two specific examples: thin film silicon plasmonic solar cells and photonic crystal organic solar cells. In each case, optical enhancements of approximately 15% can be achieved. The optimization requires a few hundred simulations which can be achieved in a few hours on a good workstation. Finally, we consider the steps necessary to perform combined optical and electrical simulations to fully characterize these devices. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.

Arjmand A.,Lumerical Solutions Inc. | McGuire D.,Lumerical Solutions Inc.
13th International Conference on Numerical Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices, NUSOD 2013 | Year: 2013

Patterned silicon solar cells are fully modeled optically and electrically using Lumerical Solutions' optical simulation software, FDTD Solutions and electrical simulation solver, DEVICE. The optical simulation calculates the spatial distribution of photon absorption in the silicon when the cell is illuminated by unpolarized sunlight with the AM1.5 solar spectral intensity. The photon absorption data is converted into a spatial generation rate of electron-hole pairs. The electrical simulation uses this generation rate to calculate the collection efficiency of electron and hole carriers, accurately accounting for surface and bulk recombination in silicon. Two main designs are simulated, each with periodic structures: a grating structure and a square pyramid structure. The short-circuit current as well as the overall conversion efficiency for the two devices are calculated. © 2013 IEEE.

A method and apparatus for simulating a mesh element of an anisotropic medium are provided. A unitary transformation is applied to an initial coordinate system of the mesh element by a transformation module to produce a transformed reference coordinate system of the mesh element. Maxwells equations for the mesh element are solved by an update generation module using computational methods to obtain an electric field tensor and an electric displacement field tensor within the mesh element. A unitary transformation to the electric field tensor and the electric displacement tensor are performed by a transformation module to calculate a corresponding electric field tensor and electric displacement tensor for the mesh element in the initial coordinate system.

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