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Szpinda M.,The Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz | Siedlaczek W.,The Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz | Szpinda A.,The Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz | Wozniak A.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | And 2 more authors.
Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy | Year: 2014

Purpose: The prenatal assessment of lung volume is becoming increasingly important in determining survival in both preterm infants and newborns affected by pulmonary hypoplasia. This study aimed to examine the lung volumes in the human fetus at varying gestational ages.Materials and methods: Using anatomical, hydrostatic (water displacement according to Archimedes’ patent) and statistical methods (one-way ANOVA test for paired data and post-hoc Bonferroni test, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, Levene’s test, Student’s t test, regression analysis), volumes of the right and left lungs were measured in 67 human fetuses of both sexes (35 males, 32 females) aged 16–25 weeks, derived from spontaneous abortions and stillbirths.Results: No male–female differences concerning the right and left pulmonary volumes were found. The mean volume of the right lung increased from 1.43 ± 0.25 to 8.45 ± 2.66 cm3, according to the cubic function y = –1.592 + 0.0007 × age3 ± 0.851 (R2 = 0.84). The volumetric growth of the left lung, from 1.24 ± 0.22 to 6.78 ± 3.03 cm3, followed the cubic model y = –1.110 + 0.0005 × age3 ± 0.794 (R2 = 0.78). The total pulmonary volume increased from 2.67 ± 0.47 to 15.22 ± 5.58 cm3, in accordance with the cubic model y = –2.729 + 0.0012 × age3 ± 1.598 (R2 = 0.83). The mean volumes of the right and left lungs accounted for 54.9 ± 2.0 and 45.1 ± 2.0 %, respectively, of the total lung volume.Conclusions: No sex differences are found between the lung volumes in the fetus. The growth of fetal lung volume follows a three-degree polynomial function. Throughout the analyzed period the two lungs grow proportionately to each other, with the volumetric predominance of the right lung. The lung volumes in the fetus are of great relevance in the evaluation of the normal pulmonary growth and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia. © 2014, The Author(s). Source


Szpinda M.,The Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz | Baumgart M.,The Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz | Szpinda A.,The Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz | Wozniak A.,The Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz | Mila-Kierzenkowska C.,The Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz
Medical science monitor basic research | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: This study describes reference data for L3 vertebra and its 3 ossification centers at varying gestational ages.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using CT, digital-image analysis and statistics, the growth of L3 vertebra and its 3 ossification centers in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 17-30 weeks was examined.RESULTS: Neither sex nor right-left significant differences were found. The height and transverse and sagittal diameters of the L3 vertebral body increased logarithmically. Its cross-sectional area followed linearly, whereas its volume increased parabolically. The transverse and sagittal diameters of the ossification center of the L3 vertebral body varied logarithmically, but its cross-sectional area and volume grew linearly. The ossification center-to-vertebral body volume ratio gradually declined with age. The neural ossification centers increased logarithmically in length and width, and proportionately in cross-sectional area and volume.CONCLUSIONS: With no sex differences, the growth dynamics of the L3 vertebral body follow logarithmically in height, sagittal and transverse diameters, linearly (in cross-sectional area), and parabolically (in volume). The growth dynamics of the 3 ossification centers of the L3 vertebra follow logarithmically in transverse and sagittal diameters, and linearly (in cross-sectional area and volume). The age-specific reference intervals of the L3 vertebra and its 3 ossification centers present the normative values of clinical importance in the diagnosis of congenital spinal defects. Source

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