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Narayan J.,Ludwig Engel Center for Respiratory Research | Narayan J.,Westmead Millennium Institute | Narayan J.,University of Sydney | Amatoury J.,Ludwig Engel Center for Respiratory Research | And 13 more authors.
Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology | Year: 2013

Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is reduced during snoring in humans and animal models. We utilised our rabbit model to examine the contribution of increased upper airway resistance to baroreflex resetting during snoring, by comparing BRS and baroreflex operating point (OP) values during IS to those obtained during tracheostomised breathing through an external resistive load (RL) titrated to match IS levels of peak inspiratory pleural pressure (Ppl). During both IS and RL, BRS decreased by 45% and 49%. There was a linear relationship between the change in Ppl and the decrease in BRS, which was similar for IS and RL. During both RL and IS, there was a shift in OP driven by ∼16% increase in HR and no change in arterial pressure. Snoring related depression of BRS is likely mediated via a HR driven change in OP, which itself may be the outcome of negative intra-thoracic pressure mediated effects on right atrial wall stretch reflex control of heart rate. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Perri R.A.,Ludwig Engel Center for Respiratory Research | Perri R.A.,Westmead Millennium Institute | Perri R.A.,Westmead Hospital | Kairaitis K.,Ludwig Engel Center for Respiratory Research | And 10 more authors.
Sleep and Breathing | Year: 2014

Study objective: We used statistical modelling to probe the contributions of anthropometric and surface cephalometric variables to the OSA phenotype. Design: The design is prospective cohort study. Setting: The setting is community-based and sleep disorder laboratory. Patients or participants: Study #1 - Model development study: 147 healthy asymptomatic volunteers (62.6 % Caucasian; age, 18-76 years; 81 females; median multivariable apnea prediction index=0.15) and 140 diagnosed OSA patients (84.3 % Caucasian; age, 18-83 years; 41 females; polysomnography [PSG] determined apnea-hypopnea index >10 events/h). Study #2 - Model test study: 345 clinic patients (age, 18-86 years; 129 females) undergoing PSG for diagnosis of OSA. Intervention: We measured 10 anthropometric and 34 surface cephalometric dimensions (calipers) and calculated mandibular enclosure volumes for study #1 and recorded age and neck circumference for study #2. Statistical modelling included principal component (PC), logistic regression, and receiver-operator curve analyses. Measurements and results: Model development study: A regression model incorporating three identified PC predicted OSA with 88 % sensitivity and specificity. However, a simplified model based on age and NC alone was equally effective (87 % sensitivity and specificity). Model test study: The simplified model predicted OSA with high sensitivity (93 %) but poor specificity (21 %). Conclusion: We conclude that in our clinic-based cohort, craniofacial bony and soft tissue structures (excluding neck anatomy) do not play a substantial role in distinguishing patients with OSA from those without. This may be because craniofacial anatomy does not contribute greatly to the pathogenesis of OSA in this group or because referral bias has created a relatively homogeneous phenotypic population. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

PubMed | Ludwig Engel Center for Respiratory Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Respiratory physiology & neurobiology | Year: 2012

Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is reduced in humans during snoring, however the mechanisms are unknown. We used an anaesthetised rabbit induced snoring (IS) model, to test: (1) whether IS was associated with reduced BRS; and (2) if snoring related vibration transmission to peri-carotid tissues influenced BRS levels. BRS was quantified using the spontaneous sequence technique. During IS, BRS fell by 40%, without any associated change in blood pressure (BP) but accompanied by an increase in heart rate (HR). Direct application of a snore frequency and intensity matched vibratory stimulus to the peri-carotid tissues of non-snoring tracheostomised rabbits had no effect on BRS, HR or BP. In conclusion, IS induced depression of BRS is likely mediated via a HR driven change in BRS operating point that is unrelated to snoring-related vibration transmission to carotid baroreceptors. The anaesthetised IS rabbit provides a model in which mechanistic interactions between snoring and BRS can be further explored.

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