Melero I.,Center for Applied Medical Research |
Melero I.,University of Navarra |
Rouzaut A.,Center for Applied Medical Research |
Motz G.T.,University of Pennsylvania |
And 2 more authors.
Cancer Discovery | Year: 2014
Cancer immunotherapy has great promise, but is limited by diverse mechanisms used by tumors to prevent sustained antitumor immune responses. Tumors disrupt antigen presentation, T/NK-cell activation, and T/NK-cell homing through soluble and cell-surface mediators, the vasculature, and immunosuppressive cells such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells. However, many molecular mechanisms preventing the efficacy of antitumor immunity have been identified and can be disrupted by combination immunotherapy. Here, we examine immunosuppressive mechanisms exploited by tumors and provide insights into the therapies under development to overcome them, focusing on lymphocyte traffic. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Galluzzi L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Galluzzi L.,University of Paris Descartes |
Vacchelli E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Bravo-San Pedro J.-M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
And 121 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2014
During the past decades, anticancer immunotherapy has evolved from a promising therapeutic option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in cancer patients, and many others are being investigated as standalone therapeutic interventions or combined with conventional treatments in clinical studies. Immunotherapies may be subdivided into "passive" and "active" based on their ability to engage the host immune system against cancer. Since the anticancer activity of most passive immunotherapeutics (including tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies) also relies on the host immune system, this classification does not properly reflect the complexity of the drug-host-tumor interaction. Alternatively, anticancer immunotherapeutics can be classified according to their antigen specificity. While some immunotherapies specifically target one (or a few) defined tumor-associated antigen(s), others operate in a relatively non-specific manner and boost natural or therapy-elicited anticancer immune responses of unknown and often broad specificity. Here, we propose a critical, integrated classification of anticancer immunotherapies and discuss the clinical relevance of these approaches.