Vienna, Austria

The Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Neo-Latin Studies in Innsbruck is a research institute of the Austrian Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft. Partner organizations of the LBI are the University of Innsbruck, the University of Freiburg, the Austrian National Library in Vienna, and the Pontificio Comitato di Scienze Storiche in Rome.The LBI was founded in 2011 and is dedicated to the study of Neo-Latin literature. It particularly focuses on the significance of Neo-Latin literature in the formation of Early Modern Europe. The LBI attempts to flesh out the idea that today's Europe would look very differently without the contribution of Neo-Latin literature. This idea is explored by means of examples from three lines of research. Wikipedia.


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Ferbeyre G.,University of Montréal | Moriggl R.,Ludwig Boltzmann Research Institute
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on Cancer | Year: 2011

Stat5 is constitutively activated in many human cancers affecting the expression of cell proliferation and cell survival controlling genes. These oncogenic functions of Stat5 have been elegantly reproduced in mouse models. Aberrant Stat5 activity induces also mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species leading to DNA damage. Although DNA damage can stimulate tumorigenesis, it can also prevent it. Stat5 can inhibit tumor progression like in the liver and it is a tumor suppressor in fibroblasts. Stat5 proteins are able to regulate cell differentiation and senescence activating the tumor suppressors SOCS1, p53 and PML. Understanding the context dependent regulation of tumorigenesis through Stat5 function will be central to understand proliferation, survival, differentiation or senescence of cancer cells. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Purpose: School health promotion is said to be most effective when implemented through a comprehensive, settings-based, whole-school approach. The purpose of this paper is to address the current lack of knowledge about the current state of teacher education for health promotion and its potential to further the development of settings-based approaches. Design/methodology/approach: This paper focuses on an analysis of initial teacher education for school health promotion in Austria by studying the curricula of the Universities of Teacher Education, as well as interviewing representatives from these institutions. A content analysis of the identified modules and a thematic analysis of the interview transcripts were conducted. Findings: While there is more behaviour orientation than setting orientation identified in the curricula, the interviewees showed a broad understanding of health promotion that encompasses a settings view. The situation at the Universities of Teacher Education mirrors the situation in schools: there are similar supporting and hindering factors for the implementation of healthy settings. Practical implications: A greater degree of focus in teacher education on the settings approach and the promotion of the skills required to implement it is needed, as well as the creation of health-promoting Universities of Teacher Education. Originality/value: The study makes recommendations about how to prepare future teachers to support the development of more effective approaches of school health promotion. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Gugglberger L.,Ludwig Boltzmann Research Institute
Health Promotion International | Year: 2011

Schools that want to implement health promotion (HP) are often confronted with obstacles that they cannot overcome by themselves and therefore need support from their environment. However, the issue of which kind of support is needed for HP implementation is complex. A systems approach suggests that the individual logic of each school be considered and that supporting strategies be flexible to specific needs. This article pursues the question which types of support for health promoting schools are offered on a provincial level in Austria. Using a grounded theory approach, 18 in-depth interviews with representatives of provincial organizations and 26 documents relevant for school HP were analysed. As a result, five different strategies of supporting health promoting schools have been identified in Austria: (i) organize exchange among schools, (ii) establish certification and quality control of school health efforts, (iii) offer consultation and information, (iv) carry out a specific HP programme and (v) coordinate HP actors and information. These strategies are usually combined and rarely occur in their pure form. It was also determined that the coordination of the different strategies and human resources for HP are missing for schools in Austria. It is argued that each of these supporting strategies has benefits and limitations for schools and the providers, and that they all have the potential to respond to the school as a complex social system. © The Author (2011). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Paschalis E.P.,Ludwig Boltzmann Research Institute
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) is a technique that can be used to analyze the material properties of bone using tissue sections. In this chapter I describe the basic principles of FTIR and the methods for capturing and analyzing FTIR images in bone sections.


Stearns-Kurosawa D.J.,Boston University | Osuchowski M.F.,Ludwig Boltzmann Research Institute | Valentine C.,Boston University | Kurosawa S.,Boston University | Remick D.G.,Boston University
Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease | Year: 2011

Sepsis is a serious clinical condition that represents a patient's response to a severe infection and has a very high mortality rate. Normal immune and physiologic responses eradicate pathogens, and the pathophysiology of sepsis is due to the inappropriate regulation of these normal reactions. In an ideal scenario, the first pathogen contact with the inflammatory system should eliminate the microbe and quickly return the host to homeostasis. The septic response may accelerate due to continued activation of neutrophils and macrophages/monocytes. Upregulation of lymphocyte costimulatory molecules and rapid lymphocyte apoptosis, delayed apoptosis of neutrophils, and enhanced necrosis of cells/tissues also contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis. The coagulation system is closely tied to the inflammatory response, with cross talk between the two systems driving the dysregulated response. Biomarkers may be used to help diagnose patients with sepsis, and they may also help to identify patients who would benefit from immunomodulatory therapies. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Rothlin F.,Ludwig Boltzmann Research Institute
Journal of Health, Organisation and Management | Year: 2013

Purpose: Reorienting health services towards health promotion is one of the major health promotion strategies stipulated by the Ottawa Charter). Important contradictions, tensions and barriers to health promotion implementation associated with organisational structures have, thus far, been underexposed in the hospital health promotion discourse. This paper aims at identifying risks and the chances for hospital management to strategically and sustainably reorient their hospitals towards health promotion. Design/methodology/approach: The paper combines theories and findings from organisational science and management studies as well as from capacity development in the form of a narrative literature review. The aim is to focus on the conditions hospitals, as organisational systems with a highly professionalised workforce, provide for a strategically managed reorientation towards health promotion. Models and principles helping managers to navigate the difficulties and complexities of health promotion reorientation will be suggested. Findings: Hospital managers have to deal with genuine obstacles in the complexity and structural formation of hospital organisations. Against this background, continuous management support, a transformative leadership style, participative strategic management and expert governance can be considered important organisational capacities for the reorientation towards a new concept such as health promotion. Practical implications: This paper discusses managerial strategies, effective structural transformations and important organisational capacities that can contribute to a sustainable reorientation of hospitals towards health promotion. It supports hospital managers in exploring their chances of facilitating and effectively supporting a sustainable health promotion reorientation of their hospitals. Originality/value: The paper provides an innovative approach where the focus is on enhanced possibilities for hospital managers to strategically manage the reorientation towards health promotion. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Nowak P.,Ludwig Boltzmann Research Institute
Patient Education and Counseling | Year: 2011

Objective: There is a broad range qualitative linguistic research (sequential analysis) on doctor-patient interaction that had only a marginal impact on clinical research and practice. At least in parts this is due to the lack of qualitative research synthesis in the field. Available research summaries are not systematic in their methodology. This paper proposes a synthesis methodology for qualitative, sequential analytic research on doctor-patient interaction. Methods: The presented methodology is not new but specifies standard methodology of qualitative research synthesis for sequential analytic research. Results: This pilot review synthesizes twelve studies on German-speaking doctor-patient interactions, identifies 45 verbal actions of doctors and structures them in a systematics of eight interaction components. Three interaction components (" Listening" , " Asking for information" , and " Giving information" ) seem to be central and cover two thirds of the identified action types. Conclusions: This pilot review demonstrates that sequential analytic research can be synthesized in a consistent and meaningful way, thus providing a more comprehensive and unbiased integration of research. Future synthesis of qualitative research in the area of health communication research is very much needed. Practice implications: Qualitative research synthesis can support the development of quantitative research and of educational materials in medical training and patient training. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Kremser W.,Ludwig Boltzmann Research Institute
Health Promotion International | Year: 2011

The implementation of health promotion concepts in (school) settings is a complex undertaking on which little scientific knowledge exists. The purpose of this study was to better understand organizational influences on the implementation of school health promotion. An extended case study design that incorporated important insights from complexity science was used. This design influenced the focus of analysis and led to the use of multiple methods of data collection and analysis. A primary school in Vienna served as a case for observing and analysing the first year of implementing the health-promoting school concept. The study provided detailed insights into the implementation process. Results showed four chronologically overlapping implementation phases (starting health promotion, deciding what to do, planning health promotion projects, doing health promotion) on different system levels. In each phase, the original health-promoting school concept was adapted to the necessities and characteristics of each level and, therefore, changed considerably. Implications for possible adaptations of the health-promoting school concept to better fit the situation in schools are discussed. © The Author (2011). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Schochl H.,Ludwig Boltzmann Research Institute
Critical care (London, England) | Year: 2011

Prediction of massive transfusion (MT) among trauma patients is difficult in the early phase of trauma management. Whole-blood thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) tests provide immediate information about the coagulation status of acute bleeding trauma patients. We investigated their value for early prediction of MT. This retrospective study included patients admitted to the AUVA Trauma Centre, Salzburg, Austria, with an injury severity score ≥16, from whom blood samples were taken immediately upon admission to the emergency room (ER). ROTEM® analyses (extrinsically-activated test with tissue factor (EXTEM), intrinsically-activated test using ellagic acid (INTEM) and fibrin-based extrinsically activated test with tissue factor and the platelet inhibitor cytochalasin D (FIBTEM) tests) were performed. We divided patients into two groups: massive transfusion (MT, those who received ≥10 units red blood cell concentrate within 24 hours of admission) and non-MT (those who received 0 to 9 units). Of 323 patients included in this study (78.9% male; median age 44 years), 78 were included in the MT group and 245 in the non-MT group. The median injury severity score upon admission to the ER was significantly higher in the MT group than in the non-MT group (42 vs 27, P < 0.0001). EXTEM and INTEM clotting time and clot formation time were significantly prolonged and maximum clot firmness (MCF) was significantly lower in the MT group versus the non-MT group (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Of patients admitted with FIBTEM MCF 0 to 3 mm, 85% received MT. The best predictive values for MT were provided by hemoglobin and Quick value (area under receiver operating curve: 0.87 for both parameters). Similarly high predictive values were observed for FIBTEM MCF (0.84) and FIBTEM A10 (clot amplitude at 10 minutes; 0.83). FIBTEM A10 and FIBTEM MCF provided similar predictive values for massive transfusion in trauma patients to the most predictive laboratory parameters. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Pajenda G.,Ludwig Boltzmann Research Institute
Restorative neurology and neuroscience | Year: 2013

Avulsion of one or more ventral roots from the spinal cord leads to the death of the majority of affected motoneurons. In this study we investigated whether immortalized clonal neuroectodermal stem cells applied to the injured cord in various ways impart neuroprotection on motoneurons otherwise destined to die. The lumbar 4 (L4) ventral root of Sprague-Dawley rats was avulsed and reimplanted ventrolaterally into the injured cord. Clonal neuroectodermal murine stem cells (NE-GFP-4C) were placed in fibrin clot around the reimplanted root, were injected immediately following avulsion into the reimplanted ventral root or directly into the L4 segment. Three months after the primary surgery the L4 motoneuron pool was retrogradely labelled with Fast blue and the numbers of reinnervating motoneurons were determined. Functional recovery was tested biweekly through the use of the CatWalk automated gait analysis system. Transplantation of neuroectodermal stem cells into the reimplanted root or into the L4 spinal segment resulted in similarly extensive regeneration of the motoneurons (671 ± 26 and 711 ± 14 L4 motoneurons, respectively). In these groups significant functional recovery was achieved. The negative controls and animals with periradicular stem cell treatment showed poor motor recovery and reinnervation (42 ± 10 and 65 ± 2.5, respectively). This study provides evidence that neuroectodermal stem cell transplantation into the reimplanted ventral root induces as successful regeneration of injured motoneurons as stem cells grafted into the spinal cord.

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