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Karlic H.,Ludwig Boltzmann Research Institute | Varga F.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology at the Hanusch Hospital of and Trauma Center Meidling
Clinical Epigenetics | Year: 2011

25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulates essential pathways of cellular metabolism and differentiation via its nuclear receptor (VDR). Molecular mechanisms which are known to play key roles in aging and cancer are mediated by complex processes involving epigenetic mechanisms contributing to efficiency of VD-activating CYP27A1 and CYP27B1 or inactivating CYP24 enzymes as well as VDR which binds to specific genomic sequences (VD response elements or VDREs). Activity of VDR can be modulated epigenetically by histone acetylation. It co-operates with other nuclear receptors which are influenced by histone acetyl transferases (HATs) as well as several types of histone deacetylases (HDACs). HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) and/or demethylating drugs may contribute to normalization of VD metabolism. Studies link VD signaling through the VDR directly to distinct molecular mechanisms of both HAT activity and the sirtuin class of HDACs (SIRT1) as well as the forkhead transcription factors thus contributing to elucidate complex epigenetic mechanisms for cancer preventive actions of VD. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Spiesz E.M.,Vienna University of Technology | Spiesz E.M.,TU Eindhoven | Reisinger A.G.,Vienna University of Technology | Roschger P.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology at the Hanusch Hospital of and Trauma Center Meidling | Zysset P.K.,University of Bern
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2014

In the course of this study, stiffness of a fibril array of mineralized collagen fibrils modeled with a mean field method was validated experimentally at site-matched two levels of tissue hierarchy using mineralized turkey leg tendons (MTLT). The applied modeling approaches allowed to model the properties of this unidirectional tissue from nanoscale (mineralized collagen fibrils) to macroscale (mineralized tendon). At the microlevel, the indentation moduli obtained with a mean field homogenization scheme were compared to the experimental ones obtained with microindentation. At the macrolevel, the macroscopic stiffness predicted with micro finite element (μFE) models was compared to the experimental stiffness measured with uniaxial tensile tests. Elastic properties of the elements in μFE models were injected from the mean field model or two-directional microindentations. Quantitatively, the indentation moduli can be properly predicted with the mean-field models. Local stiffness trends within specific tissue morphologies are very weak, suggesting additional factors responsible for the stiffness variations. At macrolevel, the μFE models underestimate the macroscopic stiffness, as compared to tensile tests, but the correlations are strong. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Husar-Memmer E.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology at the Hanusch Hospital of and Trauma Center Meidling
Current rheumatology reports | Year: 2014

Hereditary hemochromatosis is a frequent disease in Caucasian populations. It leads to progressive iron overload in a variety of organs. The most common cause is the C282Y homozygous mutation in the HFE gene. The classical triad of skin hyperpigmentation, diabetes, and liver cirrhosis is nowadays rare but musculoskeletal symptoms are common in HFE-related hemochromatosis. Typically the second and third metacarpophalangeal joints, and the wrist, hip, and ankle joints are affected. Clinical symptoms include osteoarthritis-like symptoms, pseudogout attacks, and synovitis sometimes resembling rheumatoid arthritis. Radiographs show degenerative changes with joint space narrowing, osteophytes, and subchondral cysts. Chondrocalcinosis in the wrist and knee joints is seen in up to 50 % of patients. Although most other organ manifestations regress during phlebotomy, musculoskeletal symptoms often persist or even become worse. Importantly, patients are at an increased risk of severe large-joint arthritis necessitating joint replacement surgery. Therefore, future research should focus on the pathogenesis and treatment options for HH arthropathy.

Fahiminiya S.,McGill University | Majewski J.,McGill University | Roughley P.,McGill University | Roschger P.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology at the Hanusch Hospital of and Trauma Center Meidling | And 2 more authors.
Bone | Year: 2013

Juvenile osteoporosis (JO) is characterized by bone fragility during development, low bone mass and absence of extraskeletal features. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in LRP5 have been found in a few patients, but bone tissue and bone material abnormalities associated with such mutations have not been determined. Here we report on a 6-year-old boy who presented with a history of seven low-energy long-bone fractures starting at 19. months of age and absence of extraskeletal involvement. Spine radiographs revealed multiple vertebral compression fractures. Despite tall stature (95th percentile), lumbar spine areal bone mineral density was low (z-score. = -. 3.2). Trabecular volumetric bone mineral density, measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the distal radius, was low (z-score. = -. 5.1), but cortical thickness at the radial diaphysis was normal. Iliac bone histomorphometry demonstrated low bone formation activity in trabecular but not in cortical bone. Quantitative backscattered electron imaging showed normal material bone density in trabecular bone, but elevated results in the cortex. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous insertion of a nucleotide in exon 12 of LRP5. This mutation had previously been reported in another JO patient and had been shown to lead to nonsense-mediated decay. Thus, heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in LRP5 can be associated with a bone formation deficit that affects mostly the trabecular compartment and can result in bone fragility during the first years of life. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Fahiminiya S.,McGill University | Al-Jallad H.,Genetics Unit | Majewski J.,McGill University | Palomo T.,Genetics Unit | And 8 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2015

We had previously published the clinical characteristics of a bone fragility disorder in children that was characterized mainly by lower extremity fractures and a mineralization defect in bone tissue but not on the growth plate level. We have now performed whole-exome sequencing on four unrelated individuals with this phenotype. Three individuals were homozygous for a nucleotide change in BMP1, affecting the polyadenylation signal of the transcript that codes for the short isoform of BMP1 (BMP1-1) (c.*241T>C). In skin fibroblasts of these individuals, we found low levels of BMP1-1 transcript and protein. The fourth individual was compound heterozygous for the c.*241T>C variant in BMP1-1 and a variant in BMP1 exon 15 (c.2107G>C) that affected splicing in both BMP1-1 and the long isoform of BMP1 (BMP1-3). Both the homozygous 3'UTR variant and the compound heterozygous variants were associated with impaired procollagen type I C-propeptide cleavage, as the amount of free C-propeptide in the supernatant of skin fibroblasts was less than in controls. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography showed that all individuals had elevated volumetric cortical bone mineral density. Assessment of iliac bone samples by histomorphometry and quantitative backscattered electron imaging indicated that the onset of mineralization at bone formation sites was delayed, but that mineralized matrix was hypermineralized. These results show that isolated lack of BMP1-1 causes bone fragility in children. © The Author 2014.

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