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Kloesch B.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Rheumatology and Balneology | Liszt M.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Rheumatology and Balneology | Broell J.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Rheumatology and Balneology | Steiner G.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Rheumatology and Balneology | Steiner G.,Medical University of Vienna
Life Sciences | Year: 2011

Aims: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly diffusable and reactive molecules which modulate gene transcription, particularly of pro-inflammatory cytokines which play a crucial role in the nascency and progression of chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). Since thiols could be potent inhibitors of the production of cytokines, the effects of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and dimethyl sulphone (DMS) on constitutive and IL-1β-induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression in the human chondrocyte cell line C-28/I2 were evaluated. Main methods: C-28/I2 cells were incubated for 12 h with different concentrations of DMSO or DMS. The secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The impact of DMSO and DMS on the regulation of p38 and ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was confirmed by Western blot experiments. Furthermore, C-28/I2 cells were stimulated with IL-1β in the absence or presence of DMSO and DMS and IL-6 and IL-8 expression was quantified by ELISAs and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Key findings: C-28/I2 cells constitutively expressed large quantities of IL-6 and IL-8. Long-term exposure of cells to DMSO (1%) or DMS (100 mM) led to a dramatic downregulation of IL-6 and IL-8 expression which was accompanied by the deactivation of ERK1/2. Both substances also blocked IL-1β-induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression. Significance: In this study, we demonstrate that both DMSO and DMS represent strong anti-inflammatory properties by blocking constitutive as well as IL-1β-induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression in the human chondrocyte cell line C-28/I2. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Nell-Duxneuner V.,Medical University of Vienna | Machold K.,Medical University of Vienna | Stamm T.,Medical University of Vienna | Eberl G.,Hietzing Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2010

Objective: To investigate time courses of autoantibody profiles in patients with early arthritis. Patients and methods: A total of 200 patients with very early arthritis (<3 months duration), among them 102 patients with a final diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 98 with other rheumatic diseases, were followed up for several years. First follow-up testing was performed in all patients (mean 5 months from baseline), and 82 patients with RA and 35 patients without RA were available for last follow-up testing (mean 32 months from baseline). IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) was measured by nephelometry, IgA-RF, IgG-RF and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) by ELISA, and anti-RA33 antibodies were determined by immunoblotting. Results: At baseline, IgA-RF was detectable in 29% and IgG-RF in 14% of patients with RA while IgM-RF>50 IU/ml (RF50) was positive in 45% of the patients; specificities were 97%, 99% and 96%, respectively. However, the vast majority of patients positive for IgA-RF or IgG-RF were also positive for RF50 or ACPA. During follow-up, the prevalence of ACPA slightly increased while prevalence of all RF subtypes and anti-RA33 decreased. Remarkably, the number of patients positive for RF50 and/or ACPA remained constant, and these patients had a highly increased risk for developing erosive disease in contrast to patients solely positive for anti-RA33. Conclusions: Testing for RF subtypes did not provide additional diagnostic information. Patients positive for RF50 and/or ACPA had an unfavourable prognosis, irrespectively of changes in the antibody profile during follow-up, whereas anti-RA33 positivity was inversely associated with erosiveness at baseline and at later time points. Source


Kloesch B.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Rheumatology and Balneology | Liszt M.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Rheumatology and Balneology | Steiner G.,Vienna University Hospital | Broll J.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Rheumatology and Balneology
Rheumatology International | Year: 2012

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a central role in inflammatory processes, and their blockage represents pharmacological approaches in the treatment of autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Alternatively, H 2S has long been used in sulphur bath therapy for patients suffering from different types of rheumatic disorders, but reports about the beneficial effects of this form of therapy are controversial, rare and of poor scientific quality. The human chondrocyte cell line C-28/I2 was treated with two different MAPK inhibitors (SB203580 and U0126) or with various concentrations of the H 2S donor Natrium hydrogen sulphide (NaHS). Thereafter, the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The impact of NaHS on the regulation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK was confirmed by Western blot experiments. Furthermore, IL-6 and IL-8 expression was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and ELISAs from cells which were exposed to SB203580, U0126 and NaHS and stimulated by IL-1b. The C-28/I2 cells constitutively expressed large quantities of IL-6 and IL-8. The data provided prove that in these cells, constitutive as well as IL-1β-induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression was partially and transiently blocked by the treatment of cells with both MAPK inhibitors and NaHS. Presented data seem to be important in evaluating the beneficial functions of MAPK inhibitors and H 2S in immune-pathophysiological processes. © Springer-Verlag 2010. Source


Kloesch B.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Rheumatology and Balneology | Liszt M.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Rheumatology and Balneology | Krehan D.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Rheumatology and Balneology | Broell J.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Rheumatology and Balneology | And 2 more authors.
Immunology Letters | Year: 2012

Objectives: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder, primarily affecting the articular structures and synovial membranes of multiple joints. Beside pharmacologically based treatments, sulphur bath therapy has long been used as a therapy for patients suffering from different rheumatic disorders. But scientific reports about the beneficial effects of H 2S as well as about the underlying molecular mechanisms are controversial and rare. Methods: Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) derived from RA and OA-patients were treated with the H 2S-donor sodium hydrogen sulphide (NaHS). IL-6 release was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Gene expression of IL-6, IL-8 and COX-2 as well as of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-14 was monitored by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Modulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38 and ERK1/2 was analysed by Western blotting. Results: High concentrations of H 2S (above 0.5mM) elevated the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in RA- and OA-FLS. This was accompanied by activation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK. H 2S-induced expression of IL-6, IL-8 and COX-2 was completely blocked by specific inhibitors of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK and NF-κB. Conclusion: H 2S is a potent gaseous molecule that can upregulate the expression of a series of pro-inflammatory genes in RA and OA-FLS. Therefore, caution is advised in patients with active RA when taking sulphur bath therapy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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