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Hamilton G.,Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster of Translational Oncology
Current Cancer Drug Targets | Year: 2014

Platinum-based chemotherapeutics are the mainstay of treatment of a range of tumors achieving high response rates but limited in the course of disease by appearance of drug resistance. Tumor cells respond with reduced uptake and increased intracellular inactivation of the drugs, as well as increased DNA repair and general resistance to chemotherapy-induced cell death. Cisplatin is known to induce expression of cyclophilins, a group of proteins that have peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) and molecular chaperone activities, as stress response. Cyclophilin A (CypA) and other members of this family are inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA) which sensitized diverse drug-resistant tumor cell lines in vitro to cisplatin. This effect of CsA was attributed to metabolic changes, inhibition of DNA repair, enhancement of apoptosis, altered intracellular signal transduction or increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), although no definitive explanation was provided so far. Several clinical trials employing cisplatin/carboplatin in combination with CsA yielded unsatisfactory results. Since viral replication was found to be dependent on cyclophilins of the host cells, effective new inhibitors, different from CsA or with low or absent immunosuppressive activity, are in development or clinical trials. Sanglifehrins are more potent than CsA and proved to increase toxicity of cisplatin against hepatocellular cancer cells in vitro. These novel cyclophilin inhibitors may offer new opportunities to achieve reversal of resistance to platinum-based drugs in refractory patients. Responsive cancer patients may be enriched in clinical trials by an identification of the downstream targets of Cyps responsible for chemoresistance. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

Hamilton G.,Medical University of Vienna | Rath B.,Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster of Translational Oncology
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift | Year: 2015

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for 15 % of all lung tumors and represents an invasive neuroendocrine malignancy with poor survival rates. This cancer is highly prevalent in smokers and characterized by inactivation of p53 and retinoblastoma. First in vitro expansion of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of SCLC patients allowed for investigation of the cell biology of tumor dissemination. In the suggested CTC SCLC model, the primary tumor attracts and educates tumor-promoting and immunosuppressive macrophages which in turn arm CTCs to spread and generate distal lesions. Preexisting inflammatory processes associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) seem to potentiate the subsequent activity of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and expression of chitinase-3-like 1/YKL-40 in SCLC CTCs seems to be associated with drug resistance. In conclusion, inflammation-associated generation of invasive and chemoresistant CTCs most likely explains the characteristic features of SCLC, namely early dissemination and rapid failure of chemotherapy. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.

In attempts to develop an orally applicable platinum-based drug, platinum(IV) drugs which exhibit higher in vivo stability compared to the platinum(II) drug cisplatin were formulated. The first such chemotherapeutic agent, namely satraplatin, failed to receive approval. In the present work, we checked the initial cellular stress response of the chemosensitive NCI-H526 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells by determination of the relative phosphorylation of 46 specific phosphorylation sites of 38 selected proteins in a six hours response to cisplatin (platinum(II)) or oxoplatin (platinum(IV)), respectively. Oxoplatin is considered as prodrug of cisplatin, although several findings point to differences in intracellular effects. Cisplatin induced hyperphosphorylation of p38α MAPK and AMPKα1, whereas oxoplatin treatment resulted in increased phosphorylation of a large number of signaling proteins involved in stress response/drug resistance, including JNK, GSK-3α, AMPKα1, src kinases, STATs, CHK-2 and especially focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Cisplatin exerts markedly higher cytotoxicity upon four hours short-term exposure in comparison to oxoplatin and, correspondingly, the extended initial stress response to the platinum(IV) drug oxoplatin thus is expected to increase clinical drug resistance. Induction of a substantial stress response to any prodrug of a platinum-based compound may likewise limit the effectivity of its active metabolite(s), such contributing to the failure of selected derivatized platinum complexes. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Fiebiger W.,St. Poelten Hospital | Olszewski U.,Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster of Translational Oncology | Ulsperger E.,Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster of Translational Oncology | Geissler K.,Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster of Translational Oncology | And 2 more authors.
Clinical and Translational Oncology | Year: 2011

Introduction: Chemotherapy for advanced well-differentiated carcinoids is characterised by low response rates and short duration of responses. The present study aimed to assess the in vitro activity of novel platinum-based chemotherapeutic drugs in combination with dichloroacetate (DCA), a sensitiser to apoptosis, against lung carcinoid cell lines. Methods: Three permanent cell lines (UMC-11, H727 and H835) were exposed to 14 different established cytotoxic drugs and the novel platinum-based compounds as satraplatin, JM118 and picoplatin in combination with DCA, and viability of the cells was measured using a tetrazoliumbased dye assay. Results: With exception of the highly chemoresistant UMC-11 line, the carcinoid cell lines (H727, H835) were sensitive to the majority of chemotherapeutics in vitro. Among the platinum-based drugs, carboplatin and oxaliplatin showed highest efficacy. H835 cells growing as multicellular spheroids were 2.7-8.7-fold more resistant to picoplatin, satraplatin and its metabolite compared to single cell suspensions. DCA (10 mM) inhibited the growth of UMC-11 cells by 22% and sensitised these highly resistant cells to carboplatin, satraplatin and JM118 1.4-2.4-fold. Conclusion: The highly resistant UMC-11 lung carcinoid cells are sensitive to carboplatin, oxaliplatin and the satraplatin metabolite JM118, but multicellular spheroidal growth, as observed in the H835 cell line and pulmonary tumourlets, seems to increase chemoresistance markedly. The activity of carboplatin and JM118 is significantly and specifically increased in combination with the apoptosis sensitiser DCA that promotes mitochondrial respiration over aerobic glycolysis. In summary, among the novel platinum drugs satraplatin has the potential for treatment of lung carcinoids and DCA potentiates the cytotoxicity of selected platinum drugs. © 2011 Feseo.

Hamilton G.,Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster of Translational Oncology | Hamilton G.,Medical University of Vienna | Klameth L.,Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster of Translational Oncology | Klameth L.,Center for Pathophysiology | And 2 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2014

Advanced small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has a dismal prognosis. Modulation of the camptothecin topotecan, approved for second-line therapy, may improve response. Our recent finding of synergistic enhancement of the cytotoxic activity of camptothecin (CPT) by cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitors is extended here to a panel of camptothecin analogs comprising 10-hydroxy-CPT (HOCPT), topotecan (TPT; 9-[(dimethylamino)- methyl]-10-hydroxy-CPT), 9-amino-CPT (9AC), 9-nitrocamptothecin (rubitecan), SN38 (7-ethyl-10- hydroxycamptothecin) and 10-hydroxy-9-nitrocamptothecin (CPT109) in combination with PD0332991, CDK4I, roscovitine and olomoucine. SCLC cell lines employed are chemoresistant NCI-H417 and DMS153 and the chemosensitive SCLC26A line established at our institution. The CPT analogs exhibiting highest cytotoxicity towards the three SCLC lines tested were SN38 and 9AC, followed by rubitecan, HOCPT, TPT and CPT109. NCI-H417 and DMS153 revealed an approximately 25-fold and 7-fold higher resistance compared to the chemosensitive SCLC26A cell line. Whereas the CDK4/6 inhibitor PD0332991 proved less effective to chemosensitize SCLC cells to CPT analogs, the CDK inhibitors CDK4I, roscovitine and olomoucine gave comparable chemosensitization effects in combination with 9AC, SN38, rubitecan and to a lesser extent with TPT and CPT109, not directly related with topoisomerase mRNA expression. In conclusion, smallchemical modifications of the parent CPT structure result in differing cytotoxicities and chemomodulatory effects in combination with CDKIs of the resulting analogs. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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