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Speidl W.S.,Medical University of Vienna | Kastl S.P.,Medical University of Vienna | Kastl S.P.,The Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster for Cardiovascular Research | Huber K.,Wilhelminenspital | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2011

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease and the complement system plays a central role in innate immunity. Increasing evidence exists that the complement system is activated within atherosclerotic plaques. However, the role of complement in atherogenesis is not fully understood. Whereas complement activation by the classic and lectin pathway may be protective by removing apoptotic cells and cell debris from atherosclerotic plaques, activation of the complement cascade by the alternative pathway and beyond the C3 convertase with formation of anaphylatoxins and the terminal complement complex may be proatherogenic and may play a role in plaque destabilization leading to its rupture and the onset of acute cardiovascular events. In this review article we present evidence for complement activation within atherosclerotic plaques and we discuss recent data derived from experimental animal models that suggest a dual role of complement in the development of the disease. In addition, we summarize the role of complement components as biomarkers for cardiovascular disease. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

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