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Wolf P.,Medical University of Vienna | Krssak M.,Medical University of Vienna | Winhofer Y.,Medical University of Vienna | Anderwald C.-H.,Medical University of Vienna | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Context: Heterozygous inactivating mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene cause alterations in calcium metabolism [familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH)]. In addition, calcium- sensing receptor is expressed in the myocardium and endocrine cells including pancreatic islets, enteroendocrine cells, and adipose tissue. CopyrightObjective: To discern whether FHH is associated with cardiometabolic alterations of clinical significance, endocrine responses to systemic calcium stimulation and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Ectopic lipid deposition and heart function were assessed using magnetic resonance spectroscopy/imaging.Participants: Eight FHH patients and nine controls matched for anthropometric characteristics (age 45 ± 18 y; body mass index 29 ± 4 vs 29 ± 6 kg/m2) were studied to determine cardiac function, ectopic and visceral lipid content, and insulin sensitivity and secretion.Results: Insulin sensitivity (clamp-like index: 4.5 ± 0.6 vs 4.3 ± 0.4 mg/kg · min), basal (insulin secretion rate: 266 ± 33 vs 218 ± 25 pmol/min), and glucose-stimulatedβ-cell function (adaptation index: 180.2 ± 12.2 vs 176.2 ± 17.4) as well as calcium-stimulated insulin secretion were comparable between FHH and controls, respectively. Ectopic lipid content in liver [3.75% (1.4%; 34%) vs 4.18% (0.9%; 28%)], soleus muscle (1.07% ± 0.38% vs 1.02% ± 0.56 %), and myocardium (0.39% ± 0.3% vs 0.32% ± 0.1 %), visceral and sc adipose tissue distribution (0.51 ± 0.16 vs 0.47 ± 0.17) as well as heart function (ejection fraction: 71.5% ± 8% vs 72.8% ± 8 %; E to A ratio: 1.4% ± 0.6% vs 1.3% ± 0.7%) were not different between the groups.Conclusion: Despite comprehensive cardiometabolic phenotyping, no alterations in myocardial function, lipid distribution, or glucose metabolism were observed in FHH. Thus, FHH might reflect a laboratory finding without any relevant cardiometabolic alterations. © 2014 by the Endocrine Society. Source

Geoffroy V.,University Paris Diderot | Paschalis E.P.,Ludwig Boltzman Institute of Osteology | Libouban H.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Blouin S.,Ludwig Boltzman Institute of Osteology | And 5 more authors.
Calcified Tissue International | Year: 2011

Young mice overexpressing Runx2 specifically in cells of the osteoblastic lineage failed to gain bone mass and exhibited a dramatic increase in bone resorption, leading to severe osteopenia and spontaneous vertebral fractures. The objective of the current study was to determine whether treatment with a bisphosphonate (risedronate, Ris), which reduces fractures in postmenopausal as well as in juvenile osteoporosis, was able to improve bone quality and reduce vertebral fractures in mice overexpressing Runx2. Four-week-old female Runx2 mice received Ris at 2 and 10 μg/kg subcutaneously twice a week for 12 weeks. Runx2 and wild-type mice received vehicle (Veh) as control. We measured the number of new fractures by X-ray and bone mineral density (BMD) by DEXA. We evaluated bone quality by histomorphometry, micro-CT, and Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI). Ris at 20 μg/kg weekly significantly reduced the average number of new vertebral fractures compared to controls. This was accompanied by significantly increased BMD, increased trabecular bone volume, and reduced bone remodeling (seen in indices of bone resorption and formation) in the vertebrae and femoral metaphysis compared to Runx2 Veh. At the femur, Ris also increased cortical thickness. Changes in collagen cross-linking seen on FTIRI confirmed that Runx2 mice have accelerated bone turnover and showed that Ris affects the collagen cross-link ratio at both forming and resorbing sites. In conclusion, young mice overexpressing Runx2 have high bone turnover-induced osteopenia and spontaneous fractures. Ris at 20 μg/kg weekly induced an increase in bone mass, changes in bone microarchitecture, and decreased vertebral fractures. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Van der Eerden B.C.J.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Oei L.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Roschger P.,Ludwig Boltzman Institute of Osteology | Fratzl-Zelman N.,Ludwig Boltzman Institute of Osteology | And 13 more authors.
Bone | Year: 2013

We explored the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) in murine bone metabolism and association of TRPV4 gene variants with fractures in humans. Urinary and histomorphometrical analyses demonstrated reduced osteoclast activity and numbers in male Trpv4-/- mice, which was confirmed in bone marrow-derived osteoclast cultures. Osteoblasts and bone formation as shown by serum procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide and histomorphometry, including osteoid surface, osteoblast and osteocyte numbers were not affected in vivo. Nevertheless, osteoblast differentiation was enhanced in Trpv4-/- bone marrow cultures. Cortical and trabecular bone mass was 20% increased in male Trpv4-/- mice, compared to sex-matched wild type ( Trpv4+/+) mice. However, at the same time intracortical porosity was increased and bone matrix mineralization was reduced. Together, these lead to a maximum load, stiffness and work to failure of the femoral bone, which were not different compared to Trpv4+/+ mice, while the bone material was less resistant to stress and less elastic. The differential impacts on these determinants of bone strength were likely responsible for the lack of any changes in whole bone strength in the Trpv4-/- mice. None of these skeletal parameters were affected in female Trpv4-/- mice.The T-allele of rs1861809 SNP in the TRPV4 locus was associated with a 30% increased risk (95% CI: 1.1-1.6; p. = 0.013) for non-vertebral fracture risk in men, but not in women, in the Rotterdam Study. Meta-analyses with the population-based LASA study confirmed the association with non-vertebral fractures in men. This was lost when the non-population-based studies Mr. OS and UFO were included. In conclusion, TRPV4 is a male-specific regulator of bone metabolism, a determinant of bone strength, and a potential risk predictor for fractures through regulation of bone matrix mineralization and intra-cortical porosity. This identifies TRPV4 as a unique sexually dimorphic therapeutic and/or diagnostic candidate for osteoporosis. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Van Der Eerden B.C.J.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Koek W.N.H.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Roschger P.,Ludwig Boltzman Institute of Osteology | Carola Zillikens M.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | And 9 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2016

Trpv5 plays an important role in calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, among others by mediating renal calcium reabsorption. Accordingly, Trpv5 deficiency strongly stresses Ca2+ homeostasis in order to maintain stable serum Ca2+. We addressed the impact of lifelong challenge of calcium homeostasis on the bone phenotype of these mice. Aging significantly increased serum 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH levels in both genotypes but they were more elevated in Trpv5-/- mice, whereas serum Ca2+ was not affected by age or genotype. Age-related changes in trabecular and cortical bone mass were accelerated in Trpv5-/- mice, including reduced trabecular and cortical bone thickness as well as reduced bone mineralization. No effect of Trpv5 deficiency on bone strength was observed. In 78-week-old mice no differences were observed between the genotypes regarding urinary deoxypyridinoline, osteoclast number, differentiation and activity as well as osteoclast precursor numbers, as assessed by flow cytometry. In conclusion, life-long challenge of Ca2+ homeostasis present in Trpv5-/- mice causes accelerated bone aging and a low cortical and trabecular bone mass phenotype. The phenotype of the Trpv5-/- mice suggests that maintenance of adequate circulatory Ca2+ levels in patients with disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis should be a priority in order to prevent bone loss at older age. Source

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