Lucchini RS

Italy

Lucchini RS

Italy
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Faccoli M.,University of Brescia | Petrogalli C.,University of Brescia | Lancini M.,University of Brescia | Ghidini A.,Lucchini RS | Mazzu A.,University of Brescia
Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance | Year: 2017

An experimental investigation was carried out to study and compare the response to cyclic loading of the high-performance railway wheel steels ER8 EN13262 and SUPERLOS®. Rolling contact tests were performed with the same contact pressure, rolling speed and sliding/rolling ratio, varying the lubrication regime to simulate different climatic conditions. The samples, machined out of wheel rims at two depths within the reprofiling layer, were coupled with UIC 900A rail steel samples. The wear rates, friction coefficients and hardness were correlated with the deformation beneath the contact surface. The crack morphology was studied, and the damage mechanisms were identified. The distribution of crack length and depth at the end of the dry tests was analyzed to quantify the damage. The main difference between the steels lies in the response of the external samples to dry contact: SUPERLOS® is subjected to a higher wear and lower friction coefficient than ER8, and this reduces the density of surface cracks that can propagate under wet contact conditions. The analysis of feedback data from in-service wheels confirmed the experimental results. © 2017, ASM International.


Luccini M.,Tenova Goodfellow Inc. | Scipolo V.,Tenova Goodfellow Inc. | Zuliani D.,Tenova Goodfellow Inc. | Poli L.,Lucchini RS
AISTech - Iron and Steel Technology Conference Proceedings | Year: 2017

Tenova's EFSOP® Water Detection System (WDS) samples and measures the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off-gas complete chemistry (H2, CO, Co2, o2, H2O) continuously and uses those measurements to alert operators in real-Time of statistically abnormal high humidity or abnormal high hydrocarbons in the EAF, which might pose a serious risk during the scrap melting and refining phases. Specifically the EFSOP® WDS alerts operators when the system metrics deviate significantly from the established reference normal practice due to such events as (but not limited to) high hydrocarbons or water contained in the scrap or furnace panel or other water leaks. The proposed paper reviews the critical factors needed for the effective development of Tenova's WDS and highlights the results obtained in the 60 tons EAF at Lucchini RS, Lovere, Italy after completing the WDS tuning in August 2016, with particular attention to the preventive alarms generated by the WDS in case of panel water leaks. © 2017 by AIST.


Faccoli M.,University of Brescia | Petrogalli C.,University of Brescia | Lancini M.,University of Brescia | Ghidini A.,Lucchini RS | Mazzu A.,University of Brescia
Wear | Year: 2017

This work studies the effect of desert sand at the wheel-rail contact interface on two standard railway wheel steels (ER8 and CLASS C) and two upgraded steels (SANDLOS® S and SANDLOS® H) specifically designed for sandy environments. Rolling contact tests were carried out by means of a two-disc testing machine with and without sanding at the contact interface. The tests were performed for various durations in order to study the disc damage evolution. The response of the steels to the same contact pressure, rolling speed, sliding/rolling ratio and sand feed rate was evaluated in terms of wear rate, strain hardening and surface and subsurface damage. The ER8 discs performed worst, incorporating sand into the subsurface layer by extremely high plastic flow and were, therefore, subject to material detachment by rolling contact fatigue. The SANDLOS® H discs performed best, with a wear rate 2.5 times lower than that of ER8 discs, due to the steel having the highest mechanical properties, and thereby restricting the sand embedding mechanism to a thin surface layer. The sanding increased the wear rate of the wheel discs by a factor which varies from 1.4 for SANDLOS® H discs to 2.2 for ER8 and CLASS C discs. The damage mechanisms were qualitatively studied by finite element simulations, which recognised two different layers for the plastic strain. These layers are related to the dimensional scales of the disc-disc and sand-disc contact areas, respectively, and their influence on the total damage depends on the material cyclic yield stress. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Cantini S.,Lucchini RS | Beretta S.,Polytechnic of Milan | Carboni M.,Polytechnic of Milan
Rivista Italiana della Saldatura | Year: 2010

Rail service safety related topic is, now more than ever, a living matter with a focus on safety-critical components of rolling stock such as wheels and axles. This article, starting from an overview of the current European standardization, proposes some guidelines for a proper development of the in-service control plan of railway axles, with particular attention to the effectiveness of the chosen control and the reliability of its repeatability. Proper training aspects of non destructive testing personnel, devoted to the maintenance, are deliberately overlooked. To fill the lack of standardization on this matter, primary for assessing the reliability of the control, guidelines are now being discussed to define an univocal training scheme for the operators.


Cantini S.,Lucchini RS | Cervello S.,Lucchini RS
CM 2015 - 10th International Conference on Contact Mechanics of Wheel / Rail Systems | Year: 2015

Assessments of wheels tread defects severity under rolling contact fatigue conditions are in general very uncertain when based on theoretical concepts supported only by small scale material characterization, without the possibility of a full scale validation. In real service conditions tread surface and subsurface defects are subject to a number of variable mechanical loading conditions due to the combinations of vertical and lateral loads and wheel set steering that are generated by the actual train running along a specific line. The present paper describes some interesting experiences from recent RCF tests performed by Lucchini RS on its full scale roller rig (named "BU300") on two very high speed railway wheelsets coming from the service. The test rig was used in order to reproduce running conditions very near to normal service conditions: high speed up to 250 and 300 km/h and typical curve distributions as encountered in the actual service line. Variable loads were reproduced by two vertical and one lateral hydraulic actuators; the steering conditions were achieved by longitudinal electro-mechanical actuators that would regulate the yaw angle of the wheelset relative to the rails; the rails interface was simulated by two steel rings with a UIC-60 rail section and a diameter of 2 meters; the rotation of the rail rings was given by a 500kW electric motor. During the test the wheelset was free to move in the lateral direction with the possibility of obtaining flanging conditions depending on the loads and steering applied. Also a concept of test acceleration was applied: the ratio curve distance/straight distance was increased, being curves more critical for RCF compared to straight running. In the first case the wheelset was at its last reprofiling condition and artificial notches with depths in the range of 1 to 3 mm were produced in various positions of the wheel tread. In the second case the wheelset in service was found to have a subsurface natural defect detected by one of the periodic rim ultrasonic inspections. In both cases the primary scope of the test was to monitor and to verify behavior of the defects evaluating the severity for the safe integrity of the wheel. The accumulated results are also an important basis for the validation of RCF models; from the loads and cinematic histories it is possible to evaluate the local contact patch loads (normal and tangential) and partial sliding. The paper deals with the competitive role of RCF and wear, by showing how from the initial defects small cracks were firstly nucleated then their growth was greatly influenced by the wear and plastic deformations. In a second part of the tests the load levels were increased compared to the normal service of the vehicle, showing an evident generation of new natural surface cracks very similar to what can be found in service when wheels suffer of RCF. Some considerations on wheel preventive reprofiling (skimming) strategy are proposed as well, in order to reduce high RCF consequences on wheel life. Finally this work confirms the ability of the roller rig to reproduce equivalent service conditions that can generate and develop RCF cracks.


Cervello S.,Lucchini RS
International Journal of Fatigue | Year: 2016

Euraxles project was a European Research project brought over under the 7th European Frame Work and promoted by the European association of Railway Wheelsets manufacturers. The present paper is a dissemination of the main results achieved during the full-scale axles fatigue test campaign in which various axles configurations were tested. This experimental activity was part of the work package 3 of the Euraxles project.The main scope of WP3 was to provide new fatigue limits for the Standard steel grades considering also the effect of surface conditions that may be different from the normal newly machined axles, like surface corrosion that can appear during the service or surface blasting as a method to improve paint adhesion.The areas of the axles considered were the free body transitions or groves and the wheel seats where at high bending rates relative micro slips take place generating the so called fretting fatigue phenomena.The paper provides in the conclusions a comparison with the fatigue limits that are today included in the European Standards.Another aspect that is treated in this work is the stress concentration effect that takes place along the transitions where the body fatigue limit is verified. These parameters were measured by strain gauges during each test and used inside the Euraxle project to validate their estimation through FE model calculation. Also in this case a comparison is made with the stress concentration values reported in the EN Standards that appear to be underestimated. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Beretta S.,Polytechnic of Milan | Carboni M.,Polytechnic of Milan | Cervello S.,Lucchini RS
Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik | Year: 2011

Railway axles are designed for an infinite life with admissible stress levels which correspond to generous safety factors applied to full-scale fatigue properties of materials. Nevertheless, in order to keep an adequate safety level for such a long-lasting component (an axle can typically run for ×106 km) subjected to surface deterioration or corrosion, the design is complemented by "damage tolerance" analyses, in which it is assumed that a flaw could grow under service loads, in order to define an appropriate inspection plan. The ultimate "damage tolerance" approach is to design an axle so that there is no need for periodic NDT inspections except those carried out at overhauls (the so called "one million miles axle"). The aim of this paper is to describe the application of this concept to the axle of a freight train comparing this new design concept with the traditional fatigue design. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Mazzu A.,University of Brescia | Solazzi L.,University of Brescia | Lancini M.,University of Brescia | Petrogalli C.,University of Brescia | And 2 more authors.
Wear | Year: 2015

The assessment of damage in rail-wheel cyclic contact requires considering the combined action of different damage mechanisms, such as wear, ratcheting, surface or subsurface crack nucleation and propagation. Models, usually requiring experimental calibration, are available for assessing these phenomena. The best way to calibrate them is based on cyclic contact tests, as these represent the real working conditions more closely. However, some experimental information, such as microstructural changes or crack paths, can be obtained only by destructive methods at the end of the tests, and their evolution cannot be monitored; other parameters, such as the wear rate, can only be determined during time consuming breaks to the tests. In this work, non destructive measurements of vibrations, torque and Barkhausen noise were introduced as indicators of damage evolution in cyclic contact tests on a high performance steel for railway wheels, coupled with a rail steel. In particular, their correlation with surface state, wear rate, subsurface microstructure and presence of cracks was shown. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Mazzu A.,University of Brescia | Petrogalli C.,University of Brescia | Lancini M.,University of Brescia | Ghidini A.,Lucchini RS | Faccoli M.,University of Brescia
Civil-Comp Proceedings | Year: 2016

The interaction of wear and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) in railway wheel steels subject to wet contact was studied using experiments and numerical simulations. Both surface and subsurface fatigue was considered. The experiments were carried out by a two-disc machine with specimens of three different wheel steels, coupled with the same rail steel. Some couples were tested with fully wet contact with different sliding-rolling ratios, others in dry contact and subsequently in wet contact. In the dry-wet tests severe surface damage occurred after a few cycles during the wet phase; in fully wet tests both surface and subsurface origin RCF occurred at a higher cycle number than in mixed tests. The role of wear in delaying the occurrence of surface RCF was experimentally proven. The observed phenomena were evaluated by means of a numerical code aimed at simulating different concurrent phenomena in cyclic contact. © Civil-Comp Press, 2016.


This report studies Rolled Steel Rail Wheel in Global Market, especially in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering  NSSMC  Interpipe  GHH-BONATRANS  EVRAZ NTMK  Masteel  Taiyuan Heavy Industry  Lucchini RS  OMK  Amsted Rail  Shandong Heli Wheel Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue, market share and growth rate of Rolled Steel Rail Wheel in these regions, from 2011 to 2021 (forecast), like  North America  Europe  China  Japan  Southeast Asia  India  Split by product type, with production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, can be divided into  High-speed railway  Fast speed railway  Subway  Split by application, this report focuses on consumption, market share and growth rate of Rolled Steel Rail Wheel in each application, can be divided into  Application 1  Application 2  Application 3 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Market Research Report 2016  1 Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Market Overview  1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Rolled Steel Rail Wheel  1.2 Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Segment by Type  1.2.1 Global Production Market Share of Rolled Steel Rail Wheel by Type in 2015  1.2.2 High-speed railway  1.2.3 Fast speed railway  1.2.4 Subway  1.3 Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Segment by Application  1.3.1 Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Consumption Market Share by Application in 2015  1.3.2 Application 1  1.3.3 Application 2  1.3.4 Application 3  1.4 Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Market by Region  1.4.1 North America Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.2 Europe Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.3 China Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.4 Japan Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.5 Southeast Asia Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.6 India Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.5 Global Market Size (Value) of Rolled Steel Rail Wheel (2011-2021) 2 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Market Competition by Manufacturers  2.1 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production and Share by Manufacturers (2015 and 2016)  2.2 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Revenue and Share by Manufacturers (2015 and 2016)  2.3 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Average Price by Manufacturers (2015 and 2016)  2.4 Manufacturers Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area and Product Type  2.5 Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Market Competitive Situation and Trends  2.5.1 Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Market Concentration Rate  2.5.2 Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Market Share of Top 3 and Top 5 Manufacturers  2.5.3 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion 3 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2011-2016)  3.1 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production by Region (2011-2016)  3.2 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production Market Share by Region (2011-2016)  3.3 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Revenue (Value) and Market Share by Region (2011-2016)  3.4 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.5 North America Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.6 Europe Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.7 China Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.8 Japan Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.9 Southeast Asia Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.10 India Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 4 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)  4.1 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Consumption by Regions (2011-2016)  4.2 North America Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)  4.3 Europe Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)  4.4 China Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)  4.5 Japan Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)  4.6 Southeast Asia Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)  4.7 India Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016) 5 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type  5.1 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production and Market Share by Type (2011-2016)  5.2 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Revenue and Market Share by Type (2011-2016)  5.3 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Price by Type (2011-2016)  5.4 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Production Growth by Type (2011-2016) 6 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Market Analysis by Application  6.1 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Consumption and Market Share by Application (2011-2016)  6.2 Global Rolled Steel Rail Wheel Consumption Growth Rate by Application (2011-2016)  6.3 Market Drivers and Opportunities  6.3.1 Potential Applications  6.3.2 Emerging Markets/Countries For more information or any query mail at [email protected]

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