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Karlsruhe, Germany

The PLENUM programme realises a conservation-oriented regional development approach. The main characteristics of PLENUM projects are interventions to support supply chains of products associated with high nature conservation value. The ex-post evaluation in the two project areas - Allgäu- Oberschwaben and Westlicher Bodensee - reported on in this article examines socioeconomic and nature conservation effects. Beside a broad range of good results and outcomes it is shown that the programme approach is suited excellently to implement and attain the European Union's aims and priorities as established by the common agricultural policy for rural development after 2013.

Gladtke D.,Landesamt fur Natur | Bakker F.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands | Biaudet H.,INERIS | Brennfleck A.,LUBW Landesanstalt fur Umwelt | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2012

Different collector types, sample workup procedures and analysis methods to measure the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were tested and compared. Whilst sample workup and analysis methods did not influence the results of PAH deposition measurements, using different collector types changed the measured deposition rates of PAH significantly. The results obtained with a funnel-bottle collector showed the highest deposition rates and a low measurement uncertainty. The deposition rates obtained with the wet-only collectors were the lowest at industrial sites and under dry weather conditions. For the open-jar collectors the measurement uncertainty was high. Only at an industrial site with extremely high PAH deposition rates the results of open-jar collectors were comparable to those obtained with funnel-bottle collectors. Thus, if bulk deposition of PAH has to be measured, funnel-bottle combinations are proved to be the collectors of choice. These collectors were the only ones always fulfilling the requirements of European legislation. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Laufs S.,University of Wuppertal | Burgeth G.,Sto AG | Duttlinger W.,Sto AG | Kurtenbach R.,University of Wuppertal | And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010

In the present study, photocatalytic reactions of nitrogen oxides (NO x = NO + NO 2) were studied on commercial TiO 2 doped facade paints in a flow tube photoreactor under simulated atmospheric conditions. Fast photocatalytic conversion of NO and NO 2 was observed only for the photocatalytic paints and not for non-catalytic reference paints. Nitrous acid (HONO) was formed in the dark on all paints studied, however, it efficiently decomposes under irradiation only on the photocatalytic samples. Thus, it is concluded that photocatalytic paint surfaces do not represent a daytime source of HONO, in contrast to other recent studies on pure TiO 2 surfaces. As main final product, the formation of adsorbed nitric acid/nitrate anion (HNO 3/NO 3 -) was observed with near to unity yield. In addition, traces of H 2O 2 were observed in the gas phase only in the presence of O 2. Formation of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2O) could be excluded. The uptake kinetics of NO, NO 2 and HONO was very fast under atmospheric conditions (e.g. γ(NO + TiO 2) > 10 -5). Thus, the uptake on urban surfaces (painted houses, etc.) will be limited by transport. For a hypothetically painted street canyon, an average reduction of nitrogen oxide levels of ca. 5% is estimated. Since the harmful HNO 3/NO 3 - is formed on the surface of the photoactive paints, whereas it is formed in the gas phase in the atmosphere, the use of photocatalytic paints may also help to reduce acid deposition, e.g. on plants, or nitric acid related health issues. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Jaeschke A.,University of Bayreuth | Bittner T.,LUBW Landesanstalt fur Umwelt | Jentsch A.,University of Bayreuth | Reineking B.,University of Bayreuth | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Climate change is expected to alter biotic interactions, and may lead to temporal and spatial mismatches of interacting species. Although the importance of interactions for climate change risk assessments is increasingly acknowledged in observational and experimental studies, biotic interactions are still rarely incorporated in species distribution models. We assessed the potential impacts of climate change on the obligate interaction between Aeshna viridis and its egg-laying plant Stratiotes aloides in Europe, based on an ensemble modelling technique. We compared three different approaches for incorporating biotic interactions in distribution models: (1) We separately modelled each species based on climatic information, and intersected the future range overlap ('overlap approach'). (2) We modelled the potential future distribution of A. viridis with the projected occurrence probability of S. aloides as further predictor in addition to climate ('explanatory variable approach'). (3) We calibrated the model of A. viridis in the current range of S. aloides and multiplied the future occurrence probabilities of both species ('reference area approach'). Subsequently, all approaches were compared to a single species model of A. viridis without interactions. All approaches projected a range expansion for A. viridis. Model performance on test data and amount of range gain differed depending on the biotic interaction approach. All interaction approaches yielded lower range gains (up to 667% lower) than the model without interaction. Regarding the contribution of algorithm and approach to the overall uncertainty, the main part of explained variation stems from the modelling algorithm, and only a small part is attributed to the modelling approach. The comparison of the no-interaction model with the three interaction approaches emphasizes the importance of including obligate biotic interactions in projective species distribution modelling. We recommend the use of the 'reference area approach' as this method allows a separation of the effect of climate and occurrence of host plant. © 2012 Jaeschke et al.

Franzaring J.,University of Hohenheim | Holz I.,University of Hohenheim | Weller S.,University of Hohenheim | Eckert S.,LUBW Landesanstalt fur Umwelt | And 2 more authors.
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2011

In the present study, 51 populations of feral oilseed rape were sampled in the vicinity of oil mills, storage silos, harbours, rail tracks and major roads along the river Neckar. Information on the exact location (geo-referencing) and types of sampling sites as well as the number of plants in each population was recorded. Populations of feral oilseed rape with several hundreds of plants are established predominantly close to large facilities due to losses from transport and loading. Sampled leaves were deep frozen and hence analysed using rapid GM screening tests and PCR to identify glyphosate and glufosinate resistances. The screening test is based on binding the protein conferring herbicide resistance to specific antibodies and promoting a colour reaction. None of the leaf samples from different populations proved to be transgenic. Testing of oilseed rape populations using GM rapid tests was regarded a suitable screening method with meaningful results. The approach can thus be used as a routine monitoring in order to control the spread of GM rape and outcrossing of herbicide resistance traits into wild cruciferous relatives.

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