Winiarska-Mieczan A.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015
The protective effect of green (GT), black (BT), red (RT) and white (WT) tea infusions on the lungs, brains, hearts, livers and kidneys of adult Wistar rats exposed to Cd (7 mg/kg) and Pb (50 m/kg) was studied. The degree of reduction in the absorption of Cd and Pb in the organs compared to control group and the activity of SOD, CAT and GPx as well as GSH level was evaluated. It was determined that tea significant reduced the accumulation of Cd in the tissues. A significant reduction in the accumulation of Pb was recorded in the brain (WT), liver (GT, WT) and kidneys (BT, GT, RT, WT). A significant increase was observed in the activity of SOD, CAT and GPx in the organs of all rats from tea groups. It was found that the results obtained in rats receiving black, red and white tea were overall not worse than those recorded for rats receiving green tea. The obtained results suggest that drinking tea could be an effective method of reducing the adverse effect of environmental Cd and Pb pollution on the human body. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Matysiak J.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015
The chemistry of 1,3,4-thiadiazoles is very well known. A universal and commonly used method of the synthesis of different 2,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazoles includes the cyclization of appropriate linear organic derivatives. They are widely known as compounds with various kinds of biological activities showing anticancer properties against human cancers and acting as diuretic, antibacterial, antifungal, antitubercular and leishmanicidal agents. Many of them influence on OUN exhibiting anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, analgesic and anxiolytic effects. The molecular target of 1,3,4-thiadiazoles includes the following enzymes: carbonic anhydrase (CA), cyclooxygenase (CO), neutral endopeptidase (NEP), aminopeptidase N (APN), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and c-Src/Abl tyrosine kinase. In this presentation, recent achievements in the medicinal chemistry of 1,3,4-thiadiazole based compounds are reviewed. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.
Zawislak G.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Farmacia | Year: 2012
Marrubium vulgare L. is a plant cultivated in Poland for medicinal purposes. The study presents the qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oil of Marrubium vulgare L. The main components of the oil were as follows: E-caryophyllene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, and α-humulene. The oil from the flowering plants was shown to have the highest contents of germacrene D (43.36%). Other constituents (Ecaryophyllene - 44.54%, bicyclogermacrene -20.6%, and α-humulene - 5.79%) were found in higher amounts in the oil from vegetative stage plants.
Paszko T.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012
The study aimed to determine the influence of pH on the adsorption of carbendazim in soil profiles of three mineral agricultural soils: Hyperdystric Arenosol, Haplic Luvisol and Hypereutric Cambisol. In the examined pH range between 3 and 7 the adsorption of carbendazim was inversely correlated to the pH of the soil. The adsorption coefficients were in the range between 0.3 and 151.8mLg-1. Decreasing the pH in the soil suspensions from 7 to 3 increased the value of this coefficient by 3 to 70 times. A decrease in the amounts of organic matter down the soil profiles was not associated with weaker carbendazim adsorption. In the samples from all soil horizons, at pH values between 3 and 6, the predominant sorption process was carbendazim adsorption on clay minerals. The adsorption of carbendazim on organic matter prevailed over that on clays only at pH>6 and only in the Ap horizon of the examined soils. The developed mathematical models yielded very good results when the adsorption of the protonated form of carbendazim was assumed to be the predominant adsorption process on clays together with the adsorption of neutral molecules on organic matter and clays. The results from both the model fitting and the experiments revealed the negative effect of Al oxides and hydroxides and Al cations on the adsorption of the protonated form of carbendazim on clay minerals. The developed models successfully described the pH-dependent adsorption processes of carbendazim for both data from particular soil horizons and those from all three examined soil profiles. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Konarska A.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Protoplasma | Year: 2013
The structure of fruit peel of two apple varieties 'Szampion' and 'Jonagold' was investigated using light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The samples were taken immediately after harvest and after 6-month controlled atmosphere storage. The Szampion and Jonagold fruit differed in terms of the surface type, number of lenticels, thickness of the cuticular epithelium, height of epidermal cells and thickness of the hypodermis as well as the amount of crystalline wax and the number of microcracks formed on the fruit surface. The 6-month storage resulted in fruit weight loss, increased numbers and depth of microcracks, thickening of the amorphous wax layer and enhanced production of platelet forms of crystalline wax, which filled the microcracks abundantly. Compared with Jonagold, the Szampion fruit exhibited a fewer lenticels, a bigger number of microcracks, smaller amounts of crystalline wax and more substantial weight loss. The apple varieties studied had a reticulate-lamellate cuticle, and at harvest, the epidermal and hypodermal cells contained numerous amyloplasts filled with starch grains, which were not found after the storage period. Additionally, after storage, the cell protoplasts in the apple peel displayed a disorganised structure, and their vacuoles contained fragments of cell membranes, intravacuolar precipitates and deposits, and spherical bodies. The results may facilitate better understanding of changes occurring in fruits of Szampion and Jonagold during storage and help choose the best storage conditions to reduce loss of weight and prevent impairment of fruit quality. © 2012 The Author(s).
Gawlik-Dziki U.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2012
The biological activities of in vitro bioaccessible and bioavailable compounds of tomato, onion, garlic, and lettuce and their interactions in commonly consumed combinations were studied. The bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds (ACP), the potential bioavailability (AVP), the antioxidant bioaccessibility (BAC), the bioavailability (BAV), the bioefficiency (BEF), and the interaction (IF) factors were determined. It was found that antiradical compounds were bioaccessible. Furthermore, antiradical compounds from tomato/garlic acted synergistically (IF = 0.42), whereas in other cases additive interactions were observed. BAC values of catalase activators averaged at about 1.50; however, owing to their potential bioavailability (BAV above 5.56) they possessed high bioefficiency (BEF about 9). On the other hand, all vegetables that contained bioavailable and bioefficient lipoxygenase inhibitors acted antagonistically. Xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors were found to be bioavailable (BAV from 2.61 to 3.98) and bioefficient (BEF from 2.87 to 5.50) and strong synergistic interactions between them were also determined. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Kaminski D.M.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
European Biophysics Journal | Year: 2014
Abstract In the past decade substantial progress has been made in understanding the organization and biological activity of amphotericin B (AmB) in the presence of sterols in lipid environments. This review concentrates mainly on interactions of AmB with lipids and sterols, AmB channel formation in membranes, AmB aggregation, AmB modifications important for understanding its biological activity, and AmB models explaining its mechanism of action. Most of the reviewed studies concern monolayers at the water-gas interface, monolayers deposited on a solid substrate by use of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, micelles, vesicles, and multi-bilayers. Liposomal AmB formulations and drug delivery are intentionally omitted, because several reviews dedicated to this subject are already available. © 2014 The Author(s).
Rozylo R.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2014
Common availability of dough improvers permits the production of bread of good quality, but only modifications of the process may be used for the production of natural products. Dough from weak flour, after application of certain treatments, displays poorer baking properties; therefore, in our study, it is proposed to apply slow-speed mixing in two cycles. In the literature, there is a lack of comparisons of results of baking with the straight dough method (one-cycle mixing) with modified methods including the application of two equal cycles of dough mixing and two "incomplete" cycles, the first of which lasts twice as long as the second one [partial two-cycle mixing (PTCM)]. This study involved the determination of the quality properties of bread (loaf volume, specific weight, crust thickness, crumb whiteness, crumb hardness index, and crumb heterogeneity index) under the effect of process modifications, analyzing the effect of dough mixing time and resting time between the mixing cycles. The study included also regression equations describing the physical properties of bread. Based on the tests performed, it was noted that in the case of flour characterized by poor baking quality, the process effectiveness can be enhanced through the application of two incomplete mixing cycles (PTCM), with dough resting time in the range of 10-20 min. This treatment resulted breads with significantly greater loaf volume, lower specific weight, lower whiteness index, and hardness compared to breads baked using the straight dough method. It is not recommended to use two equal duration cycles of dough mixing. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Roylo R.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2013
The aim of the study was to prove the usefulness of texture measurements within the whole profile of breadcrumb for analyzing its heterogeneity. The breads were baked using the straight and pre-fermented dough methods. The measurement on the central region (20 mm thick) breadcrumb was the most suitable for differentiating the breads, but the analysis of the whole profile (10 mm thick), was the most adequate for breadcrumb texture heterogeneity quantification. In a majority of the cases breads baked using pre-fermented dough were characterized by better and more homogenous texture in comparison with the straight dough method. In addition, a general diminishing tendency of breadcrumb hardness and chewiness was observed together with an increase in flour dry gluten content. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Glibowski P.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2010
The aim of this study was analysis of a number of factors affecting the rheological properties of high performance inulin gels and spreads in comparison with commercial products. Inulin gels (20%, 25%, 30%), commercial and inulin model spread (20% canola oil, 20% inulin, 3% emulsifier) were analysed. Inulin particles in water environment absorbed water which caused an increase in viscosity of the inulin suspensions. Different temperatures of preparation, cooling rates and viscosity increase which appeared during the stirring of inulin suspensions did not significantly change the rheological parameters of the final gels in contrast to heating rates (p ≤ 0.05). In spite of rigid laboratory conditions high standard deviation for hardness and apparent viscosity showed how difficult the process of an inulin crystallization is to control. Rheological properties of inulin model spread exhibited thixotropic and shear thinning behaviour which made it similar to commercial spread. The applied structure destruction step in the manufacturing process should be applied to make inulin model spread comparable to commercial spreads. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.