Paszko T.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012
The study aimed to determine the influence of pH on the adsorption of carbendazim in soil profiles of three mineral agricultural soils: Hyperdystric Arenosol, Haplic Luvisol and Hypereutric Cambisol. In the examined pH range between 3 and 7 the adsorption of carbendazim was inversely correlated to the pH of the soil. The adsorption coefficients were in the range between 0.3 and 151.8mLg-1. Decreasing the pH in the soil suspensions from 7 to 3 increased the value of this coefficient by 3 to 70 times. A decrease in the amounts of organic matter down the soil profiles was not associated with weaker carbendazim adsorption. In the samples from all soil horizons, at pH values between 3 and 6, the predominant sorption process was carbendazim adsorption on clay minerals. The adsorption of carbendazim on organic matter prevailed over that on clays only at pH>6 and only in the Ap horizon of the examined soils. The developed mathematical models yielded very good results when the adsorption of the protonated form of carbendazim was assumed to be the predominant adsorption process on clays together with the adsorption of neutral molecules on organic matter and clays. The results from both the model fitting and the experiments revealed the negative effect of Al oxides and hydroxides and Al cations on the adsorption of the protonated form of carbendazim on clay minerals. The developed models successfully described the pH-dependent adsorption processes of carbendazim for both data from particular soil horizons and those from all three examined soil profiles. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Konarska A.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Protoplasma | Year: 2013
The structure of fruit peel of two apple varieties 'Szampion' and 'Jonagold' was investigated using light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The samples were taken immediately after harvest and after 6-month controlled atmosphere storage. The Szampion and Jonagold fruit differed in terms of the surface type, number of lenticels, thickness of the cuticular epithelium, height of epidermal cells and thickness of the hypodermis as well as the amount of crystalline wax and the number of microcracks formed on the fruit surface. The 6-month storage resulted in fruit weight loss, increased numbers and depth of microcracks, thickening of the amorphous wax layer and enhanced production of platelet forms of crystalline wax, which filled the microcracks abundantly. Compared with Jonagold, the Szampion fruit exhibited a fewer lenticels, a bigger number of microcracks, smaller amounts of crystalline wax and more substantial weight loss. The apple varieties studied had a reticulate-lamellate cuticle, and at harvest, the epidermal and hypodermal cells contained numerous amyloplasts filled with starch grains, which were not found after the storage period. Additionally, after storage, the cell protoplasts in the apple peel displayed a disorganised structure, and their vacuoles contained fragments of cell membranes, intravacuolar precipitates and deposits, and spherical bodies. The results may facilitate better understanding of changes occurring in fruits of Szampion and Jonagold during storage and help choose the best storage conditions to reduce loss of weight and prevent impairment of fruit quality. © 2012 The Author(s).
Gawlik-Dziki U.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2012
The biological activities of in vitro bioaccessible and bioavailable compounds of tomato, onion, garlic, and lettuce and their interactions in commonly consumed combinations were studied. The bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds (ACP), the potential bioavailability (AVP), the antioxidant bioaccessibility (BAC), the bioavailability (BAV), the bioefficiency (BEF), and the interaction (IF) factors were determined. It was found that antiradical compounds were bioaccessible. Furthermore, antiradical compounds from tomato/garlic acted synergistically (IF = 0.42), whereas in other cases additive interactions were observed. BAC values of catalase activators averaged at about 1.50; however, owing to their potential bioavailability (BAV above 5.56) they possessed high bioefficiency (BEF about 9). On the other hand, all vegetables that contained bioavailable and bioefficient lipoxygenase inhibitors acted antagonistically. Xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors were found to be bioavailable (BAV from 2.61 to 3.98) and bioefficient (BEF from 2.87 to 5.50) and strong synergistic interactions between them were also determined. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Gawlik-Dziki U.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012
The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activities of selected spices and their influence on the activity of peroxidase and some prooxidant enzymes. Extracts from basil and rosemary were the strongest activators of peroxidase activity (204.7% and 205.8%, respectively). The highest ability for lipoxygenase inhibition was exhibited by tarragon and oregano extracts (60.2% and 57.9%, respectively). In turn, the highest xanthine oxidase inhibition was found in the case of black pepper and basil extracts (70.9% and 67.0%, respectively); whereas the lowest in the case of the cinnamon extract (28.09%). Linoleic acid was the most effectively prevented by oregano and rosemary extracts. O 2 - scavenging activities of basil, thyme, rosemary, tarragon and cinnamon extracts ranged from 47.5% to 32.7%. The H 2O 2 scavenging abilities ranged from 42.8% for tarragon to 99.2% for black pepper extract. The results obtained suggest that spice condiments used in food preparations contain phenolic/flavonoid compounds that can significantly inhibit prooxidant enzymes (lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase) and enhance antioxidant enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense system, hence diet supplementation with herbs may be helpful in preventing or slowing down the progress of lifestyle-related and chronic diseases. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Kaminski D.M.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
European Biophysics Journal | Year: 2014
Abstract In the past decade substantial progress has been made in understanding the organization and biological activity of amphotericin B (AmB) in the presence of sterols in lipid environments. This review concentrates mainly on interactions of AmB with lipids and sterols, AmB channel formation in membranes, AmB aggregation, AmB modifications important for understanding its biological activity, and AmB models explaining its mechanism of action. Most of the reviewed studies concern monolayers at the water-gas interface, monolayers deposited on a solid substrate by use of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, micelles, vesicles, and multi-bilayers. Liposomal AmB formulations and drug delivery are intentionally omitted, because several reviews dedicated to this subject are already available. © 2014 The Author(s).
Rozylo R.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2014
Common availability of dough improvers permits the production of bread of good quality, but only modifications of the process may be used for the production of natural products. Dough from weak flour, after application of certain treatments, displays poorer baking properties; therefore, in our study, it is proposed to apply slow-speed mixing in two cycles. In the literature, there is a lack of comparisons of results of baking with the straight dough method (one-cycle mixing) with modified methods including the application of two equal cycles of dough mixing and two "incomplete" cycles, the first of which lasts twice as long as the second one [partial two-cycle mixing (PTCM)]. This study involved the determination of the quality properties of bread (loaf volume, specific weight, crust thickness, crumb whiteness, crumb hardness index, and crumb heterogeneity index) under the effect of process modifications, analyzing the effect of dough mixing time and resting time between the mixing cycles. The study included also regression equations describing the physical properties of bread. Based on the tests performed, it was noted that in the case of flour characterized by poor baking quality, the process effectiveness can be enhanced through the application of two incomplete mixing cycles (PTCM), with dough resting time in the range of 10-20 min. This treatment resulted breads with significantly greater loaf volume, lower specific weight, lower whiteness index, and hardness compared to breads baked using the straight dough method. It is not recommended to use two equal duration cycles of dough mixing. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Tarkowska-Kukuryk M.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Limnologica | Year: 2013
The diet composition and use of periphyton resources by grazing chironomids associated with common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) were investigated bimonthly, from January to November, in a shallow hypertrophic lake. Periphytic algae were represented by three genera, cyanobacteria, diatoms and chlorophytes. Cyanobacteria showed the highest relative abundances during the study. The total biomass of periphytic algae showed seasonal variation and reached the lowest values in May and the highest in November. Chironomid assemblage showed very low diversity and constituted mostly of Cricotopus sp. (gr. sylvestris), Endochironomus albipennis, Glyptotendipes sp. Depending the month of the year, larvae of these three taxa amounted 95-98% of total chironomid density. The density of chironomid larvae collected was affected by the season. The larvae fed mostly on diatoms and generally preferred the most abundant algal taxa as a food source. Diet composition of chironomid larvae showed seasonal variability and was specific for chironomid taxon and size class of larvae. The highest (44%) taxonomic (or structural) similarity between periphyton and gut contents was observed in class I larvae of E. albipennis in January. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH.
Roylo R.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2013
The aim of the study was to prove the usefulness of texture measurements within the whole profile of breadcrumb for analyzing its heterogeneity. The breads were baked using the straight and pre-fermented dough methods. The measurement on the central region (20 mm thick) breadcrumb was the most suitable for differentiating the breads, but the analysis of the whole profile (10 mm thick), was the most adequate for breadcrumb texture heterogeneity quantification. In a majority of the cases breads baked using pre-fermented dough were characterized by better and more homogenous texture in comparison with the straight dough method. In addition, a general diminishing tendency of breadcrumb hardness and chewiness was observed together with an increase in flour dry gluten content. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Glibowski P.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2010
The aim of this study was analysis of a number of factors affecting the rheological properties of high performance inulin gels and spreads in comparison with commercial products. Inulin gels (20%, 25%, 30%), commercial and inulin model spread (20% canola oil, 20% inulin, 3% emulsifier) were analysed. Inulin particles in water environment absorbed water which caused an increase in viscosity of the inulin suspensions. Different temperatures of preparation, cooling rates and viscosity increase which appeared during the stirring of inulin suspensions did not significantly change the rheological parameters of the final gels in contrast to heating rates (p ≤ 0.05). In spite of rigid laboratory conditions high standard deviation for hardness and apparent viscosity showed how difficult the process of an inulin crystallization is to control. Rheological properties of inulin model spread exhibited thixotropic and shear thinning behaviour which made it similar to commercial spread. The applied structure destruction step in the manufacturing process should be applied to make inulin model spread comparable to commercial spreads. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Materska M.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2014
Changes in contents of eight phenolic compounds in extracts from fresh and freeze-dried placentas and pericarps of four cultivars of pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum) were investigated. These compounds comprised two phenolic acid derivatives, four flavonoid O-glycosides, and two flavonoid C-glycosides. Quantitative HPLC-DAD analysis was performed on the basis of the peak area of standards isolated from pepper and identified by MS/MS2 analysis. The main compounds in the pericarp were quercetin O-glycosides, while trans-p-feruloyl-β-d-glucopyranoside predominated in the placenta, at a concentration almost 10 times higher than that in the pericarp. In general, lower levels of phenolic acid derivatives were found in extracts from lyophilised fruits, but different directions of changes in the concentrations of flavonoid O- and C-glycosides from fresh and freeze-dried fruits were noted. The antioxidant activity measured by the DPPH method was higher for samples of fresh fruits than for freeze-dried samples. Additionally, the antioxidant activities of extracts from placentas correlated well with the changes in flavonoid C-glycosides (R2=0.63), while the antioxidant activities from the pericarp correlated with changes in phenolic acid derivatives (R2=0.78). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.