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Lipke U.,Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices | Lipke U.,Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices | Haverkamp J.B.,LTS Lohmann Therapie Systeme AG andernach | Zapf T.,Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices | Lipperheide C.,Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics | Year: 2016

To study the impact of different semi-solid dosage form components on the leaching of Bisphenol A (BPA) and Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from the epoxy resin-based inner lacquer of aluminium tubes, the tubes were filled with different matrix preparations and stored at an elevated temperature. Despite compliance with the European Standards EN 15348 and EN 15766 on porosity and polymerisation of internal coatings of aluminium tubes, the commercially available tubes used in the study contained an increased amount of polymerisation residues, such as unbound BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives in the lacquer, as determined by acetonitrile extraction. Storage of Macrogol ointments in these tubes resulted in an almost quantitative migration of the unbound polymerisation residues from the coating into the ointment. In addition, due to alterations observed in the RP-HPLC chromatograms of the matrix spiked with BADGE and BADGE derivatives it is supposed that the leachates can react with formulation components. The contamination of the medicinal product by BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives can be precluded by using aluminium tubes with an internal lacquer with a low degree of unbound polymerisation residues. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Kessler C.,AplaGen GmbH | Kessler C.,RWTH Aachen | Greindl A.,AplaGen GmbH | Greindl A.,RWTH Aachen | And 11 more authors.
Cytokine | Year: 2012

EPO mimetic peptides (EMPs) have a completely different structure than erythropoietin (EPO) or new generation recombinant erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) like Darbepoietin alfa (Aranesp) and continuous erythropoiesis stimulating agent (CERA). This study intended to compare the effects of a novel compound called AGEM400(HES), consisting of a dimeric EMP conjugated to hydroxyethyl starch (HES), to those of recombinant EPO. AGEM400(HES) efficiently stimulated erythropoiesis in vitro and efficiently stimulated survival of EPO-dependent cell line UT7/EPO. It also efficiently induced phosphorylation of signaling proteins in these models. However, AGEM400(HES) was shown to have weak or absent effects on survival of, and signaling in, three different EPO-responsive hematopoietic cell lines. In the latter models, when added in excess to moderate concentrations of EPO, AGEM400(HES) inhibited the activity of EPO in a fashion indicating receptor binding competition between EPO and AGEM400(HES). It was furthermore shown, using stably transfected BA/F3 cells, that the degree of responsiveness of a cell to AGEM400(HES) relative to its responsiveness to EPO, correlated with the level of EPO receptor surface expression. The findings presented raise intriguing possibilities because they imply that not all side-effects said to be associated with EPO must necessarily be elicited by AGEM400(HES) too. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Hammes F.,LTS Lohmann Therapie Systeme AG andernach | Hammes F.,University of Marburg | Hille T.,LTS Lohmann Therapie Systeme AG andernach | Kissel T.,University of Marburg
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2014

A process analytical method using reflectance infrared spectrometry was developed for the in-line monitoring of the amount of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) nicotine during a coating process for an oral thin film (OTF). In-line measurements were made using a reflectance infrared (RI) sensor positioned after the last drying zone of the coating line. Real-time spectra from the coating process were used for modelling the nicotine content. Partial least squares (PLS1) calibration models with different data pre-treatments were generated. The calibration model with the most comparable standard error of calibration (SEC) and the standard error of cross validation (SECV) was selected for an external validation run on the production coating line with an independent laminate. Good correlations could be obtained between values estimated from the reflectance infrared data and the reference HPLC test method, respectively. With in-line measurements it was possible to allow real-time adjustments during the production process to keep product specifications within predefined limits hence avoiding loss of material and batch. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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