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Rivard B.,LTS International | Reay D.S.,University of Edinburgh
Carbon Management | Year: 2012

Background: This study examined the uncertainty over Malawis future development pathway, particularly in relation to the energy mix, where the majority of current energy supply comes from biomass. Methodology: Interviews and a focus group were conducted with stakeholders and experts to produce four plausible scenarios for the year 2030 based on key drivers identified by participants. Conclusion: Focus group participants identified the key drivers of Malawis energy pathway as deforestation, population growth, climate change impacts and coal power generation; regardless of the pathway taken, there are compounding issues such as climate change impacts and population growth that may pose additional barriers. Climate finance mechanisms such as REDD+ have a potential role to play in each scenario for attracting investment and providing targeted incentives for avoiding deforestation. © 2012 Future Science Ltd. Source


Zeitoun M.,University of East Anglia | Warner J.,Wageningen University | Mirumachi N.,Kings College London | Matthews N.,Research Programme on Water | And 4 more authors.
Water Policy | Year: 2014

By reviewing and blending two main bodies of research (critical transboundary water interaction analysis and centuries of thought on social justice) this paper seeks to improve international transboundary water interaction analysis and diplomacy. Various implications for transboundary analysis and diplomacy are grouped under themes of equitability, process/outcomes, and structural concerns. These include shortcomings of analysis and policy based on unfounded assumptions of equality, and options excluded from consideration by the legitimisation of particular concepts of justice over others. As power asymmetry is seen to enable or disable justice claims and conflict resolution efforts, the importance of ensuring equitable outcomes as a pre-condition for cooperation is asserted. Similarly, water conflict resolution is found to be more fair - procedurally - than is conflict management, and may be supported to a limited extent by international water law. A number of analytical tasks are suggested for future research and policy, including a call to scrutinise the source of legitimacy of strands of justice invoked. Given the very many perspectives on justice that exist in the network of relevant actors, potential bias in research and diplomacy could be reduced if all involved openly stated the morals underpinning their understanding of 'justice'. © 2014 IWA Publishing. Source


Lankford B.,University of East Anglia | Hepworth N.,LTS International
Water Alternatives | Year: 2010

Two contemporary theories of river basin management are compared. One is centralised 'regulatory river basin management' with an apex authority that seeks hydrometric data and nationally agreed standards and procedures in decisions over water quality and allocation. This model is commonplace and can be identified in many water training curricula and derivatives of basin management policy. The other, 'polycentric river basin management', is institutionally, organisationally and geographically more decentralised, emphasising local, collective ownership and reference to locally agreed standards. The polycentric model is constructed from the creation of appropriate managerial subunits within river basins. This model emphasises the deployment of hydrologists, scientists and other service providers as mediating agents of environmental and institutional transformation, tackling issues arising within and between the basin subunits such as water allocation and distribution, productivity improvement and conflict resolution. Significantly, it considers water allocation between subunits rather than between sectors and to do this promulgates an experimental, step-wise pragmatic approach, building on local ideas to make tangible progress in basins where data monitoring is limited, basin office resources are constrained and regulatory planning has stalled. To explore these issues, the paper employs the 'Cathedral and Bazaar' metaphor of Eric Raymond. The discussion is informed by observations from Tanzania, Nigeria and the UK. © 2010 Water Alternatives. Source


Locatelli T.,University of Edinburgh | Binet T.,University of Portsmouth | Kairo J.G.,Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute | King L.,LTS International | And 3 more authors.
Ambio | Year: 2014

In this review paper, we aim to describe the potential for, and the key challenges to, applying PES projects to mangroves. By adopting a “carbocentric approach,” we show that mangrove forests are strong candidates for PES projects. They are particularly well suited to the generation of carbon credits because of their unrivaled potential as carbon sinks, their resistance and resilience to natural hazards, and their extensive provision of Ecosystem Services other than carbon sequestration, primarily nursery areas for fish, water purification and coastal protection, to the benefit of local communities as well as to the global population. The voluntary carbon market provides opportunities for the development of appropriate protocols and good practice case studies for mangroves at a small scale, and these may influence larger compliance schemes in the future. Mangrove habitats are mostly located in developing countries on communally or state-owned land. This means that issues of national and local governance, land ownership and management, and environmental justice are the main challenges that require careful planning at the early stages of mangrove PES projects to ensure successful outcomes and equitable benefit sharing within local communities. © 2014, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Source


Sist P.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Rutishauser E.,CarboForExpert carboforexpert.ch | Pena-Claros M.,Wageningen University | Shenkin A.,University of Florida | And 38 more authors.
Applied Vegetation Science | Year: 2015

While attention on logging in the tropics has been increasing, studies on the long-term effects of silviculture on forest dynamics and ecology remain scare and spatially limited. Indeed, most of our knowledge on tropical forests arises from studies carried out in undisturbed tropical forests. This bias is problematic given that logged and disturbed tropical forests are now covering a larger area than the so-called primary forests. A new network of permanent sample plots in logged forests, the Tropical managed Forests Observatory (TmFO), aims to fill this gap by providing unprecedented opportunities to examine long-term data on the resilience of logged tropical forests at regional and global scales. TmFO currently includes 24 experimental sites distributed across three tropical regions, with a total of 490 permanent plots and 921 ha of forest inventories. To improve our knowledge of the resilience of tropical logged forests, 20 research institutes are now collaborating on studies on the effects of logging on forest structure, productivity, biodiversity and carbon fluxes at large spatial and temporal scales. These studies are carried out in the Tropical managed Forests Observatory (TmFO), an international network including 24 sites and 490 permanent sample plots across South America, Africa and South East Asia. © 2014 International Association for Vegetation Science. Source

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