LTM Medical College

Sion, India

LTM Medical College

Sion, India

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Pai N.P.,McGill University | Dhurat R.,LTM Medical College | Potter M.,McGill University | Behlim T.,McGill University | And 4 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2014

Objectives: Multiplexed point-of-care (POC) devices can rapidly screen for HIV-related co-infections (eg, hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), syphilis) in one patient visit, but global evidence for this approach remains limited. This study aimed to evaluate a multiplex POC testing strategy to expedite screening for HIV-related co-infections in at-risk populations. Methods: A multiplex strategy was developed with two subsequent versions of an investigational device Miriad. It was evaluated in two non-comparable settings and populations in two countries for feasibility of conduct, detection of new infections, preference and accuracy. Version 1 was evaluated in 375 sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees in Mumbai, India; version 2 was evaluated in 119 injection drug users in Montreal, Canada. Results: Feasibility (completion rate) of the multiplex strategy was high (86.1% Mumbai; 92.4% Montreal). A total of 170 new infections were detected in Mumbai (56 HIV, 75 HBV, 37 syphilis, 2 HCV) versus 2 in Montreal. Preference was 60% in Mumbai and 97% in Montreal. Miriad version 1 specificities were high: HIV 99.7% (98.3% to 100%), HBV 99.3% (97.6% to 99.9%), HCV 99.7% (98.5% to 99.9%), syphilis 85.2% (80.9% to 88.8%); sensitivities were as follows: HIV 100% (94.8% to 100%), HBV 13.3% (6.6% to 23.2%), HCV 50% (1.3% to 98.7%), syphilis 86.1% (70.5% to 95.3%). With version 2, specificities improved: HIV 100% (97.2% to 100%), HBV 100% (97.3% to 100%), HCV 85.3% (73.8% to 93.0%), syphilis 98.1% (93.3% to 99.8%); sensitivities were: HIV 100% (47.3% to 100%), HCV 80.4% (66.1% to 90.6%), syphilis 100% (22.4% to 100%). Conclusions: A quad multiplex POC strategy for HIV and co-infections was feasible to operationalise and preferred by patients in both settings. Many new infections were identified in Mumbai and accuracy improved with version 2 of the assay. Such a strategy will help expedite screening for co-infections, particularly where baseline screening is low. These findings are valuable to practitioners, researchers, policymakers and funders involved in initiatives for all four diseases with implications for scale-up. © 2014, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


PubMed | McGill University, LTM Medical College and Pd Hinduja National Hospital And Medical Research Center
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: BMJ open | Year: 2014

Multiplexed point-of-care (POC) devices can rapidly screen for HIV-related co-infections (eg, hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), syphilis) in one patient visit, but global evidence for this approach remains limited. This study aimed to evaluate a multiplex POC testing strategy to expedite screening for HIV-related co-infections in at-risk populations.A multiplex strategy was developed with two subsequent versions of an investigational device Miriad. It was evaluated in two non-comparable settings and populations in two countries for feasibility of conduct, detection of new infections, preference and accuracy. Version 1 was evaluated in 375 sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees in Mumbai, India; version 2 was evaluated in 119 injection drug users in Montreal, Canada.Feasibility (completion rate) of the multiplex strategy was high (86.1% Mumbai; 92.4% Montreal). A total of 170 new infections were detected in Mumbai (56 HIV, 75 HBV, 37 syphilis, 2 HCV) versus 2 in Montreal. Preference was 60% in Mumbai and 97% in Montreal. Miriad version 1 specificities were high: HIV 99.7% (98.3% to 100%), HBV 99.3% (97.6% to 99.9%), HCV 99.7% (98.5% to 99.9%), syphilis 85.2% (80.9% to 88.8%); sensitivities were as follows: HIV 100% (94.8% to 100%), HBV 13.3% (6.6% to 23.2%), HCV 50% (1.3% to 98.7%), syphilis 86.1% (70.5% to 95.3%). With version 2, specificities improved: HIV 100% (97.2% to 100%), HBV 100% (97.3% to 100%), HCV 85.3% (73.8% to 93.0%), syphilis 98.1% (93.3% to 99.8%); sensitivities were: HIV 100% (47.3% to 100%), HCV 80.4% (66.1% to 90.6%), syphilis 100% (22.4% to 100%).A quad multiplex POC strategy for HIV and co-infections was feasible to operationalise and preferred by patients in both settings. Many new infections were identified in Mumbai and accuracy improved with version 2 of the assay. Such a strategy will help expedite screening for co-infections, particularly where baseline screening is low. These findings are valuable to practitioners, researchers, policymakers and funders involved in initiatives for all four diseases with implications for scale-up.


Buchade D.,LTM Medical College | Mohite S.,TN Medical College
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine | Year: 2011

The present study was carried out in the City of Greater Mumbai's all post mortem centres during the calendar year of 2004 to 2006 with aims and objective to determine the pattern of injuries in cases of homicides during this period with special reference to injuries sustained during these homicidal incidences. Total 371 cases of homicidal deaths were collected from post mortem reports, panchnama, police requisition and statements of relatives. The injuries present on the particular body area were noted with due consideration of kind of weapon used, internal organs injured and cause of death. Male victim's preponderance was noted over female victims with male age group of 21-30 years being most commonly affected. The head face and neck region of the body was most often targeted. Internal organs most commonly affected were neck structures followed by brain while least involved organ was heart. Hard and blunt weapons were most commonly used followed by sharp edged and pointed weapons. Infanticide was most common in female infants. The most common cause of death in male victims was shock and haemorrhages and in female victims was mechanical asphyxia.


Buchade D.,LTM Medical College | Mohite S.,TN Medical College
Medico-Legal Update | Year: 2010

The study was aimed to determine underlying trends in the incidences of homicides to assess the frequency of homicide by age, sex and religion of victim. An attempt is also made to find out the motive of homicide, causative weapon, pattern of injuries and cause of death in homicide cases.


Goyal N.K.,LTM Medical College | Gore M.A.,LTM Medical College | Goyal R.S.,LTM Medical College
Indian Journal of Surgery | Year: 2010

Burn patients are susceptible hosts for fungal colonisation. Aim: To study incidence and profile of fungal colonisation of burn wounds. Materials and methods: This prospective study was conducted in 201 consecutive adult patients (39 male and 162 female) with burn wounds, admitted from October 2005 to September 2006. Wounds with clinical suspicion of fungal colonisation were biopsied and examined by wet smear, Potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount, nigrosin stain, 1% Acid fast bacilli (AFB) stain, Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) stain, histopathological examination and fungal culture. All wounds with suspicion of fungal colonisation were treated with topical application of miconazole ointment mixed with povidone-iodine/silver sulphadiazine topically and itraconazole (oral) systemically. Results: Fungal infection of burn wound was suspected in 77 patients (38. 31%) with 20-70% total body surface area (TBSA) burns. Ninety-two biopsy samples were collected from 77 patients. On investigations, fungal colonisation was confirmed in 35 patients. Culture was positive in 23 patients with Candida in 12 and Aspergillus in 4. GMS stain and KOH stain showed sensitivity and specificity of 70. 8% and 86. 5%, respectively for detecting fungi in burn wound. Nigrosin stain was negative in all patients. Duration of hospitalisation was more in patients having fungal colonisation without any significant effect on the mortalityDiscussion: In 38. 31% of patients fungal colonisation was clinically suspected and it was confirmed in 17. 41% of 201 patients. GMS stain and KOH stain were observed to have acceptable sensitivity and specificity. With increasing prevalence of Aspergillus, flucanazole cannot be relied upon in controlling fungal colonisation and drugs like itraconazole may have to be used as empirical therapy. Conclusion: Fungal colonisation of burn wound is not uncommon and should be suspected. Fungi detected most commonly were Candida and Aspergillus. KOH and GMS stain were identified as reliable, simple and inexpensive methods for confirming fungal colonisation. © 2009 Association of Surgeons of India.


De A.S.,Ltm Medical College | Kumar S.H.,Ltm Medical College | Baveja S.M.,Ltm Medical College
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2010

A total of 39 non-duplicate isolates of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species isolated from blood and endotracheal secretions were tested for metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production by modified-EDTA disc synergy and double disc synergy tests. The prevalence of MBLs was 33.33% by both the above tests. All patients with MBL-positive isolates were multidrug resistant and had multiple risk factors like > 8 days hospital stay, catheterization, IV lines, previous antibiotic use, etc. These were risk factors for imipenem resistance also. The overall mortality in MBL-positive patients was 46.15%.


Kore S.,Ltm Medical College | Hegde A.,Ltm Medical College | Kanavia D.,Ltm Medical College | Supe P.,Ltm Medical College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India | Year: 2013

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of period of gestation and position of fetal neck on nuchal translucency measurement. Materials and Methods: Nuchal translucency was measured in the mid-sagittal plane, with the fetal neck in the flexed, neutral, and extended positions in 100 pregnant women between 11 and 13+6 weeks. Mean nuchal translucency measurements at different periods of gestation were compared. Differences between the extended and neutral positions (Δ extended nuchal translucency) and those between the flexed and neutral positions (Δ flexed nuchal translucency) were calculated. The repeatability coefficients for the measurements in all the three positions were computed. Statistical analysis was also done. Results: Nuchal translucency values were 1.050 ± 0.282 mm in the 11th week, 1.243 ± 0.348 mm in the 12th week, and 1.823 ± 0.357 mm in the 13th week (r = 0.747, p < 0.0001). The mean Δ flexed value was 0.233 ± 0.133 mm lesser than the neutral value (p < 0.0001). The mean Δ extended nuchal translucency was 0.305 ± 0.155 mm greater than the neutral value (p < 0.0001). The repeatability coefficient was the lowest in the neutral position (0.17 mm in the neutral position, 0.28 in the flexed position and 0.41 mm in the extended position). Conclusion: We concluded that the period of gestation and fetal neck position can make a significant difference to nuchal translucency measurement. Repeatability of measurement is more accurate with the fetal neck in the neutral position. These findings have important implications for clinicians using nuchal translucency to screen the obstetric population for Down's syndrome. © 2013 Federation of Obstetric & Gynecological Societies of India.


De A.S.,Ltm Medical College | Baveja S.M.,Ltm Medical College | Salunke P.M.,Ltm Medical College | Manglani M.V.,Ltm Medical College
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2010

This is an unusual report of isolation of Streptobacillus moniliformis from the blood of a male child with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. No history of rat bite was there, but rats were present in the house. The possible source of infection may be food or water contaminated with rat excreta. Whether this bacteria can cause opportunistic infection in leukaemic patients, need to be evaluated further.


PubMed | LTM Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Indian journal of surgery | Year: 2012

Burn patients are susceptible hosts for fungal colonisation.To study incidence and profile of fungal colonisation of burn wounds.This prospective study was conducted in 201 consecutive adult patients (39 male and 162 female) with burn wounds, admitted from October 2005 to September 2006. Wounds with clinical suspicion of fungal colonisation were biopsied and examined by wet smear, Potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount, nigrosin stain, 1% Acid fast bacilli (AFB) stain, Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) stain, histopathological examination and fungal culture. All wounds with suspicion of fungal colonisation were treated with topical application of miconazole ointment mixed with povidone-iodine/silver sulphadiazine topically and itraconazole (oral) systemically.Fungal infection of burn wound was suspected in 77 patients (38.31%) with 20-70% total body surface area (TBSA) burns. Ninety-two biopsy samples were collected from 77 patients. On investigations, fungal colonisation was confirmed in 35 patients. Culture was positive in 23 patients with Candida in 12 and Aspergillus in 4. GMS stain and KOH stain showed sensitivity and specificity of 70.8% and 86.5%, respectively for detecting fungi in burn wound. Nigrosin stain was negative in all patients. Duration of hospitalisation was more in patients having fungal colonisation without any significant effect on the mortalityIn 38.31% of patients fungal colonisation was clinically suspected and it was confirmed in 17.41% of 201 patients. GMS stain and KOH stain were observed to have acceptable sensitivity and specificity. With increasing prevalence of Aspergillus, flucanazole cannot be relied upon in controlling fungal colonisation and drugs like itraconazole may have to be used as empirical therapy.Fungal colonisation of burn wound is not uncommon and should be suspected. Fungi detected most commonly were Candida and Aspergillus. KOH and GMS stain were identified as reliable, simple and inexpensive methods for confirming fungal colonisation.


The production of Metallo--lactamases (MBLs) is one of the resistance mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. There is not much Indian data on the prevalence of MBLs in burns and surgical wards.A total of 145 non-duplicate isolates of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species, isolated from pus/wound swabs and endotracheal secretions from burns and surgical wards, were tested for MBL production by modified ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) disc synergy and double disc synergy tests.Prevalence of MBLs was 26.9% by both the above tests. All MBL-positive isolates were multidrug resistant. Only 6.06% (2/33) P.aeruginosa and 16.67% (1/06) Acinetobacter species were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam and netilmycin, respectively. These patients had multiple risk factors like >8 days hospital stay, catheterization, IV lines, previous antibiotic use, mechanical ventilation, etc. Graft application and surgical intervention were significant risk factors in MBL-positive patients. Overall mortality in MBL-positive patients was 34.21%.Emergence of MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species in this hospital is alarming, which reflect excessive use of carbapenems and at the same time, pose a therapeutic challenge to clinicians as well as to microbiologists. Therefore, a strict antibiotic policy and implementation of proper infection control practices will go a long way to prevent further spread of MBLs. Detection of MBLs should also become mandatory in all hospitals.

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