McAnally W.H.,Mississippi State University |
Wallen C.M.,Ltd Liability Corporation LLC |
Sanborn S.C.,Ltd Liability Corporation LLC |
Maak E.C.,U.S. Army
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management | Year: 2014
The objectives of this project were to analyze available Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, levee risk information in a Composite Risk Management matrix and examine the results for management decision support. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) guidance documents define risk as the "probability and severity of loss linked to hazards" and prescribe a composite risk assessment method. The Delta Risk Management Strategy performed for a group of state and federal partners provided analyses of the relative probability of hazards and severity of risks in the Delta and provide the information needed for a risk analysis compliant with USACE requirements. Composite Risk assessment provides rank-ordered lists of the highest risk zones-those with the greatest probability of failure combined with the most severe consequences-for several hundred protected areas in the Delta. Although uncertainties in the absolute magnitude of the results make them most useful for comparisons, the actual values of the probabilities and consequences are alarming. For example, Sargent Barnhart Tract, northwest of Stockton, has a mean annual failure rate of 0.07, or an expected levee failure every 14 years, with a probable 96 fatalities for a nighttime seismic-induced failure. Adjacent tracts with only slightly lower failure probabilities put another 500 lives at risk. An area of the Suisun Marsh has a projected failure rate of 0.5, or once every two years, with maximum possible damages exceeding $250 million. The Sacramento Pocket Area, with a mean annual failure rate of 0.006, has over $9 billion at risk. Although refinements to these risk estimates are possible, this paper and the Delta Risk Management Strategy analyses provide more than sufficient evidence that flooding in the Sacramento- San Joaquin Delta presents significant risks to California and the nation. Hundreds of lives and billions of dollar damages are at risk. Urgent action is necessary to manage those risks. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Shuster W.D.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency |
Burkman C.E.,Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education |
Grosshans J.,Community Planner |
Dadio S.,Ltd Liability Corporation LLC |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management | Year: 2014
The demolition process impacts how vacant land might be reused for storm water management. For five residential demolition sites (Cleveland, Ohio), an enhanced green demolition process was observed in 2012, and soil physical and hydrologic characteristics were measured predemolition and postdemolition (including within the excavation). Measurements were taken again in 2013 after backfill and topsoil had settled for 1 year. In their predemolition condition, the sites were found to be underlain with sandy loam soils, with three of the parcels containing close to 100% impervious area. The subgrade excavated surface was compacted by excavator activity and had overall moderate permeability. This pilot feasibility study indicates that the green specifications suggested were partially successful in producing vacant lots that were useful for storm water management. Although coarser sandy loam soils were specified, the actual placement of fine-textured fill soils with lower permeability led to higher runoff potential. In each of the five demolitions, the specification for complete debris removal was apparently effective, with less measured buried debris than for traditional demolitions. Contractors need better guidance on soil selection and placement to yield vacant land that is flexible and usable for green infrastructure and other redevelopment options. © ASCE.
Nitzkin J.L.,Ltd Liability Corporation LLC
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2014
A carefully structured Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR) initiative, with e-cigarettes as a prominent THR modality, added to current tobacco control programming, is the most feasible policy option likely to substantially reduce tobacco-attributable illness and death in the United States over the next 20 years. E-cigarettes and related vapor products are the most promising harm reduction modalities because of their acceptability to smokers. There are about 46 million smokers in the United States, and an estimated 480,000 deaths per year attributed to cigarette smoking. These numbers have been essentially stable since 2004. Currently recommended pharmaceutical smoking cessation protocols fail in about 90% of smokers who use them as directed, even under the best of study conditions, when results are measured at six to twelve months. E-cigarettes have not been attractive to non-smoking teens or adults. Limited numbers non-smokers have experimented with them, but hardly any have continued their use. The vast majority of e-cigarette use is by current smokers using them to cut down or quit cigarettes. E-cigarettes, even when used in no-smoking areas, pose no discernable risk to bystanders. Finally, addition of a THR component to current tobacco control programming will likely reduce costs by reducing the need for counseling and drugs. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
llc Ltd liability corporation | Date: 2012-12-11
Eyewear, namely, sunglasses, eyeglasses and ophthalmic frames and cases therefor.