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Shreveport, LA, United States

Kolluru G.K.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Prasai P.K.,LSUHSC Shreveport | Kaskas A.M.,LSUHSC Shreveport | Letchuman V.,LSUHSC Shreveport | Pattillo C.B.,LSUHSC Shreveport
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2016

Molecular oxygen (O2) is an essential component for survival and development. Variation in O2 levels leads to changes in molecular signaling and ultimately affects the physiological functions of many organisms. Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are two gaseous cellular signaling molecules that play key roles in several physiological functions involved in maintaining vascular homeostasis including vasodilation, anti-inflammation, and vascular growth. Apart from the aforementioned functions, NO and H2S are believed to mediate hypoxic responses and serve as O2 chemosensors in biological systems. In this literature review, we briefly discuss NO and H2S and their roles during hypoxia. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

Sampath R.,LSUHSC Shreveport | Katira K.,LSUHSC Shreveport | Vannemreddy P.,LSUHSC Shreveport | Patil S.,LSUHSC Shreveport | Nanda A.,LSUHSC Shreveport
Journal of Neurological Surgery, Part A: Central European Neurosurgery | Year: 2014

Objective To find a safe operative corridor to the ventricular trigone avoiding injury to the optic radiations (ORs). Methods In 24 adult hemispheres, dimensions of the atrium, height of the OR, and the cortex-to-atrium distance were measured. Superior parietal lobule (SPL), parieto-occipital sulcus (POS), and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) traced approaches were used to measure maximum safe angles to enter the atrium without traversing the OR. A statistical algorithm was generated using these measurements to predict the height of the OR and safe angles from measurements from MR imaging of five test hemispheres. Statistically calculated angles were compared with measured angles from dissection. Results Mean length and height of atrium, height of OR, and cortico-atrium distances were 2.07 cm, 3.36 cm, 2.53 cm, and 4.11 cm, respectively. The height of the atrium influenced the height of the OR significantly (p < 0.0001). The height of the dilated and small atrium was > 4.5 cm (> 95th percentile) and < 2 cm (< 5th percentile), respectively. For the SPL approach, the mean sagittal angle was 15.75 to 41.04 degrees; the mean coronal angle was - 17.08 to 14.92 degrees. For the POS approach, the mean sagittal angle was 51.29 to 70.1 degrees; the mean coronal angle was -8.63 to 17.22 degrees. Mean calculated height (statistically) of the OR was 0.29 mm above the mean observed height (dissection). The calculated angles and observed angles were very similar when tested for a variability of ± 2 degrees. Conclusion The height of the normal atrium was 2.58 cm (height of atrium to height of OR ratio was 1:0.76). An operative corridor to the atrium without damaging the OR can be calculated from MR imaging of the brain. © 2014 Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York.

Wang Y.,LSUHSC Shreveport | Wang Y.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Lewis D.F.,University of Cincinnati | Gu Y.,LSUHSC Shreveport | And 2 more authors.
Hypertension | Year: 2011

Increased inflammatory response plays a significant role in the vascular pathophysiology in preeclampsia. However, the mechanism for increased inflammatory response in preeclampsia is largely unknown. Interleukin (IL)-6 levels are elevated in women with preeclampsia. IL-6 and its receptors, IL-6R and glycoprotein (gp)130, play a critical role in mediating antiinflammatory response via induction of SOCS-3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling-3). However, IL-6 receptor levels and expressions have not been studied in preeclampsia. In this study, we measured IL-6 and its 2 soluble receptors, soluble IL-6R and soluble gp130, in maternal plasma from normal and preeclamptic pregnant women and found that not only IL-6 but also soluble gp130 levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic women than in normotensive pregnant controls. We further examined IL-6R, gp130, and SOCS-3 expressions in maternal vessels and leukocytes and found that gp130 and SOCS-3 expressions were downregulated in both vessel endothelium and leukocytes from preeclampsia. Different patterns for IL-6R and gp130 expressions were found. IL-6R expression was also downregulated in leukocytes from preeclampsia. Our results suggest that increased plasma soluble gp130/soluble IL-6R/IL-6 ratio and reduced membrane transsignaling gp130 expression could contribute to decreased SOCS-3 expression and subsequent reduction in SOCS-3 antiinflammatory activity in women with preeclampsia. Thus, reduced gp130 and SOCS-3 expressions may offer, at least in part, a plausible explanation of reduced antiinflammatory protection in the maternal vascular system in preeclampsia. © 2011 American Heart Association. All rights reserved.

Rapoport Y.,LSUHSC Shreveport | Fox C.J.,LSUHSC Shreveport | Khade P.,LSUHSC Shreveport | Fox M.E.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Anesthesia | Year: 2015

Dextrocardia, a term used to describe all varieties of developmental malformations resulting in the positioning of the heart in the right hemithorax, is linked to a number of highly significant cardiac disorders. Current estimates vary tremendously in the literature. Only about 10 % of patients with diagnosed dextroversion show no substantial cardiac pathology; however, the incidence of congenital heart defects associated with dextrocardia is close to 100 %. The majority of studies previously reported include dextrocardia associated with situs inversus and cases of Kartagener syndrome. There is complex embryology and pathogenesis that results in dextrocardia. Physical examinations of the heart, such as percussion and palpation during routine exams, are vitally important initial diagnostic instruments. X-ray, CT scan, echocardiography (ECHO), and MRI are all invaluable imaging modalities to confirm and classify the diagnosis of dextrocardia. In summary, heart malposition is a group of complex pathologic associations within the human body, rather than just a single congenital defect. Clinicians such as anesthesiologists have unique challenges managing patients with dextrocardia. An appreciation of associated pathogenesis, appropriate diagnosis, and management is paramount in ensuring the best outcome for these patients perioperatively. © 2015, Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists.

Ali N.,LSUHSC Shreveport | Patil S.T.,LSUHSC Shreveport | Vannemreddy P.,LSUHSC Shreveport | Ogden A.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine | Year: 2011

Object. Anterior screw fixation of the Type II odontoid fracture stabilizes the odontoid without restricting the motion of the cervical spine. The metal screw may limit bone remodeling because of stress shielding (if not placed properly) and limit imaging of the fracture. The use of bioabsorbable screws can overcome such shortcomings of the metal screws. The purpose of this study was to compare the strength of a 5-mm bioabsorbable screw with single 4-mm metal and double 3.5-mm lag screw fixation for Type II fractures of the odontoid process. Methods. Three different modalities of anterior screw fixation were used in 19 C-2 vertebrae. These fixation methods consisted of a single 5-mm cannulated bioabsorbable lag screw (Group A), a single 4-mm cannulated titanium lag screw (Group B), and two 3.5-mm cannulated titanium lag screws (Group C). Anteroposterior (AP) stiffness and rotational stiffness were evaluated in all constructs. Results. There was no statistical difference among the ages of the cadavers in each group (p = 0.52). The AP bending stiffness in Groups A, B, and C was 117 ± 86, 66 ± 43, and 305 ± 130 Nm/mm, respectively. The AP bending stiffness in Group C was significantly higher than that in Groups A and B (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively). The difference in AP bending stiffness values of bioabsorbable and 4-mm metal screws was not statistically significant (p = 0.23). The rotational stiffness of the double 3.5-mm metal screws was significantly greater than that of the 5-mm bioabsorbable and the 4-mm titanium screws. Conclusions. Double screw fixation with 3.5-mm screws provides the stiffest construct in Type II odontoid fractures. Bioabsorbable lag screws (5 mm) have the same AP bending and rotational stiffness as the single titanium lag screw (4 mm) in odontoid fractures.

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