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Tate Jr. D.J.,Louisiana State University | Patterson J.R.,Louisiana State University | Velasco-Gonzalez C.,LSUHSC | Carroll E.N.,Ohio State University | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains one of the most resistant tumors to systemic chemo-therapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy. Despite great progress in understanding the basic biology of RCC, the rate of responses in animal models and clinical trials using interferons (IFNs) has not improved significantly. It is likely that the lack of responses can be due to the tumor's ability to develop tumor escape strategies. Currently, the use of targeted therapies has improved the clinical outcomes of patients with RCC and is associated with an increase of Th1-cytokine responses (IFNγ), indicating the importance of IFNγ in inhibiting tumor prolif-eration. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate a new mechanism by which IFNγ mediates direct anti-proliferative effects against murine renal cell carcinoma cell lines. When cultured RCC cell lines were exposed to murine recombinant IFNγ a dose dependent growth inhibition in CL-2 and CL-19 cells was observed; this effect was not observed in Renca cells. Growth inhibition in CL-2 and CL-19 cell lines was associated with the intracellular induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein, resulting in a sustained elevation of nitric oxide (NO) and citrulline, and a decrease in arginase activity. The inhibition of cell proliferation appears to be due to an arrest in the cell cycle. The results indicate that in certain RCC cell lines, IFNγ modulates L-arginine metabolism by shifting from arginase to iNOS activity, thereby devel-oping a potent inhibitory mechanism to encumber tumor cell proliferation and survival. Elu-cidating the cellular events triggered by IFNγ in murine RCC cell lines will permit anti-tumor effects to be exploited in the development of new combination therapies that interfere with L-arginine metabolism to effectively combat RCC in patients. © Ivyspring International Publisher.

Javalkar V.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Manix M.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Wilson J.,LSUHSC | Nanda A.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Open ring enhancement is considered highly specific for atypical demyelination. In this report we present a patient with a history of headache, ataxia and sensory disturbances in the lower extremities. A cranial MRI scan showed a large frontal lesion with mass effect, midline shift and with open ring enhancement. These findings are characteristics of tumefactive multiple sclerosis. Such lesions can be confused with neoplasms and abscesses. Open ring enhancement may help in differentiating atypical demyelination from a neoplasm or an abscess. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Amin A.,Tulane University | Choi S.-K.,Tulane University | Galan M.,Tulane University | Kassan M.,Tulane University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2012

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation are important mechanisms that underlie many of the serious consequences of type II diabetes. However, the role of ER stress and inflammation in impaired ischaemia-induced neovascularization in type II diabetes is unknown. We studied ischaemia-induced neovascularization in the hind-limb of 4-week-old db - /db- mice and their controls treated with or without the ER stress inhibitor (tauroursodeoxycholic acid, TUDCA, 150 mg/kg per day) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra, 0.5 μg/mouse per day) for 4 weeks. Blood pressure was similar in all groups of mice. Blood glucose, insulin levels, and body weight were reduced in db - /db- mice treated with TUDCA. Increased cholesterol and reduced adiponectin in db - /db- mice were restored by TUDCA and anakinra treatment. ER stress and inflammation in the ischaemic hind-limb in db - /db- mice were attenuated by TUDCA and anakinra treatment. Ischaemia-induced neovascularization and blood flow recovery were significantly reduced in db - /db- mice compared to control. Interestingly, neovascularization and blood flow recovery were restored in db - /db- mice treated with TUDCA or anakinra compared to non-treated db - /db- mice. TUDCA and anakinra enhanced eNOS-cGMP, VEGFR2, and reduced ERK1/2 MAP-kinase signalling, while endothelial progenitor cell number was similar in all groups of mice. Our findings demonstrate that the inhibition of ER stress and inflammation prevents impaired ischaemia-induced neovascularization in type II diabetic mice. Thus, ER stress and inflammation could be potential targets for a novel therapeutic approach to prevent impaired ischaemia-induced vascular pathology in type II diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Yeh K.,LSUHSC | Yeh K.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Yeh M.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Glass J.,LSUHSC | Glass J.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Gastroenterology | Year: 2011

Background & Aims: Ferroportin (Fpn) is a multiple transmembrane protein required for iron export into the systemic circulation, in cooperation with hephaestin (Heph). Despite the importance of Fpn in iron transport, there is controversy about its topology and functional state upon interaction with Heph. Methods: The topology of Fpn was determined using monospecific antisera against its different epitopes, in sheets of cells from duodenum that were or were not permeabilized with detergent. Immunoprecipitation and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by immunoblot analysis, were used to determine the extent of interactions between Fpn and Heph. Antisera against the intracellular, C-termini of divalent metal transporter (Dmt1) and Heph served as controls. Results: Immunofluorescence analysis with antisera against amino acids 172193 of Fpn (anti-Fpn 172) detected Fpn only in permeabilized cells, whereas anti-Fpn 232 (amino acids 232249), anti-Fpn 370 (amino acids 370420), and anti-Fpn C (the C-terminus) detected Fpn in nonpermeabilized and permeabilized cells. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that Fpn and Heph coprecipitated with either anti-Fpn or anti-Heph. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis studies revealed that a fraction of Fpn comigrates with Heph; the apparent interaction decreases after iron ingestion. Conclusions: Studies with antisera to different epitopes of Fpn indicate that the topology of Fpn is consistent with an 11-transmembrane model, with the C-terminus exposed on the cell surface. Reduced interactions between Fpn and Heph after iron ingestion indicate that this is a regulatory mechanism for limiting further iron absorption. © 2011 AGA Institute.

Lentz J.J.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Jodelka F.M.,Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science | Hinrich A.J.,Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science | Mccaffrey K.E.,Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science | And 6 more authors.
Nature Medicine | Year: 2013

Hearing impairment is the most common sensory disorder, with congenital hearing impairment present in approximately 1 in 1,000 newborns1. Hereditary deafness is often mediated by the improper development or degeneration of cochlear hair cells2. Until now, it was not known whether such congenital failures could be mitigated by therapeutic intervention3,4,5. Here we show that hearing and vestibular function can be rescued in a mouse model of human hereditary deafness. An antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) was used to correct defective pre-mRNA splicing of transcripts from the USH1C gene with the c.216G>A mutation, which causes human Usher syndrome, the leading genetic cause of combined deafness and blindness6,7. Treatment of neonatal mice with a single systemic dose of ASO partially corrects Ush1c c.216G>A splicing, increases protein expression, improves stereocilia organization in the cochlea, and rescues cochlear hair cells, vestibular function and low-frequency hearing in mice. These effects were sustained for several months, providing evidence that congenital deafness can be effectively overcome by treatment early in development to correct gene expression and demonstrating the therapeutic potential of ASOs in the treatment of deafness. Copyright © 2013 Nature America, Inc.

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