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Dewan R.K.,LRS Institute of TB and Respiratory Diseases
European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery | Year: 2010

Background: Surgery for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has become rather limited. However, it is still required for some sequelae and complications. This is a 15-year retrospective study of cases operated upon for pulmonary TB at a centre. Patients and methods: A total of 2878 cases underwent surgical procedures for various complications of pulmonary TB over a 15-year-long period. After excluding those managed by tube thoracostomy, rib resection and open-window thoracostomy, 1297 cases out of this series were taken up for major thoracic surgical procedures. A total of 98 were operated for persistent sputum-positive status, 740 for recurrent massive haemoptysis or chest infections, 2024 for empyema and 18 for diagnostic reasons. Procedures were 830 lung resections, 12 primary thoracoplasties, 295 space-reducing thoracoplasties, 158 decortications, 744 open-window thoracoplasties and 837 tube thoracotomies alone. Results: There were 18 early deaths and 37 late deaths. The cause of death was haemorrhage in seven cases and respiratory failure in nine cases and septicaemia in two cases. Late deaths were mostly because of progressive tubercular disease. There was significant morbidity in terms of broncho-pleural fistula (BPF) in 95 cases and persistent sinus in 37 cases. Milder complications such as pneumonia, fever and wound sepsis were noticed in some cases but definite records were not available. BPF was managed by tube drainage followed by either window thoracostomy or thoracoplasty. In multi-drug-resistant (MDR) cases, persistent documented sputum negativity was achieved in 64 out of 86 cases. Results were better in haemoptysis and chest infection group where the desired result was achieved in 699 cases. Conclusions: Surgery in pulmonary TB is still relevant in many cases and yields a very gratifying result. It is a challenging surgery and this series is a very large one. © 2009 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery.

Kalra M.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Khuller G.K.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Grover A.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Behera D.,LRS Institute of TB and Respiratory Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2010

We evaluated the diagnostic potential of a cocktail of 4 antigens encoded by regions of difference (RD) 1 and 2 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, that is, early secretory antigenic target-6, culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10), CFP-21, and mycobacterial protein from species tuberculosis-64 (MPT-64) on the basis of antigen and antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Parallel detection of antigens and antibodies in the serum samples of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients resulted in higher sensitivity as compared to either of the single tests in both smear-positive (90%) and smear-negative (60%) PTB patients. In addition, combined detection of antigens and antibodies in the fluids of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) patients could detect >90% of the patients with high specificity. These results demonstrate the ability of the combination of antigen and antibody detection assays based on the cocktail of RD antigens to diagnose a substantial number of PTB and EPTB cases with high specificity. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Myneedu V.P.,LRS Institute of TB and Respiratory Diseases | Sharma P.P.,LRSI Institute of TB and Respiratory Diseases
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis | Year: 2011

Introduction: A large number of tuberculosis cases are continuously being reported from India and other developing countries leading to high morbidity and mortality. In spite of many newer tests available for diagnosing a case of tuberculosis, smear microscopy of sputum is still the preferred test under programmatic conditions. The current national and international guidelines recommend two sputum smear examinations in two days for diagnosing cases of tuberculosis, which is time-consuming, tedious, needs multiple visits, leading to high dropout of infectious cases. In the background of existing limitations of smear microscopy, we attempted to complete the diagnosis of tuberculosis on same day by serial collection of the spot sputum specimen and analyze its advantages, feasibility and viability. Material & Methods: The study was undertaken by the Department of Microbiology, Lala Ram Sarup Institute of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases during May 2010 to April 2011. Sputum specimens were collected from 330 randomly selected tuberculosis suspects who attended OPD of hospital, patients submitted spot and home collected morning sputum sample in a standard method and spot and additional spot sputum(X- spot) collected one hour after the first spot sample as per the proposed front loading method. All the samples received were stained by acid fast Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain and examined on the same day. The sputum sample was pooled and cultured in Lowenstein Jensen (U) media in duplicate set of bottles. The results of two different microscopic methods were compared with the gold standard culture test. Results: Out of the total 330 TB suspects, 70.60% were males and 29.39% females. The most common complaint was of cough with sputum (88.18%), chest pain (70.21%), fever (55.15%) and loss of appetite (43.03%). Upon examining the total sputum slides, 18.48 % were positive for acid fast bacilli. The smear positivity was 61/330(18.48%) by standard methods and in proposed new method 43/330(13.03%). Sensitivity of the standard and proposed new method smear microscopy was 58.25% and 40.07% respectively and specificity was 99.55% in both the methods. Conclusion: Same day smear microscopy for diagnosing tuberculosis by a proposed new method of smear examination in the case of suspected tuberculosis seems not a promising step towards improving the quality of sputum smear examination. The results of sensitivity and specificity of the two approaches were not similar. More than eighty per cent responded in favour of same day sputum delivery system and getting result on same day. This study can be confirmed on larger scale and preference of patients can be examined in peripheral laboratory also before taking it up for consideration in the national tuberculosis programme.

Mehta P.K.,Maharshi Dayanand University | Kalra M.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Khuller G.K.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Behera D.,LRS Institute of TB and Respiratory Diseases | Verma I.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2012

Immuno-polymerase chain reaction (I-PCR) combines the versatility of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the exponential amplification power of PCR. The present study was designed to detect antibodies to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex-specific region of difference (RD) antigens, i.e., early secretory antigenic target-6, culture filtrate protein-10, culture filtrate protein-21, and mycobacterial protein from species tuberculosis-64, as well as antigens in pulmonary tuberculosis patients by I-PCR assay. We could detect ESAT-6 and other RD antigens up to 0.1 fg by I-PCR assay, thus resulting in 10 7 times higher sensitivity than that observed with ELISA. With paired sample analysis based on the detection of antibodies in serum and antigens in sputum of the same individual, the sensitivity of RD multi-antigen cocktail-based I-PCR assay was 72% in smear-negative cases and 91% in smear-positive cases of pulmonary tuberculosis with high specificity values. In extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients, higher sensitivity was observed by detecting cocktail of antigens by I-PCR assay as compared to sensitivity earlier observed in the same samples by ELISA. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..

Siddiqi S.,Becton Dickinson | Ahmed A.,Indus Hospital | Asif S.,Indus Hospital | Behera D.,LRS Institute of TB and Respiratory Diseases | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

Conventional indirect drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with liquid medium is well established and offers time-saving and reliable results. This multicenter study was carried out to evaluate if drug susceptibility testing (DST) can be successfully carried out directly from processed smear-positive specimens (direct DST) and if this approach could offer substantial time savings. Sputum specimens were digested, decontaminated, and concentrated by the laboratory routine procedure and were inoculated in Bactec MGIT 960 as well as Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium for primary isolation. All the processed specimens which were acid-fast bacterium (AFB) smear positive were used for setting up direct DST for isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF). After the antimicrobial mixture of polymyxin B, amphotericin B, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, and azlocillin (PANTA) was added, the tubes were entered in the MGIT 960 instrument using the 21-day protocol (Bactec 960 pyrazinamide [PZA] protocol). Results obtained by direct DST were compared with those obtained by indirect DST to establish accuracy and time savings by this approach. Of a total of 360 AFB smear-positive sputum specimens set up for direct DST at four sites in three different countries, 307 (85%) specimens yielded reportable results. Average reporting time for direct DST was 11 days (range, 10 to 12 days). The average time savings by direct DST compared to indirect DST, which included time to isolate a culture and perform DST, was 8 days (range, 6 to 9 days). When results of direct DST were compared with those of indirect DST, there was 95.1% concordance with INH and 96.1% with rifampin. These findings indicate that direct DST with the Bactec MGIT 960 system offers further time savings and is a quick method to reliably detect multidrug resistance (MDR) cases. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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