Islamabad, Pakistan
Islamabad, Pakistan
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Memon S.Q.,Allama Iqbal Open University | Zakria M.,Allama Iqbal Open University | Nawaz M.H.,Maize Programme | Zameer Khan M.,LRRI
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2011

A field experiment was conducted at National Agriculture Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan to observe the emergence and grain yield of maize crop under different fertilizer applications viz. 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 kg ha-1 NPK and cattle manure 6000, 8000 and 10,000 kg ha-1 applied in the plots ploughed through tillage practices with deep tillage, conventional tillage and zero-tillage. The non significant interaction between fertilizers and tillage methods as well as between cattle manure and tillage methods each with three levels were found. It indicated that fertilizers and manures should be studied independently using pair wise comparison. Pair wise comparisons indicated that the fertilizer at the rate of 150-75-75 kg ha-1 (NPK) was suitable for best germination rate and grain yield of maize. Similarly the deep tillage was preferred over conventional and zero tillage, on the other hand, the highest level of manure (10000 kg ha-1) was recommended for best germination rate and grain yield, where as 8000 kg ha-1 for grain weight and number of grains per cob.

Conway H.,Merck And Co. | Dix K.J.,LRRI | McDonald J.D.,LRRI | Miller R.A.,Experimental Pathology Laboratories | And 3 more authors.
Inhalation Toxicology | Year: 2013

Nebulized gentamicin solution was administered to rats (nose-only) and dogs (face mask) for 14 days with a 14-day recovery period. Control groups of each were exposed to saline aerosols. Mean estimated inhaled lung doses of gentamicin were 39, 123 and 245mg/kg for rats (deposited doses 6, 17 and 34mg/kg) over 30, 90 and 180min, respectively. Since dogs do not tolerate exposures as long as rats, inhaled lung doses were limited to 7, 14 and 41mg/kg (deposited doses of 1, 3 and 8mg/kg) over 15, 30 and 60min. Comparable doses were achieved at the low dose for rats and high dose for dogs. Serum AUCs (14±2μg/ mL*h (mean±SD) at 6mg/kg in rats and 11±7μg/mL*h at 8mg/kg in dogs) showed comparable exposure between the two, implying similar absorbed doses and confirming similar deposited lung doses. Rat exposures resulted in dose-related lung pathology (including low dose) manifested as upper respiratory tract irritant reactions with alveolar histiocytosis, inflammation, airway epithelial metaplasia and lymphomegaly in lung tissue. This was associated with high lung tissue gentamicin levels 24h post-dose on Day 14 (375±33μg/g at deposited dose of 6mg/kg). Dose-related kidney tubular necrosis (a well-known toxicity of parenteral gentamicin) was observed, but no test-article related effects on lung histopathology in dogs (even at highest deposited dose of 8mg/kg) and low levels of lung tissue gentamicin (42±11μg/g) 24h post-dose on Day 14. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Alia,Hazara University | Afzal A.,Hazara University | Khokhar S.N.,LRRI | Jabeen B.,University of Wah | Asad S.A.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Forty two isolates were recovered as phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from rhizosphere of healthy plants of pea, spinach, lady's finger, French bean, kulfa, cauliflower, turnip, brassica, cucumber, coriander, onion, potato, capsicum, salad, eggplant and field mint from 25 locations in Mansehra district, Taxila area and Islamabad. PSB population ranged from 1.95×107 in lady's finger to 5.33×109 in turnip in Mansehra area. It ranged from 1.9×106 in spinach to 1.3×109 in field mint in Taxila area while in Islamabad up to 8×105 in spinach. Highest Solublization Index (4.25) was found in one isolate from spinach in Mansehra while 10 isolates from 10 vegetables had PSB of Solublization Index in the range of 3.5-4.4 from Taxila area. Solubilization capacity ranged from 5.32-151 μgmL-1. Among the tested isolates, SAFA-2 was found as the best in solubilizing phosphate 151 μgmL-1 with the drop in pH from 7.02-3.55. Population in Taxila area was found negatively correlated with clay, phosphorus and organic matter while, positively correlated with soil pH, EC and soil nitrate. The results indicated that soils of the study area inhabit PSB with great potential to be used as bio inoculants.

Fey R.A.,Isis Pharmaceuticals | Templin M.V.,Isis Pharmaceuticals | McDonald J.D.,LRRI | Yu R.Z.,Isis Pharmaceuticals | And 4 more authors.
Inhalation Toxicology | Year: 2014

Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) bind and facilitate degradation of RNA and inhibit protein expression in pathways not easily targeted with small molecules or antibodies. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 potentiate signaling through the shared IL-4 receptor-α (IL-4Ra) subunit of their receptors. ASO targeting of IL-4Rα mRNA in a mouse model of asthma led to attenuation of airway hyperactivity, demonstrating potential benefit in asthma patients. This study focused on tolerability of inhaled IL-4Rα-targeting ASOs. Toxicity studies were performed with mouse- (ISIS 23189) and human-specific (ISIS 369645) sequences administered by inhalation. Four week (monkey) or 13 week (mouse) repeat doses at levels of up to 15 mg/kg/exposure (exp) and 50 mg/kg/exp, respectively, demonstrated dose-dependent effects limited to increases in macrophage size and number in lung and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. The changes were largely non-specific, reflecting adaptive responses that occur during active exposure and deposition of ASO and other material in the lung. Reversibility was observed at a rate consistent with the kinetics of tissue clearance of ASO. Systemic bioavailability was minimal, and no systemic toxicity was observed at exposure levels appreciably above pharmacological doses and doses proposed for clinical trials. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

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