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Rathore D.S.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy | Shankar P.R.,Xavier University School of Medicine | Kc V.K.,PN Multiple Campus
BMC International Health and Human Rights | Year: 2014

Background: The unnecessary and unsafe use of injections is common in developing countries like Nepal. Policymakers have an important role in promoting rational and safe injection use. Hence, the present study was carried out to explore the perception of health policymakers regarding safe injection practice in Nepal. Methods. An exploratory qualitative study design was used in this study. Key policymakers from both the central and regional level were selected using purposive sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used after modifying the context. Interviews were conducted to clarify doubts and obtain additional information. The data was analyzed manually using deductive content analysis technique. Results: In total, eleven policymakers participated. All unanimously agreed that injection safety is a problem and seven participants reported that injections are overused. They shared the opinion that injections are administered by various providers, including formal and informal health providers, and also quacks. Almost half the respondents reported that the National Drug Policy discourages injection overuse, while others reported that the policy contains no provisions regarding injection overuse. Most policymakers stated that only single-use disposable injection equipment is used to provide injection, while others thought that sterilizable glass syringe is also used. More than half of the participants believed that the quality of injection equipment available in the Nepalese market is not regulated by any government institution. Almost two-third of the policymakers stated that syringes and needles are not reused, while the rest thought syringes might be reused without sterilization in some parts of the country. Almost half of the respondents stated that illegal commercialization of used syringes exists in Nepal. Almost all respondents thought that health care institutions have a waste management plan, while more than half of them opined that such plans are limited to tertiary care hospitals located in the capital. Conclusions: The result of this study revealed a divergence of views among policymakers, even among those in the same ministry. Though there has been some effort from the government to increase the safety of injection practices, greater efforts are required, especially with regard to standardization of policies and procedures related to injection practice. © 2014 Gyawali et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | Lr Institute Of Pharmacy, Patan Academy of Health science, KIST Medical College, University of Aden and Xavier University School of Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Australasian medical journal | Year: 2015

Pharmacovigilance concerns the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problems. Consumer pharmacovigilance is the involvement of consumers in adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting. Assessing healthcare professionals (HCPs) knowledge of and attitude towards pharmacovigilance and consumer pharmacovigilance is integral to strengthening adverse drug reaction reporting systems.To study knowledge of and attitude towards pharmacovigilance and consumer pharmacovigilance among HCPs from KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal, and to plan an appropriate educational intervention to address deficiencies noted.The study was conducted from February 2013 to December 2013 at KIST Medical College using a self-administered, pretested, structured questionnaire. The maximum possible scores for knowledge, attitude, and total were 100, 95, and 195, respectively. Baseline knowledge and attitude were studied. Two months after the questionnaire, an intervention that used a combination of methods about pharmacovigilance and consumer pharmacovigilance was undertaken. Knowledge and attitudes were studied immediately after the intervention. Scores before and after the intervention were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank test.A total of 105 HCPs participated. The median (interquartile range) knowledge, attitude, and total scores before the intervention were 56 (7), 72 (9), and 127 (16), respectively. After the intervention the scores increased significantly to 72 (8), 75 (11.5), and 146 (16.5) (p<0.001), respectively.The intervention was effective in improving HCPs knowledge of and attitude towards pharmacovigilance and consumer pharmacovigilance. More studies on this topic among HCPs at other institutions and in the community are required.

Bora K.S.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy | Sharma A.,Panjab University
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2011

Context: Medicinal plants are nature′s gift to human beings to make disease free healthy life, and play a vital role to preserve our health. They are believed to be much safer and proven elixir in the treatment of various ailments. The genus Artemisia (Astraceae) consists of about 500 species, occurring throughout the world. The present review comprises the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and therapeutic potential of various species of Artemisia. Objective: The aim of this this review is to bring together most of the available scientific research conducted on the genus Artemisia, which is currently scattered across various publications. Through this review the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of Artemisia species. Methods: This review has been compiled using references from major databases such as Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, PubMed, King′s American Dispensatory, Henriette′s Herbal Homepage, Dr. Duke′s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Results: An exhaustive survey of literature revealed that the different species of Artemisia have a vast range of biological activities including antimalarial, cytotoxic, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity. Some very important drug leads have been discovered from this genus, notably artemisinin, the well known antimalarial drug isolated from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. Conclusion: Various species of Artemisia seems to hold great potential for in-depth investigation for various biological activities, especially their effects on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Bora K.S.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy | Sharma A.,Panjab University
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2011

Context: Many herbal remedies have so far been employed for the treatment and management of various ailments since the beginning of human civilization. Medicago is an extensive genus of the family Leguminosae, comprising about 83 different species. Medicago sativa (Linn.) has long been used as traditional herbal medicine in China, Iraq, Turkey, India and America for the treatment of a variety of ailments. Objectives: The aim of this review was to collect all available scientific literature published and combine it into this review. The present review comprises the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and therapeutic potential of M. sativa. Methods: The present review includes 117 references compiled from major databases as Chemical Abstracts, Science Direct, SciFinder, PubMed, Dr. Dukes Phytochemical and Ethnobotany, CIMER, and InteliHealth. Results: An exhaustive survey of literature revealed that saponins, flavonoids, phytoestrogens, coumarins, alkaloids, amino acids, phytosterols, vitamins, digestive enzymes and terpenes constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of this plant. Pharmacological reports revealed that it is used as neuroprotective, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, antiulcer, antimicrobial, hypolipidemic, estrogenic, and in the treatment of atherosclerosis, heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes and menopausal symptoms in women. Conclusion: M. sativa seems to hold great potential for in-depth investigation for various biological activities, especially their effects on central nervous and cardiovascular system. Through this review, the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of M. sativa, and it may be useful in developing new formulations with more therapeutic value. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Aggarwal S.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy | Agarwal S.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy | Jalhan S.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

Transdermal drug delivery system established itself as an integral part of a novel drug delivery system because of various factors like high bioavailability, absence of first pass metabolism, steady drug plasma concentration. There aremany obstacles that do not allow drug to penetrate deeper into the skin. Now a day's various skin penetration enhancement techniques have been developed to limit this barrier by use of various natural penetration enhancers like essential oils. This review covers the role of essential oils in a transdermal drug delivery system as a skin permeation enhancer because of various factors like natural from its origin, promising penetration enhancement activities and mechanism of action is probably due to its increased skin vehicle partitioning by the oils.

Bora K.S.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy | Shri R.,Punjabi University | Monga J.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2011

Context: Oxidative stress is believed to increase delayed neuronal death in the brain following ischemia. As a consequence, many attempts to reduce the damage resulting from cerebral ischemia under more highly oxidized conditions have focused on treatments aimed at maintaining the redox equilibrium of the local environment. Many antioxidants were shown to be neuroprotective in experimental models of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective effects of ethanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Lamiaceae) (EEOg) against focal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) insult in rat brain. Materials and methods: The animal model of focal I/R was established by occluding the middle cerebral artery (MCA) of male Wistar rats for 2 h, followed by 24 h reperfusion. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were determined by colorimetric assays. The characterization and quantitative analysis of phenolic content was determined using HPLC. Results: MCA occlusion led to significant rise in cerebral infarct volume and lipid peroxidation, and depletion in SOD and GPx in brain. The neurological deficits were also significantly elevated by MCA occlusion. All the brain oxidative stress, damage and neurological deficits were significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with EEOg (150 or 300 mg/kg, p.o.). Conclusion: The overall finding suggests the neuroprotective potential of O. gratissimum in cerebral ischemia, and is mediated through its antioxidant activity. Therefore, O. gratissimum should be investigated further as a possible strategy against cerebral stroke. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Kaushik K.,LR Institute of Pharmacy | Sharma R.B.,LR Institute of Pharmacy | Agarwal S.,LR Institute of Pharmacy
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research | Year: 2016

Active ingredient and excipients are two main ingredients of any pharmaceutical formulation. Excipients help in the manufacturing of dosage form as well as improve physicochemical parameters of the dosage form. Polymers play a vital role in any dosage form as excipients. The influencing capacity of polymers towards the drug release and should be compatible, non-toxic, and stable and economic etc. They are broadly classified in three categories viz. natural polymers, semi-synthetic and synthetic polymers. Natural polymers are generally used as rate controlling agents, taste masking agents, protective and stabilizing agents in the oral drug delivery system. To provide uniform drug delivery certain polymers are used to reduce the frequency of dosing and to increase effectiveness of the drug by localization at the site of action. Nowadays, due to many problems associated with drug release and side effects of synthetic polymers manufacturers are inclined towards using natural polymers. Natural polymers being polysaccharides are biocompatible and without any side effects. Applications of natural polymers in pharmacy are large in comparison to the synthetic polymers and have wide scope in food and the cosmetic industry. © 2016, Global Research Online. All rights reserved.

Sharma D.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy | Vashist H.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy
Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2015

Citrus fruit peels and leaves have always been the imperative attention of different researchers in pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical field. Moreover, the aroma of essential oil gains good reputation in aromatherapy. The volatile oil from leaves and rind of the citrus fruit has been reported by Hydrodistillation and expression methods several times. At this time, in present study, extraction of volatile oil forms the leaves and peels of fruit from citrus plants were obtained by hydrodistillation. Total seven Citrus plants Citrus lemon, Citrus medica, Citrus aurantium, Citrus pseudolemon, Citrus sinensis, Citrus reticulate and Citrus maxima were selected here for extraction. The percentage yield so obtained was compared. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc.

Bora K.S.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy | Sharma A.,Panjab University
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2011

Antioxidants have been the focus of studies for developing neuroprotective agents to be used in the therapy for stroke, which is an acute and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Medicago sativa (MS) has a long tradition of use as ayurvedic and homoeopathic medicine in central nervous system disorders. The plant has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of methanol extract of MS on ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury in mice. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 15min followed by 24-h reperfusion, resulted in significant elevation in infarct size, xanthine oxidase (XO) activity, superoxide anion (O()2) production and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels, and significant depletion in endogenous antioxidant [reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total tissue sulfhydryl (T-SH) groups] systems in mice brain. Further, BCAO led to impairment in short-term memory and motor coordination. Pre-treatment with MS (100 or 200mgkg(1), p.o.) markedly reduced cerebral infarct size, XO, O()2 and TBARS levels, significantly restored GSH, SOD and T-SH levels and attenuated impairment in short-term memory and motor coordination. In addition, MS directly scavenged free radicals generated against a stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and O()2 generated in phenazine methosulphate-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide systems, and also inhibited XD/XO conversion and resultant O()2 production. The data from this study suggest that treatment with MS enhances the antioxidant defense against BCAO-induced global cerebral ischemia and exhibits neuroprotective activity. Copyright 2011 Kundan Singh Bora and Anupam Sharma.

PubMed | Lr Institute Of Pharmacy
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current drug delivery | Year: 2015

Mucoadhesion can be defined as adhesion in biological setting. Process of mucoadhesion takes place in 3 stages- the first stage being that of wetting or swelling of mucoadhesive polymer. Second stage involves interpenetration of the chains of mucoadhesive polymer and the third stage involves formation of chemical bonds between entangled chains. Several polymer related factors like molecular weight, chain length, degree of cross-linking, hydration, functional groups, charge, polymer concentration and several environmental and physiological factors like contact time, mucin turnover rate and mucus viscosity affect the degree of mucoadhesion. Formulation scientists have structured and engineered several mucoadhesive polymers for their usefulness in enhancement of bioavailability, controlled and targeted drug delivery. Mucoadhesive polymers can be classified as non-specific first generation polymers and novel second generation polymers based on the mechanism of mucoadhesion. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems have been applied to buccal cavity, oesophagus, gastrointestinal tract, eye, nasal cavity, vagina and rectal cavity. Several in vitro/ex vivo and in vivo evaluation techniques have evolved for the evaluation of mucoadhesive strength of these polymers. This review provides historical perspective on mucoadhesive polymers and an understanding of the phenomenon of mucoadhesion, factors affecting mucoadhesion, types of mucoadhesive polymers, their practical applications and the various evaluation techniques for determination of mucoadhesive strength.

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