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Bora K.S.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy | Sharma A.,Panjab University
Pharmaceutical Biology

Context: Medicinal plants are nature′s gift to human beings to make disease free healthy life, and play a vital role to preserve our health. They are believed to be much safer and proven elixir in the treatment of various ailments. The genus Artemisia (Astraceae) consists of about 500 species, occurring throughout the world. The present review comprises the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and therapeutic potential of various species of Artemisia. Objective: The aim of this this review is to bring together most of the available scientific research conducted on the genus Artemisia, which is currently scattered across various publications. Through this review the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of Artemisia species. Methods: This review has been compiled using references from major databases such as Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, PubMed, King′s American Dispensatory, Henriette′s Herbal Homepage, Dr. Duke′s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Results: An exhaustive survey of literature revealed that the different species of Artemisia have a vast range of biological activities including antimalarial, cytotoxic, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity. Some very important drug leads have been discovered from this genus, notably artemisinin, the well known antimalarial drug isolated from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. Conclusion: Various species of Artemisia seems to hold great potential for in-depth investigation for various biological activities, especially their effects on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Kumar D.,Sikkim University | Mariappan G.,Sikkim University | Husain A.,Jamia Hamdard University | Monga J.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy | Kumar S.,CAS Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry
Arabian Journal of Chemistry

A congeneric series of novel imidazolone fused quinazolinone derivatives were synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR, mass spectra and elemental analyses. All the compounds were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against cervical cancer (HeLa), breast cancer (MCF-7), leukemia cells (HL-60) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. The derivative 4e which bears a methoxy group at para position in phenyl ring of imidazolone displayed three fold potent activity against MCF-7 than that of the standard drug Cisplatin. The IC50 value of 4e against HepG2 is twofold lesser than Cisplatin whereas the IC50 value against HeLa and HL-60 was equivalent to Cisplatin. The result concludes that these derivatives can be further utilized as a promising anticancer agent. © 2014 King Saud University. Source

Rathore D.S.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy | Shankar P.R.,Xavier University School of Medicine | Kc V.K.,PN Multiple Campus
BMC International Health and Human Rights

Background: The unnecessary and unsafe use of injections is common in developing countries like Nepal. Policymakers have an important role in promoting rational and safe injection use. Hence, the present study was carried out to explore the perception of health policymakers regarding safe injection practice in Nepal. Methods. An exploratory qualitative study design was used in this study. Key policymakers from both the central and regional level were selected using purposive sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used after modifying the context. Interviews were conducted to clarify doubts and obtain additional information. The data was analyzed manually using deductive content analysis technique. Results: In total, eleven policymakers participated. All unanimously agreed that injection safety is a problem and seven participants reported that injections are overused. They shared the opinion that injections are administered by various providers, including formal and informal health providers, and also quacks. Almost half the respondents reported that the National Drug Policy discourages injection overuse, while others reported that the policy contains no provisions regarding injection overuse. Most policymakers stated that only single-use disposable injection equipment is used to provide injection, while others thought that sterilizable glass syringe is also used. More than half of the participants believed that the quality of injection equipment available in the Nepalese market is not regulated by any government institution. Almost two-third of the policymakers stated that syringes and needles are not reused, while the rest thought syringes might be reused without sterilization in some parts of the country. Almost half of the respondents stated that illegal commercialization of used syringes exists in Nepal. Almost all respondents thought that health care institutions have a waste management plan, while more than half of them opined that such plans are limited to tertiary care hospitals located in the capital. Conclusions: The result of this study revealed a divergence of views among policymakers, even among those in the same ministry. Though there has been some effort from the government to increase the safety of injection practices, greater efforts are required, especially with regard to standardization of policies and procedures related to injection practice. © 2014 Gyawali et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Jha N.,KIST Medical College | Rathore D.S.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy | Shankar P.R.,Xavier University School of Medicine | Thapa B.B.,Former Chief Drug Administrator | Alshakka M.,University of Aden
Australasian Medical Journal

In Nepal, reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occurs on a voluntary basis by doctors, pharmacists, nurses, health assistants, and other healthcare professionals. The country's pharmacovigilance program is still in its infancy; it has limited coverage and underreporting is common. This major limitation could be reduced with consumer involvement. This report examines the necessity and benefits of consumer involvement in Nepal's existing pharmacovigilance program, reflecting on existing examples of consumer pharmacovigilance in different countries to highlight the necessity for such a framework in Nepal. Source

Bora K.S.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy | Sharma A.,Panjab University
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Antioxidants have been the focus of studies for developing neuroprotective agents to be used in the therapy for stroke, which is an acute and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Medicago sativa (MS) has a long tradition of use as ayurvedic and homoeopathic medicine in central nervous system disorders. The plant has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of methanol extract of MS on ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury in mice. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 15min followed by 24-h reperfusion, resulted in significant elevation in infarct size, xanthine oxidase (XO) activity, superoxide anion (O()2) production and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels, and significant depletion in endogenous antioxidant [reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total tissue sulfhydryl (T-SH) groups] systems in mice brain. Further, BCAO led to impairment in short-term memory and motor coordination. Pre-treatment with MS (100 or 200mgkg(1), p.o.) markedly reduced cerebral infarct size, XO, O()2 and TBARS levels, significantly restored GSH, SOD and T-SH levels and attenuated impairment in short-term memory and motor coordination. In addition, MS directly scavenged free radicals generated against a stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and O()2 generated in phenazine methosulphate-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide systems, and also inhibited XD/XO conversion and resultant O()2 production. The data from this study suggest that treatment with MS enhances the antioxidant defense against BCAO-induced global cerebral ischemia and exhibits neuroprotective activity. Copyright 2011 Kundan Singh Bora and Anupam Sharma. Source

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