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News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: www.techtimes.com

Around 300 million tons of plastic is manufactured each year globally. Plastic is not naturally biodegradable and pollutes the environment. Environmental researchers have been persevering to find a way to dispose of the huge amounts of plastic and plastic products in an effective manner, without harming the Earth. A new study has found that a caterpillar commonly bred for fish bait can chew through polyethylene (plastic) products at an impressive rate. Researchers assert that the worm, known as wax worms (Galleria mellonella), can make sizable holes through plastic in just 30 to 40 minutes. Federica Bertocchini, a scientist at the Spanish National Research Council, conducted the study. Paolo Bombelli and Chris Howe from Cambridge University assisted CSIC's Bertocchini in the research. The idea of using wax worms first occurred to Bertocchini when she was cleaning out her backyard bee hive. These worms had infested the hive and while cleaning it, Bertocchini placed them inside a plastic bag. An hour later, she discovered the sizable holes in the bag and the plastic eating worms missing. Drawing inspiration from the incident, Bertocchini and her co-researchers started a study to figure out how the caterpillars were eating through the polyethylene. The scientists placed these wax worms on a sheet of plastic and recorded that each worm was able to create 2.2 holes per hour in the sheet. Overnight, these plastic-eating worms were able to go through around 92 milligrams of a shopping bag. The researchers estimated that it would likely take 100 of these wax worms a month to go through a standard 5.5 gram plastic shopping bag. The scientists also added dead wax worms to plastic and were surprised to see that even then the polyethylene bags were degraded. This suggested that the plastic-eating caterpillars were secreting some kind of enzyme or bacteria, which resulted in the degradation. "If a single enzyme is responsible for this chemical process, its reproduction on a large scale using biotechnological methods should be achievable," Bombelli shared. He added that the caterpillar was not essentially eating the plastic, but was using the chemical enzyme to break down polyethylene into ethylene glycol. The excessive use of polyethylene in packaging and manufacturing of shopping bags has resulted in the rise of plastic pollution over the years. Even low density polyethylene bags take around 100 years to degrade completely. While the highest density plastic takes up to 400 years to disintegrate. Scientists are optimistic that the wax worm research results would lead to some form of degradation process, which would be much faster than the current ones. However, some researchers opine that reducing plastic pollution should not rely on degradation methods, but instead focus on recycling plastic bags and minimizing their production. The research's results will be published in the next edition of Current Biology. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


News Article | April 24, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A research scientist at the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Federica Bertocchini, has discovered that wax worms (Galleria mellonella), which usually feed on honey and wax from the honeycombs of bees, are capable of degrading plastic. The discovery has been patented by the research scientists. The CSIC scientist worked on this research with Paolo Bombelli and Chris Howe from the University of Cambridge. The paper will be published in the next issue of Current Biology.


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

VIDEO:  The Djehuty Project, led by research professor, José Manuel Galán, from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), has discovered a 4,000-year-old funerary garden- the first such garden ever to be... view more The Djehuty Project, led by research professor, José Manuel Galán, from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), has discovered a 4,000-year-old funerary garden- the first such garden ever to be found- on the Dra Abu el-Naga hill in Luxor, Egypt. The discovery comes during the 16th year of archaeological excavations which are sponsored this year by Técnicas Reunidas and Indra. The discoveries made by this project shed light on a key epoch when, for the first time, Thebes (now Luxor) became the capital of the unified kingdom of Upper and Lower Egypt about 4,000 years ago. Dr. Jose Galán explains, "We knew of the possible existence of these gardens since they appear in illustrations both at the entrances to tombs as well as on tomb walls, where Egyptians would depict how they wanted their funerals to be. The garden itself consisted of a small rectangular area, raised half a meter off the ground and divided into 30 cm2 beds. In addition, next to the garden, two trees were planted. This is the first time that a physical garden has ever been found, and it is therefore the first time that archaeology can confirm what had been deduced from iconography. The discovery and thorough analysis of the garden will provide valuable information about both the botany and the environmental conditions of ancient Thebes, of Luxor 4,000 years ago". Galán continues, "The plants grown there would have had a symbolic meaning and may have played a role in funerary rituals. Therefore, the garden will also provide information about religious beliefs and practices as well as the culture and society at the time of the Twelfth Dynasty when Thebes became the capital of the unified kingdom of Upper and Lower Egypt for the first time. We know that palm, sycamore and Persea trees were associated with the deceased's power of resurrection. Similarly, plants such as the lettuce had connotations with fertility and therefore a return to life. Now we must wait to see what plants we can identify by analysing the seeds we have collected. It is a spectacular and quite unique find which opens up multiple avenues of research". "Digging in a necropolis not only allows us to discover details about the world of funerals, religious beliefs and funerary practices, it also helps us discover details about daily life, about society and about the physical environment, both plant and animal. The necropolis thus becomes, as the ancient Egyptians themselves believed, the best way to understand and embrace life", concludes the CSIC researcher. The garden, or funeral garden, was unearthed in an open courtyard at the entrance of a Middle Kingdom rock-cut tomb very probably from the Twelfth Dynasty, circa 2000 BCE. The garden, measuring 3m x 2m, is raised and is divided into a grid arrangement of 30 cm2 beds distributed in rows of five or seven beds. View of the funeral garden with a bowl of dates and seeds found in the orchard. / CSIC According to experts, these small beds may have contained different types of plants and flowers. In addition, at the centre of the raised garden there two beds which are set higher than the others where small trees or shrubs probably grew. In one corner, the researchers recovered a still upright tamarisk shrub complete with its roots and 30cm-long trunk, beside which was a bowl containing dates and other fruit which may have been given as an offering. In addition, attached to the facade of the tomb, which the garden is related to for the time being, a small mud-brick chapel (46cm high x 70cm wide x 55cm deep) with three stelae, or stone tombstones, in its interior was also uncovered. These are dated later than the tomb and the garden, coming from the Thirteenth Dynasty, around the year 1800 BCE. One of them belongs to Renef-seneb, and the other to "the soldier ("citizen") Khememi, the son of the lady of the house, Satidenu." On each, reference is made to Montu, a local god from ancient Thebes, and to the funerary gods Ptah, Sokar and Osiris. "These finds highlight the importance of the area around the Dra Abu el-Naga hill as a sacred centre for a wide range of worship activities during the Middle Kingdom. This helps us understand the high density of tombs in later times as well as the religious symbolism that this area of the necropolis holds", concludes the CSIC researcher.


Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms -Market Demand, Growth, Opportunities and Analysis of Top Key Player Forecast To 2022Pune , India - April 24, 2017 /MarketersMedia/ — Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Industry Description Wiseguyreports.Com Adds “Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms -Market Demand, Growth, Opportunities and Analysis of Top Key Player Forecast To 2022” To Its Research Database This report studies Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms in Global market, especially in North America, China, Europe, Southeast Asia, Japan and India, with production, revenue, consumption, import and export in these regions, from 2012 to 2016, and forecast to 2022. This report focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering CIMC Offshore Segment Keppel Corporation Sembcorp Marine Heerema Marine Contractors Maersk Drilling Shell DSME COSCO TSC CSIC Dalian Request for Sample Report @ https://www.wiseguyreports.com/sample-request/1218368-global-semi-submersible-drilling-platforms-market-professional-survey-report-2017 By types, the market can be split into Underwater Float Types Caisson Types By Application, the market can be split into Offshore Wind Turbines Oil and Natural Gas Drillings Others By Regions, this report covers (we can add the regions/countries as you want) North America China Europe Southeast Asia Japan India If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want. Leave a Query @ https://www.wiseguyreports.com/enquiry/1218368-global-semi-submersible-drilling-platforms-market-professional-survey-report-2017 Table of Contents Global Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Market Professional Survey Report 2017 1 Industry Overview of Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms 1.1 Definition and Specifications of Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms 1.1.1 Definition of Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms 1.1.2 Specifications of Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms 1.2 Classification of Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms 1.2.1 Underwater Float Types 1.2.2 Caisson Types 1.3 Applications of Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms 1.3.1 Offshore Wind Turbines 1.3.2 Oil and Natural Gas Drillings 1.3.3 Others 1.4 Market Segment by Regions 1.4.1 North America 1.4.2 China 1.4.3 Europe 1.4.4 Southeast Asia 1.4.5 Japan 1.4.6 India .... 8 Major Manufacturers Analysis of Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms 8.1 CIMC Offshore Segment 8.1.1 Company Profile 8.1.2 Product Picture and Specifications 8.1.2.1 Product A 8.1.2.2 Product B 8.1.3 CIMC Offshore Segment 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis 8.1.4 CIMC Offshore Segment 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Business Region Distribution Analysis 8.2 Keppel Corporation 8.2.1 Company Profile 8.2.2 Product Picture and Specifications 8.2.2.1 Product A 8.2.2.2 Product B 8.2.3 Keppel Corporation 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis 8.2.4 Keppel Corporation 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Business Region Distribution Analysis 8.3 Sembcorp Marine 8.3.1 Company Profile 8.3.2 Product Picture and Specifications 8.3.2.1 Product A 8.3.2.2 Product B 8.3.3 Sembcorp Marine 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis 8.3.4 Sembcorp Marine 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Business Region Distribution Analysis 8.4 Heerema Marine Contractors 8.4.1 Company Profile 8.4.2 Product Picture and Specifications 8.4.2.1 Product A 8.4.2.2 Product B 8.4.3 Heerema Marine Contractors 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis 8.4.4 Heerema Marine Contractors 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Business Region Distribution Analysis 8.5 Maersk Drilling 8.5.1 Company Profile 8.5.2 Product Picture and Specifications 8.5.2.1 Product A 8.5.2.2 Product B 8.5.3 Maersk Drilling 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis 8.5.4 Maersk Drilling 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Business Region Distribution Analysis 8.6 Shell 8.6.1 Company Profile 8.6.2 Product Picture and Specifications 8.6.2.1 Product A 8.6.2.2 Product B 8.6.3 Shell 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis 8.6.4 Shell 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Business Region Distribution Analysis 8.7 DSME 8.7.1 Company Profile 8.7.2 Product Picture and Specifications 8.7.2.1 Product A 8.7.2.2 Product B 8.7.3 DSME 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis 8.7.4 DSME 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Business Region Distribution Analysis 8.8 COSCO 8.8.1 Company Profile 8.8.2 Product Picture and Specifications 8.8.2.1 Product A 8.8.2.2 Product B 8.8.3 COSCO 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis 8.8.4 COSCO 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Business Region Distribution Analysis 8.9 TSC 8.9.1 Company Profile 8.9.2 Product Picture and Specifications 8.9.2.1 Product A 8.9.2.2 Product B 8.9.3 TSC 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis 8.9.4 TSC 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Business Region Distribution Analysis 8.10 CSIC Dalian 8.10.1 Company Profile 8.10.2 Product Picture and Specifications 8.10.2.1 Product A 8.10.2.2 Product B 8.10.3 CSIC Dalian 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis 8.10.4 CSIC Dalian 2016 Semi-submersible Drilling Platforms Business Region Distribution Analysis Buy Now @ https://www.wiseguyreports.com/checkout?currency=one_user-USD&report_id=1218368 Continued... Contact Us: Sales@Wiseguyreports.Com Ph: +1-646-845-9349 (Us) Ph: +44 208 133 9349 (Uk) Contact Info:Name: NORAH TRENTEmail: sales@wiseguyreports.comOrganization: WISE GUY RESEARCH CONSULTANTS PVT LTDAddress: Office No. 528, Amanora Chambers Magarpatta Road, Hadapsar Pune - 411028Phone: +91 841 198 5042Source URL: http://marketersmedia.com/semi-submersible-drilling-platforms-market-2017-global-analysis-opportunities-and-forecast-to-2022/189554For more information, please visit https://www.wiseguyreports.com/sample-request/1218368-global-semi-submersible-drilling-platforms-market-professional-survey-report-2017Source: MarketersMediaRelease ID: 189554


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The technology, patented by CSIC, is also being applied in the early detection of some types of cancer In addition, the total test time is 4 hours, 45 minutes, meaning clinical results could be obtained on the same day. The research is published today in the journal PLOS ONE. The biosensor combines micromechanical silicon structures with gold nanoparticles, both functionalised with p24-specific antibodies. At the end of the immunoassay procedure, p24 is sandwiched between the gold nanoparticles and the micromechanical silicon structures. The gold nanoparticles have optical resonances known as plasmons. These are capable of scattering light very efficiently and have become one of the structures to attract most interest in the field of optics over the last decade. Micromechanical structures are excellent mechanical sensors capable of detecting interactions as small as intermolecular forces. The combination of these two structures produces both mechanical and optical signals which amplify one another, producing remarkable sensitivity, to detect the p24. The technology, which has been patented by CSIC, is also being applied in the early detection of certain types of cancer. "The chip itself, the physical part, is identical for HIV tests and for cancer biomarker tests. What changes is the chemical part- the solution we apply- so that it reacts accordingly to what we are looking for. That's why our fundamental work is focused on developing applications for this new technology", points out CSIC researcher Javier Tamayo, who works at the Institute of Microelectronics in Madrid. "The biosensor uses structures which are manufactured using well-established microelectronics technology, thus making large scale, low cost production possible. This, combined with its simplicity, could make it a great choice for use in developing countries", notes Tamayo. The experiment begins by incubating one millilitre of human serum on the sensor for one hour at 37 °C to allow binding of any existing HIV-1 p24 antigens to the capture antibodies located on the sensor's surface. Next, it is re-incubated at 37 °C, though in this case with gold nanoparticles, for 15 minutes so the captured p24 proteins can be marked. Finally, the resulting material is rinsed to remove any unbound particles. "The test takes a total of 4 hours 45 minutes, which is really rapid. In fact, to confirm the diagnosis you could even repeat the test and the clinical results could be back on the same day as the medical examination. The results are statistically significant and could be adapted to medical requirements", explains the CSIC researcher. Acute human immunodeficiency virus infection is defined as the time from virus acquisition to seroconversion, i.e. the onset of detectable antibodies to HIV in the blood.Today there are two ways to detect HIV in the blood. Firstly, infection can be diagnosed by detecting viral RNA in the blood using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT), and secondly by detecting p24 protein with fourth generation immunoassays. The first method, based on detecting viral RNA in the blood, has a detection limit of 20 to 35 copies of RNA per millilitre, i.e. a concentration typically occurring two weeks after HIV acquisition. In the second method, during the fourth generation immunoassays, a detection threshold of p24 in 10 picograms per millilitre is reached. This occurs approximately three to four weeks after infection. "This new technology is capable of detecting p24 at concentrations up to 100,000 times lower than the previous generation of approved immunoassays methods and 100 times lower than methods for detecting viral RNA in blood. This reduces the undetectable phase after infection to just one week", says CSIC researcher Priscila Kosaka from Madrid's Institute of Microelectronics. The period between infection and seroconversion is approximately four weeks. The early detection of HIV is crucial to improving a person's health. Progressive changes occur after HIV acquisition, such as irreversible depletion of gut CD4 lymphocytes, replication in the central nervous system, and the establishment of latent HIV reservoirs. "The potential for HIV infectivity in the first stage of infection is much higher than in the later stages. Therefore, initiating antiretroviral therapy prior to seroconversion improves immune control and has been associated with benefits in CD4 cell count, a reduction in systemic inflammation, the preservation of cognitive function, and a reduction of the latent reservoir. Logically, its detection is critical to the prevention of HIV transmission", explains Kosaka. Patented by CSIC, this technology has been licensed to the Mecwins company (a CSIC spin-off) created in 2008 by Javier Tamayo and Montserrat Calleja, and current owner of three patents which represent the fruit of the CSIC researchers' labour. This recent research has received funding from the Spanish Cancer Association. Priscila M. Kosaka, Valerio Pini, Montserrat Calleja and Javier Tamayo. Ultrasensitive detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen by a hybrid nanomechanical-optoplasmonic platform with potential for detecting HIV-1 at first week after infection. PLOS ONE. Kosaka, P. M.; Pini, V.; Ruz, J.; Da Silva, R.; González, M.; Ramos, D.; Calleja, M.; Tamayo, J., Detection of cancer biomarkers in serum using a hybrid mechanical and optoplasmonic nanosensor. Nature Nanotechnology 2014, 9 (12), 1047-1053.


News Article | February 16, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

The biosensor combines micromechanical silicon structures with gold nanoparticles, both functionalized with p24-specific antibodies. At the end of the immunoassay procedure, p24 is sandwiched between the gold nanoparticles and the micromechanical silicon structures. The gold nanoparticles have optical resonances known as plasmons. These are capable of scattering light very efficiently and have become one of the structures to attract most interest in the field of optics over the last decade. Micromechanical structures are excellent mechanical sensors capable of detecting interactions as small as intermolecular forces. The combination of these two structures produces both mechanical and optical signals which amplify one another, producing remarkable sensitivity, to detect the p24. The technology, which has been patented by CSIC, is also being applied in the early detection of certain types of cancer. In addition, the total test time is 4 hours, 45 minutes, meaning clinical results could be obtained on the same day. The research is published today in the journal PLOS ONE. "The chip itself, the physical part, is identical for HIV tests and for cancer biomarker tests. What changes is the chemical part- the solution we apply- so that it reacts accordingly to what we are looking for. That's why our fundamental work is focused on developing applications for this new technology," says CSIC researcher Javier Tamayo, who works at the Institute of Microelectronics in Madrid. "The biosensor uses structures which are manufactured using well-established microelectronics technology, thus making large scale, low cost production possible. This, combined with its simplicity, could make it a great choice for use in developing countries,” notes Tamayo. The experiment begins by incubating 1 mL of human serum on the sensor for one hour at 37 °C to allow binding of any existing HIV-1 p24 antigens to the capture antibodies located on the sensor's surface. Next, it is re-incubated at 37 °C, though in this case with gold nanoparticles, for 15 minutes so the captured p24 proteins can be marked. Finally, the resulting material is rinsed to remove any unbound particles. "The test takes a total of 4 hours 45 minutes, which is really rapid. In fact, to confirm the diagnosis you could even repeat the test and the clinical results could be back on the same day as the medical examination. The results are statistically significant and could be adapted to medical requirements," explains Tamayo. Acute human immunodeficiency virus infection is defined as the time from virus acquisition to seroconversion, i.e. the onset of detectable antibodies to HIV in the blood. Today there are two ways to detect HIV in the blood. Firstly, infection can be diagnosed by detecting viral RNA in the blood using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT), and secondly by detecting p24 protein with fourth generation immunoassays. The first method, based on detecting viral RNA in the blood, has a detection limit of 20 to 35 copies of RNA per mL, i.e. a concentration typically occurring two weeks after HIV acquisition. In the second method, during the fourth generation immunoassays, a detection threshold of p24 in 10 picograms per mL is reached. This occurs approximately three to four weeks after infection. "This new technology is capable of detecting p24 at concentrations up to 100,000 times lower than the previous generation of approved immunoassays methods and 100 times lower than methods for detecting viral RNA in blood. This reduces the undetectable phase after infection to just one week," says CSIC researcher Priscila Kosaka from Madrid's Institute of Microelectronics. The period between infection and seroconversion is approximately four weeks. The early detection of HIV is crucial to improving a person's health. Progressive changes occur after HIV acquisition, such as irreversible depletion of gut CD4 lymphocytes, replication in the central nervous system, and the establishment of latent HIV reservoirs. "The potential for HIV infectivity in the first stage of infection is much higher than in the later stages. Therefore, initiating antiretroviral therapy prior to seroconversion improves immune control and has been associated with benefits in CD4 cell count, a reduction in systemic inflammation, the preservation of cognitive function, and a reduction of the latent reservoir. Logically, its detection is critical to the prevention of HIV transmission," explains Kosaka.


News Article | February 16, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

In addition, the total test time is 4 hours, 45 minutes, meaning clinical results could be obtained on the same day. The research is published today in the journal PLOS ONE. The biosensor combines micromechanical silicon structures with gold nanoparticles, both functionalised with p24-specific antibodies. At the end of the immunoassay procedure, p24 is sandwiched between the gold nanoparticles and the micromechanical silicon structures. The gold nanoparticles have optical resonances known as plasmons. These are capable of scattering light very efficiently and have become one of the structures to attract most interest in the field of optics over the last decade. Micromechanical structures are excellent mechanical sensors capable of detecting interactions as small as intermolecular forces. The combination of these two structures produces both mechanical and optical signals which amplify one another, producing remarkable sensitivity, to detect the p24. The technology, which has been patented by CSIC, is also being applied in the early detection of certain types of cancer. "The chip itself, the physical part, is identical for HIV tests and for cancer biomarker tests. What changes is the chemical part- the solution we apply- so that it reacts accordingly to what we are looking for. That's why our fundamental work is focused on developing applications for this new technology", points out CSIC researcher Javier Tamayo, who works at the Institute of Microelectronics in Madrid. "The biosensor uses structures which are manufactured using well-established microelectronics technology, thus making large scale, low cost production possible. This, combined with its simplicity, could make it a great choice for use in developing countries", notes Tamayo. The experiment begins by incubating one millilitre of human serum on the sensor for one hour at 37 °C to allow binding of any existing HIV-1 p24 antigens to the capture antibodies located on the sensor's surface. Next, it is re-incubated at 37 °C, though in this case with gold nanoparticles, for 15 minutes so the captured p24 proteins can be marked. Finally, the resulting material is rinsed to remove any unbound particles. "The test takes a total of 4 hours 45 minutes, which is really rapid. In fact, to confirm the diagnosis you could even repeat the test and the clinical results could be back on the same day as the medical examination. The results are statistically significant and could be adapted to medical requirements", explains the CSIC researcher. Acute human immunodeficiency virus infection is defined as the time from virus acquisition to seroconversion, i.e. the onset of detectable antibodies to HIV in the blood.Today there are two ways to detect HIV in the blood. Firstly, infection can be diagnosed by detecting viral RNA in the blood using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT), and secondly by detecting p24 protein with fourth generation immunoassays. The first method, based on detecting viral RNA in the blood, has a detection limit of 20 to 35 copies of RNA per millilitre, i.e. a concentration typically occurring two weeks after HIV acquisition. In the second method, during the fourth generation immunoassays, a detection threshold of p24 in 10 picograms per millilitre is reached. This occurs approximately three to four weeks after infection. "This new technology is capable of detecting p24 at concentrations up to 100,000 times lower than the previous generation of approved immunoassays methods and 100 times lower than methods for detecting viral RNA in blood. This reduces the undetectable phase after infection to just one week", says CSIC researcher Priscila Kosaka from Madrid's Institute of Microelectronics. The period between infection and seroconversion is approximately four weeks. The early detection of HIV is crucial to improving a person's health. Progressive changes occur after HIV acquisition, such as irreversible depletion of gut CD4 lymphocytes, replication in the central nervous system, and the establishment of latent HIV reservoirs. "The potential for HIV infectivity in the first stage of infection is much higher than in the later stages. Therefore, initiating antiretroviral therapy prior to seroconversion improves immune control and has been associated with benefits in CD4 cell count, a reduction in systemic inflammation, the preservation of cognitive function, and a reduction of the latent reservoir. Logically, its detection is critical to the prevention of HIV transmission", explains Kosaka. Patented by CSIC, this technology has been licensed to the Mecwins company (a CSIC spin-off) created in 2008 by Javier Tamayo and Montserrat Calleja, and current owner of three patents which represent the fruit of the CSIC researchers' labour. This recent research has received funding from the Spanish Cancer Association. Priscila M. Kosaka, Valerio Pini, Montserrat Calleja and Javier Tamayo. Ultrasensitive detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen by a hybrid nanomechanical-optoplasmonic platform with potential for detecting HIV-1 at first week after infection. PLOS ONE.


News Article | February 16, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Obesity, or a high fat diet, can lead to changes in the immune system similar to those observed with aging. That's what research published this week in Experimental Physiology suggests. The research was carried out by scientists at Liverpool John Moores University in the United Kingdom and the Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition of the Spanish National Research Council (ICTAN-CSIC), the University Complutense of Madrid and the Research Institute of the Hospital 12 de Octubre, in Spain. These findings are useful as they help scientists understand the impact of obesity on our body's ability to fight infection. They also found that it was possible to reverse some of these effects by supplementing the diet with unsaturated fatty acids found in vegetable oils, such as olive or fish oils. Obesity affects one in four adults in the UK and can lead to a number of serious and potentially life-threatening conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, some types of cancer, and stroke1. The researchers fed mice a high-fat diet, causing them to become obese. Signs of oxidative stress and certain properties of immune cells indicated aging of the immune system. These obese mice were then split into groups and received food supplemented either with 2-hydroxyoleic acid or omega-3 fatty acids for eight weeks. 'This is the first study, at least to our knowledge, to suggest the efficacy of 2-hydroxyoleic acid for reversing obesity-associated immune alterations and improving oxidative stress.' 2. Full paper title: Oxidative stress and immunosenescence in spleen of obese mice can be reversed by 2-hydroxyoleic acid DOI: 10.1113/EP086157 Link to paper http://onlinelibrary. (link will only work after the embargo date. Before then please email the press office for a copy of the paper) 3. Experimental Physiology publishes translation and integration of research, specifically manuscripts that deal with both physiological and pathophysiological questions that investigate gene/protein function using molecular, cellular and whole animal approaches. http://ep. 4. The Physiological Society brings together over 3,500 scientists from over 60 countries. The Society promotes physiology with the public and parliament alike. It supports physiologists by organising world-class conferences and offering grants for research and also publishes the latest developments in the field in its three leading scientific journals, The Journal of Physiology, Experimental Physiology and Physiological Reports. http://www. 5. Limitations: The study needs to be reproduced in humans to confirm the results


News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: phys.org

A new method for producing high quality, water-based conductive graphene inks with high concentrations has been developed by researchers from the Graphene Flagship working at the Cambridge Graphene Centre at the University of Cambridge, UK. The novel method uses ultrahigh shear forces in a microfluidisation process to exfoliate graphene flakes from graphite. The process converts 100% of the starting graphite material into usable flakes for conductive inks, avoiding the need for centrifugation and reducing the time taken to produce a usable ink. The research is published in ACS Nano. The inks produced by the microfluidisation process have high concentrations of up to 100 g of graphene flakes per litre and can be optimised for screen printing. These inks can also be used to create novel composites, coatings and energy storage devices. This method can easily be applied to other layered materials, such as hexagonal boron nitride or transition metal dichalcogenides, to provide a family of printable circuit components – conductor, insulators and semiconductors – with which to build printed electronics with different functionalities. These inks are ideal for applications where low-cost is important. With the 100% yield of the microfluidisation method, it is now possible to produce high quality graphene inks in sufficient quantities for commercial products. Inks produced using this method have already been commercialised via a University of Cambridge spin out company, Cambridge Graphene, which was recently acquired by engineering solutions company Versarien. The inks are also supplied to Novalia, an innovative print company based in Cambridge, for use in their interactive touch-based printed electronic demos. Dr. Panagiotis Karagiannidis, a researcher at the Cambridge Graphene Centre, is lead author of the work. "The motivation was the need for layers with low sheet resistance to be produced by screen printing using inks with high concentration. In the microfluidisation process, all of the starting mixture experiences the same uniform intensive shear levels, converting it into a usable ink with high concentration. There is no wastage of material or time consuming post-processing." Prof. Andrea Ferrari is Director of the Cambridge Graphene Centre, Science and Technology Officer of the Graphene Flagship, and Chair of the Flagship Management Panel. He stated "This is an important conceptual advance, and will significantly help the innovation and industrialization goals of the Graphene Flagship. The fact that the process is already licensed and commercialized indicates how it is feasible to cut the time from lab to market even during the lifetime of the Flagship." Chris Jones of Novalia said "For viable marketable applications, the materials need to be cost effective, easy to handle and show consistent performance. We ran these inks on ordinary industrial screen printing equipment without modification and achieved consistent results, printing hundreds of interactive demonstrators for Mobile World Congress. This is a very exciting point - a critical juncture between the laboratory and the public." Mar García-Hernandez of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) is the leader of the Graphene Flagship Work Package Enabling Materials, which is focused on development of scalable synthesis methods for graphene and other layered materials. "Microfluidisation is a huge leap ahead towards applications of affordable and environmentally friendly graphene inks in organic photovoltaics, RFID antennas, electrically conductive coatings or nanocomposites. The method is certainly well suited for the synthesis of a variety of other layered material inks, which will enlarge the scope of applications of layered materials in real world devices." More information: Panagiotis G. Karagiannidis et al. Microfluidization of Graphite and Formulation of Graphene-Based Conductive Inks, ACS Nano (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.6b07735


News Article | February 17, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

NewsThe biosensor combines micromechanical silicon structures with gold nanoparticles, both functionalized with p24-specific antibodies. The technology is also being applied in the early detection of certain types of cancer.Contributed Author: Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)Topics: Pharma

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