Shutler D.,Acadia University |
Hussell D.J.T.,Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources |
Norris D.R.,University of Guelph |
Winkler D.W.,Cornell University |
And 20 more authors.
Avian Conservation and Ecology | Year: 2012
Data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) suggest that populations of aerial insectivorous birds are declining, particularly in northeastern regions of the continent, and particularly since the mid-1980s. Species that use nest boxes, such as Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), may provide researchers with large data sets that better reveal finer-scale geographical patterns in population trends. We analyzed trends in occupancy rates for ca. 40,000 Tree Swallow nest-box-years from 16 sites across North America. The earliest site has been studied intensively since 1969 and the latest site since 2004. Nest box occupancy rates declined significantly at five of six (83%) sites east of-78° W longitude, whereas occupancy rates increased significantly at four of ten sites (40%) west of-78° W longitude. Decreasing box occupancy trends from the northeast were broadly consistent with aspects of a previous analysis of BBS data for Tree Swallows, but our finding of instances of increases in other parts of the continent are novel. Several questions remain, particularly with respect to causes of these broadscale geographic changes in population densities of Tree Swallows. The broad geographic patterns are consistent with a hypothesis of widespread changes in climate on wintering, migratory, or breeding areas that in turn may differentially affect populations of aerial insects, but other explanations are possible. It is also unclear whether these changes in occupancy rates reflect an increase or decrease in overall populations of Tree Swallows. Regardless, important conservation steps will be to unravel causes of changing populations of aerial insectivores in North America. © 2012 by the author(s).
Ferree E.D.,Cornell University |
Dickinson J.,Cornell University |
Rendell W.,Loyalist College |
Stern C.,Cornell University |
Porter S.,University of California at Davis
Behavioral Ecology | Year: 2010
Within-family comparisons of offspring growth rates have provided important tests of genetic benefits of extrapair mating for females. Here, we demonstrate that hatching order explains the growth advantage for extrapair young in western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana); extrapair nestlings are larger than within-pair nestlings in the same nest, but they also hatch earlier in the clutch, thus benefiting from hatching asynchrony. By controlling for hatch order and other nongenetic factors and comparing mixed-paternity broods with genetically monogamous broods, we show that the extrapair nestling growth advantage is not genetically based. We cannot rule out the possibility that females benefit from extrapair mating because genetic quality indicators may appear later in life and may be independent of hatch order, however, based on our results, we do not see evidence of genetic superiority of extrapair nestlings. Although findings similar to ours have been attributed to maternal effects, it is currently unclear whether overrepresentation of extrapair nestlings early in the laying and hatching sequence results from investment patterns of females, their social mates, or extrapair males. This study highlights the need to investigate the potentially complex interactions among all players, and how these may lead to higher performance of extrapair offspring compared with within-pair offspring within the same family. © The Author 2010.
Liu S.Q.,University of Ottawa |
Scott I.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Pelletier Y.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Kramp K.,Loyalist College |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2014
Dillapiol, the main constituent in dill Anethum sowa Roxb. ex Fleming (Apiaceae) oil and wild pepper, Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae), is an effective cytochrome P450 inhibitor similar to piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Laboratory and field trials with pyrethrum Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium (Trevir.) vis. extracts combined with dillapiol (1:5 and 1:16 ratio) were effective against both insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). In the laboratory, pyrethrum efficacy was increased 2.2-fold with the SS strain and 9.1-fold with the RS strains by using pyrethrum + dillapiol. Two field trials with the pyrethrum + dillapiol formulation demonstrated efficacy ≥10 times than that of pyrethrum alone. The residual activity (half-life) of the combination exposed to direct sunlight was 3 h but it increased to 10.7 h by adding 2% of the sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.
Jarvis M.,Loyalist College |
Rivers J.,Loyalist College
Nurse Educator | Year: 2014
Campus Clinical is a simulation-based curriculum designed to meet the challenge of decreasing clinical spaces in maternal-child units. The curriculum framework is situated in a constructivist, experiential learning context, integrating Chickering and Gamson's principles for good practice in education. This innovative approach to meeting clinical course learning outcomes is transferable to a variety of settings. Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health.
Treyvaud Amiguet V.,University of Ottawa |
Kramp K.L.,University of Ottawa |
Kramp K.L.,Loyalist College |
Mao J.,University of Ottawa |
And 5 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012
This study investigated the potential of Northern shrimp (Pandelus borealis Kreyer) by-products as a source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs). The by-products (heads, shell and tail) of processing accounted for approximately 50-60% of the catch. Supercritical CO 2 extraction (SFE) of the by-products at 35 MPa and 40 °C generated a deep red oil, rich in ω-3 PUFAs, specifically 7.8 ± 0.06% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 8.0 ± 0.07 % docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.