Lower Saxony State Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety

Hannover, Germany

Lower Saxony State Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety

Hannover, Germany
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Blome S.,Institute of Diagnostic Virology | Meindl-Bohmer A.,Lower Saxony State Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety | Nowak G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Moennig V.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2013

Classical swine fever (CSF) is a multi-systemic disease that can be accompanied by severe haemorrhagic lesions. The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are still far from being understood, though disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was discussed as a major factor. In the presented study, the direct thrombin inhibitor hirudin was used in an attempt to elucidate the role of the coagulation system in the pathogenesis of CSF-induced haemorrhagic lesions. Two groups of piglets (n=5) were infected with highly virulent CSF virus (CSFV) strain CSF0634. One group underwent daily treatment with hirudin, the other served as untreated challenge infection control. Assessment of clinical signs using a clinical score system, coagulation tests, and blood counts were performed daily. Both groups developed acute-lethal CSF with haemorrhagic lesions. Although changes in the coagulation system were seen in the late stages of CSFV infection, our results strongly suggest that DIC does not present the crucial event in the pathogenesis of haemorrhagic lesions. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Henningsen G.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Marien H.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Hasseler W.,Joint Veterinary Practice | Feldmann M.,University of Zürich | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2017

The objective was to validate the iVET® birth monitoring system and to determine if it reduced fetal death in primiparous dairy heifers over a 1-y interval. There were 359 pregnant heifers enrolled; 167 heifers in the iVET® group were monitored electronically and the remaining 192 (controls) were monitored visually for onset of Stage 2 labor, according to routine farm management. In addition, as a reference, all heifers were observed throughout the study by two independent investigators. Calves born dead or that died within 24 h after birth were defined as stillborn. The interval from appearance of the chorioallantoic sac to recognition of onset of calving in the control group averaged 21 min longer than the iVET® signal (p = 0.0001) and rate of fetal death was numerically lower in the iVET® group (8.9%) than in the control group (10.4%, p = 0.65). Interestingly, dystocia occurred more often in the iVET® group (58.3%) than in the control group (40.9%, p = 0.001). The iVET® system detected onset of Stage 2 labor earlier than conventional monitoring by farm staff. However, the device was lacking in several aspects and should be improved before its use in primiparous heifers can be recommended. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Berger H.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Lietzau M.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Tichy A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Herzog K.,Lower Saxony State Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety
Theriogenology | Year: 2017

The objective was to compare luteal area (LA), luteal blood flow (LBF), and progesterone (P4) concentration before and after artificial insemination (AI) in pregnant and open cows in the diestrus preceding insemination and during the first 21 d after insemination. A number of 119 multiparous German Holstein cows were examined using B-mode and color Doppler sonography in diestrus (15–5 d before AI) and on days 7, 14, and 21 post insemination (pi). Blood samples for determination of P4 concentration were collected at each examination. In pregnant cows, P4 was measured in the diestrus before AI and on days 7, 14, and 21 of pregnancy, and in open cows, in the diestrus preceding the first AI and 7, 14, and 21 d later. Cows were retrospectively allocated into two groups according to the mean daily milk yield in the first 42 d (high milk yield [HMY], ≥39 kg/d; low milk yield [LMY], <39 kg/d). Pregnant cows had larger LA than open cows during diestrus before insemination (5.69 ± 1.85 vs. 4.94 ± 1.66 cm2, P < 0.05), on days 7 (5.34 ± 1.83 vs. 4.52 ± 1.93 cm2, P < 0.05) and 21 pi (5.92 ± 1.60 vs. 4.97 ± 1.44 cm2, P < 0.05). On day 14 there was a tendency towards larger LA in pregnant cows (P = 0.09). Luteal blood flow (1.72 ± 0.74 vs. 1.22 ± 0.67 cm2) and P4 concentration (8.97 ± 4.37 vs. 6.49 ± 4.32 ng/mL) were higher in pregnant cows than in open cows on day 21 (P < 0.05). At day 150, 69% of the LMY cows and 56% of the HMY cows were pregnant (P > 0.05). Pregnant HMY cows had larger LA during diestrus before insemination and on days 7 and 21 pi than open HMY cows (P < 0.05) and tended to result in larger CLs on day 14 (P = 0.06). Pregnant HMY cows had higher LBF on days 14 and 21 (P < 0.05) and higher P4 concentration on day 21 than open HMY cows (P < 0.05). The main finding of this study was a larger LA during diestrus in cows that conceived in the ensuing estrous cycle compared to cows that did not conceive. Luteal area, LBF, and P4 concentration were greater in pregnant cows compared to open cows, and further studies should be conducted on the usefulness of these variables to detect open cows as early as possible after breeding. High-yielding cows appear to require larger LA, LBF, and higher P4 concentration than low-yielding cows to maintain pregnancy. In conclusion, larger LAs were established in pregnant cows in the diestrus before successful insemination regardless of their milk yield. Further studies are needed to verify whether LA in the diestrus before insemination might be used to predict probabilities in reproductive performance. © 2017

Lange J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Groth M.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Fichtner D.,Institute of Infectiology | Granzow H.,Institute of Infectiology | And 5 more authors.
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2014

Picornaviruses have been isolated from a variety of hosts, mainly mammals and birds. Here, we describe the sequence analysis of carp picornavirus 1 (CPV-1) F37/06 that was isolated from an organ pool (heart, brain, liver) of a common carp (Cyprinus carpio). This carp perished after an accidental discharge of liquid manure into a fish pond and presented without obvious clinical symptoms. Experimental intraperitoneal infection of young carp with CPV-1 revealed no clinical signs, but the virus was re-isolated from various organs. Sequence analysis of almost the complete genome (7632 nt excluding the poly-A tract) revealed a novel picornavirus clade. In phylogenetic trees, the polymerase sequence clusters with parechoviruses, duck hepatitis A virus, eel picornavirus and aquamavirus A. The ORF includes 6807 nt and encodes a polyprotein of 2269 amino acids. CPV-1 has a genome layout like that of picornaviruses except for the presence of two aphthovirus 2A-like NPGP sequence motifs: VPg+5′UTR[1AB-1C-1D-2A1npgp/2A2npgp_2B-2CATPase/3A-3BVPg-3Cpro-3Dpol]3′UTR-poly-A. 2A1npgp and 2A2npgp are separated by 133 amino acids. The proteins 2A2npgp, 2B, 3A and 3BVPg have no significant similarity to the corresponding proteins of other picornaviruses. Amino acid identities of the orthologous proteins P1, 2C, 3Cpro and 3Dpol range from 16.4 to 40.8% in the eel picornavirus/CPV-1 comparison. 3Dpol shows the closest similarity to eel picornavirus, with an amino acid identity of 40.8 %, followed by human parechovirus (36.5 %), duck hepatitis A virus (32.7 %) and swine pasivirus (29.3 %). Both the unique genome organization and low sequence similarity support the assignment of CPV-1 to a novel picornavirus species within a novel genus. © 2014 SGM.

Lepage M.,IRSTEA | Harrison T.,17 Antrim Rd | Breine J.,Research Institute for Nature and Forest | Cabral H.,University of Lisbon | And 10 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2016

A simple procedure to harmonise and intercalibrate eight national methods classifying the ecological status using fish in transitional waters of the North East Atlantic is described. These methods were initially intercalibrated and a new method recently developed was added to this exercise. A common human pressure index pre-classified the status of each water body in an independent way. Ecological class boundaries values were established according to the level of anthropogenic pressure using regression analyses. A simulated dataset was used to assess the level of agreement between the fish classification methods. Fleiss' multi-rater kappa analysis indicated that boundary harmonisation was achieved; all classifications fell within one class of each other and class agreement between methods exceeded 70%. The use of a pressure index to establish boundary thresholds provides a practical method of defining and harmonizing the quality classes associated with human pressures, as required by the European Water Framework Directive. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Krautwald-Junghanns M.-E.,University of Leipzig | Ellerich R.,University of Leipzig | Mitterer-Istyagin H.,University of Leipzig | Ludewig M.,University of Leipzig | And 5 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

The present study demonstrates the prevalence of footpad lesions in turkeys and their level of expression in both live birds and in carcasses. In clinical investigations of 11,860 turkeys (5,740 males, 6,120 females) of the strain British United Turkeys Big 6, individuals of all the observed flocks showed alterations to the plantar skin. In general, the degree and severity of skin alterations were higher in the 16th week of life than in the 6th or 11th week of life. Epithelial necrosis, however, was already apparent in about 45% of individuals in the 6th week of life. At this point, deep lesions on the footpad surface were still rare findings. In the 11th week of life, such skin changes were apparent in 14.7% of males and 25.7% of hens. In general, the feet of male turkeys were less affected by footpad damage than those of females in the subsequent fattening period. In hens, the prevalence of lesions of the footpads at wk 16 of age was 60.0%, almost twice as high as in males of the same age group (33.8%). A comparison of the findings from the right and left feet showed that the state of the 2 extremities was correlated (Spearman correlation: r = 0.830). During the visual inspection of 16,200 slaughtered turkeys (7,800 males, 8,400 hens), almost all carcasses studied showed alterations to the footpad skin. Only 2.1% of males and 0.6% of females were without lesions. The most frequently observed lesions measured up to 2 cm in diameter (males: 59.2%; hens: 57.7%). Pronounced skin lesions of the footpad (males: 21.1%; females: 29.5%) and necrosis of the superficial epithelium (males: 17.5%; females: 12.1%) were less common. Foot abscesses were diagnosed only sporadically (males: 0.1%; females: 0.1%). © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Mitterer-Istyagin H.,University of Leipzig | Ludewig M.,University of Leipzig | Bartels T.,University of Leipzig | Krautwald-Junghanns M.-E.,University of Leipzig | And 5 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

This project involves the prevalence of breast skin alterations (breast buttons, blisters, purulent bursitis) in male and female fattened turkeys (British United Turkeys Big 6) from conventional intensive farming. In this case, 24 turkey farms across Germany and 11,860 turkeys (5,740 toms, 6,120 hens) were clinically examined, and 16,200 birds (8,400 hens, 7,800 toms) were evaluated on slaughter lines at 7 turkey abattoirs. Each turkey farm included examination of at least 3 consecutive fattening cycles. Especially in the meat examinations, breast skin alterations were a frequent discovery, particularly in the form of breast buttons. The turkey toms exhibited a prevalence of 27.15%, and the toms were affected significantly more frequently (P < 0.001) by these variations than the turkey hens (7.77%). It is possible that the higher BW of the male specimens leads to increased lying times and is therefore connected with more severe strain on the breast region. The increased fattening period of the turkey toms (slaughtering at wk 21 to 22 of life) vs. the female specimens (slaughtering at wk 15 to 17 of life) must be discussed as a cause. Breast blisters and bursitis sternalis were discovered with a prevalence of 7.36 and 1.24% in toms and more seldom in hens, at 0.30% and 0.15%. Large differences in prevalence were partially recognizable between individual farms as well as between the 3 fattening cycles on a farm. Breast buttons and breast blisters are pathological skin variations for which the etiology is multifactorial. Clear correlations between the prevalence of breast skin alterations and the manner of rearing the birds were not able to be determined. An improvement in this situation, which is considered very problematic from the perspective of bird protection and economics, may be achieved only via cooperation to achieve optimized rearing methods, management, and breeding practices. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Muller W.,Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses | Hotzel H.,Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses | Otto P.,Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses | Karger A.,Institute of Molecular Biology | And 16 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2013

Background: Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis that has been found in many different vertebrates. In Germany most human infections are caused by contact with infected European brown hares (Lepus europaeus). The aim of this study was to elucidate the epidemiology of tularemia in hares using phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of F. tularensis. Results: Cultivation of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica bacteria from organ material was successful in 31 of 52 hares that had a positive PCR result targeting the Ft-M19 locus. 17 isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and 14 were resistant. Analysis of VNTR loci (Ft-M3, Ft-M6 and Ft-M24), INDELs (Ftind33, Ftind38, Ftind49, RD23) and SNPs (B.17, B.18, B.19, and B.20) was shown to be useful to investigate the genetic relatedness of Francisella strains in this set of strains. The 14 erythromycin resistant isolates were assigned to clade B.I, and 16 erythromycin sensitive isolates to clade B.IV and one isolate was found to belong to clade B.II. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) was useful to discriminate strains to the subspecies level. Conclusions: F. tularensis seems to be a re-emerging pathogen in Germany. The pathogen can easily be identified using PCR assays. Isolates can also be identified within one hour using MALDI-TOF MS in laboratories where specific PCR assays are not established. Further analysis of strains requires genotyping tools. The results from this study indicate a geographical segregation of the phylogenetic clade B.I and B.IV, where B.I strains localize primarily within eastern Germany and B.IV strains within western Germany. This phylogeographical pattern coincides with the distribution of biovar I (erythromycin sensitive) and biovar II (erythromycin resistance) strains. When time and costs are limiting parameters small numbers of isolates can be analysed using PCR assays combined with DNA sequencing with a focus on genetic loci that are most likely discriminatory among strains found in a specific area. In perspective, whole genome data will have to be investigated especially when terrorist attack strains need to be tracked to their genetic and geographical sources. © 2013 Müller et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Freuling C.M.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Beer M.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Conraths F.J.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Finke S.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | And 8 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

A virus isolated from a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus.

Buchholz U.,Robert Koch Institute | Bernard H.,Robert Koch Institute | Werber D.,Robert Koch Institute | Bohmer M.M.,Robert Koch Institute | And 23 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: A large outbreak of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome caused by Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 occurred in Germany in May 2011. The source of infection was undetermined. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study and a recipe-based restaurant cohort study, along with environmental, trace-back, and trace-forward investigations, to determine the source of infection. RESULTS: The case-control study included 26 case subjects with the hemolytic-uremic syndrome and 81 control subjects. The outbreak of illness was associated with sprout consumption in univariable analysis (matched odds ratio, 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 29) and with sprout and cucumber consumption in multivariable analysis. Among case subjects, 25% reported having eaten sprouts, and 88% reported having eaten cucumbers. The recipe-based study among 10 groups of visitors to restaurant K included 152 persons, among whom bloody diarrhea or diarrhea confirmed to be associated with Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli developed in 31 (20%). Visitors who were served sprouts were significantly more likely to become ill (relative risk, 14.2; 95% CI, 2.6 to ∞). Sprout consumption explained 100% of cases. Trace-back investigation of sprouts from the distributor that supplied restaurant K led to producer A. All 41 case clusters with known trading connections could be explained by producer A. The outbreak strain could not be identified on seeds from the implicated lot. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigations identified sprouts as the most likely outbreak vehicle, underlining the need to take into account food items that may be overlooked during subjects'recall of consumption. Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.

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