Perera O.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Blanco C.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Ballard L.,Genomics and Bioinformatics Research Unit |
Silva-Brandao K.L.,University of Sao Paulo |
And 2 more authors.
Southwestern Entomologist | Year: 2011
Polymorphic genetic markers were identified and characterized using a partial genomic library of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius), enriched for simple sequence repeats (SSR) and nucleotide sequences of expressed sequence tags (EST). Nucleotide sequences of 192 clones from the partial genomic library yielded 147 unique SSRs while EST evaluations identified 280 SSR-containing sequences. All anonymous SSRs and 192 EST-SSRs were evaluated to select loci that produced the best quality peaks without stutter peaks. Six anonymous markers and nine EST-derived markers were selected to evaluate a sample of 96 insects collected from Stoneville, MS. The observed number of alleles ranged from two to eight, with an average of 5.87 (SE ± 0.53). The polymorphic information content (PIC) value averaged 0.446 (SE ± 0.052). Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were detected at eight loci. We speculate that these loci are under selection in the population of tobacco budworm used in the study. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected at any of the loci. Proportions of anonymous and EST-SSR markers validated after extensive evaluation were 4.08 and 4.68%, respectively. One anonymous SSR marker (HvMS117) and all nine EST markers were transferable to the bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Copyright © 2011 BioOne All rights reserved.
Zhang T.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro |
Chen A.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro |
Chen S.,Lowa State University |
Hong D.,University of Northern Iowa |
And 2 more authors.
European Physical Education Review | Year: 2014
In physical education, it has become necessary for children to learn kinesiological knowledge for understanding the benefits of physical activity and developing a physically active lifestyle. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which cognitive assignments about healthful living and fitness contributed to knowledge growth on cardiorespiratory fitness and health. Fourth grade students (N = 616) from 15 randomly sampled urban elementary schools completed 34 cognitive assignments related to the cardiorespiratory physical activities they were engaged in across 10 lessons. Performance on the assignments were analyzed in relation to their knowledge gain measured using a standardized knowledge test. A multivariate discriminant analysis revealed that the cognitive assignments contributed to knowledge gain but the contribution varied assignment by assignment. A multiple regression analysis indicated that students’ assignment performance by lesson contributed positively to their knowledge growth scores. A content analysis based on the constructivist learning framework showed that observing–reasoning assignments contributed the most to knowledge growth. Analytical and analytical–application assignments contributed less than the constructivist theories would predict. © The Author(s) 2014.
PubMed | Lowa State University, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Davidson College and University of Northern Iowa
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European physical education review | Year: 2015
In physical education, it has become necessary for children to learn kinesiological knowledge for understanding the benefits of physical activity and developing a physically active lifestyle. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which cognitive assignments about healthful living and fitness contributed to knowledge growth on cardiorespiratory fitness and health. Fourth grade students (
PubMed | Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Southwest University and Lowa State University
Type: | Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications | Year: 2017
Our previous study has identified a gene, BmREEPa, which affects BmNPV invasion in silkworm cells. In this study, we interfered with BmREEPa in silkworm larvae through transgenic technology and screened BmREEPa-RNAi silkworm strains (RP). We found the mortality in RP was lower than that in Dazao, when silkworm larvae were infected with BmNPV via oral and injection routes. And the expression level of VP39 was lower in RP than in Dazao in the group infected via injection. In the oral infection group, VP39 expression level showed significant reduction at 48h post-infection. These results revealed that the anti-BmNPV activity was enhanced in RP, and this enhancement probably presents itself during secondary infection via BVs.
Roy A.L.,Lowa State University |
Shaw A.M.,Lowa State University |
Rajagopal L.,Iowa State University |
Strohbehn C.H.,Iowa State University |
And 2 more authors.
Food Protection Trends | Year: 2016
An aging population, a trend toward eating away from home, and an increase in foodborne disease outbreaks associated with leafy greens have generated food safety concerns with regard to foodservice operations serving older adults. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a minimal-text food safety poster intervention in changing the microbial status of leafy greens and food contact surfaces at selected foodservice sites. A minimal-text poster intervention was placed in foodservice operations within Iowa and Kansas. Samples were collected before, 1 month after, and 3-4 months after the intervention (total samples per location per visit]. Leafy green samples were taken at three stages of preparation. Samples were screened for Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli 0157 and Staphylococcus aureus and enumerated for aerobic plate counts [APC], coliforms, and fecal coliform (FC) counts. All samples were negative for pathogens tested; APC and coliform counts were not significantly different before and after intervention (P< 0.05). After intervention, FC counts in samples of leafy greens from hospitals and restaurants were significantly lower than before intervention (P< 0.0004). The reduction in FC after intervention suggests that minimal-text food safety poster messages may decrease the risk of foodborne disease in foodservice establishments.
Johnson S.K.,Kansas State University |
Dahike G.,Lowa State University
Professional Animal Scientist | Year: 2016
An online survey of AI users was developed to determine how industry segment (commercial, seedstock, ormultiple segments) influenced profitability and current management practices used in conjunction with AI and estrus synchronization in the United States beef industry. Survey results came from 42 states and included 425 completed instruments. Value of replacement heifers (80%) and reducing calving difficulty (55%) were the most common ways AI contributed to profitability. Commercial producers ($187 ± 79) assigned a lower (P < 0.05) value to Al-sired calves than did seedstock producers ($709 ± 63). Producers used estrus synchronization always (46%), usually (26%), sometimes (28%), rarely (6%), or never (4%). Insemination after observed estrus was the most common method of insemination (42%), followed by single fixed-time AI (34%), and then AI after observed estrus with cleanup timed AI (24%). The most frequently used system for synchroniza tion of estrus in cows and heifers was a 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug-releasing insert protocol. Use of reproductive tract scoring, temporary calf removal, and natural service sires on synchronized heats was relatively low, ranging from 20 to 28%, and did not differ among industry subgroups. Seedstock producers were 2.5-times more likely (P < 0.05) to use pelvic measurements than commercial producers. Producers identified nutrition, heat detection, and skilled labor as key components of successful AI programs. Survey data pointed to opportunities to increase producer awareness on management issues related to AI and estrus synchronization, in particular, the success and convenience of fixed-time insemination protocols. © 2016 American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists.
Kim S.,Lowa State University |
Gopalakrishnan K.,Lowa State University |
Ceylan H.,Lowa State University
Journal of Transportation Engineering | Year: 2012
Sustainable use of biomass as a renewable source of energy can be an alternative solution to the cost of fossil-based energy and global warming. Production of biofuel from plant biomass results not only in bio-based energy, but also in coproducts containing lignin, modified lignin, and lignin derivatives. This paper discusses the moisture susceptibility of subgrade soil stabilized by bio-based energy coproducts containing lignin, with the aim of establishing a new application for bio-based energy coproducts in soil stabilization. An experimental test program was conducted to compare the moisture susceptibility of lignin coproduct-treated soils and traditional fly ash stabilizer-treated soil samples. Additive combinations were also evaluated. There were two types of laboratory tests for moisture susceptibility evaluation: (1) unconfined compression strength (UCS) tests after "dry" and "wet" conditioning, and (2) visual observation of soaked specimens. Results indicate that the biofuel coproducts have excellent resistance to moisture degradation for the Iowa Class 10 soil classified as CL by the Unified Soil Classification System and as A-6(8) by AASHTO. In particular, Coproduct A with higher lignin content is more effective in providing moisture resistance than Coproduct B with lower lignin content as well as conventional additive (Class C fly ash). Moisture resistance comparable to that of Coproduct A could be obtained through the use of additive combinations. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Liu Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Wang J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Bu D.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Khas-Erdene,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010
Increasing the content of α-linolenic acid in milk fat might be desirable to meet consumer concerns about dietary healthfulness. However, the rich content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) will influence the oxidative stability of milk fat. This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of infusion with different amounts of high-linolenic perilla fatty acid (HLPFA) emulsion into the duodenum of dairy cows on milk fatty acid profile and the susceptibility of milk fat to oxidation. In a crossover design, 4 multiparous Holstein cows were infused duodenally with increasing amounts (0, 40, 80, 120, or 160 g/day) of free fatty acids from HLPFA emulsion or with carrier alone. Continuous infusions (20 to 22 h/day) were for 7 days at each amount. Infusions were homogenates of HLPFA with 15 g/day of xanthan gum, 5 g/day sodium alginate, and 25 g/day Tween 80; controls received carrier only. The concentration of n-3 PUFAs, especially α-linolenic acid, in milk fat increased linearly as HLPFA infusion increased, but the saturated fatty acids decreased linearly. The milk production and the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in milk tended to decrease quadratically. The milk fat percentage, however, tended to increase. The concentration of malondialdehyde increased quadratically in milk fat. Results suggest that infusion with HLPFA emulsion at varying amounts enhanced the content of n-3 PUFAs in milk fat over the length of experiment but decreased the oxidative stability of milk fat. ©2010 American Chemical Society.
Gai J.,Lowa State University |
Tang L.,Lowa State University |
Steward B.,Lowa State University
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2015 | Year: 2015
In crop production systems, weed management is vitally important. But both manual weeding and herbicide-based weed controlling are problematic due to concerns in cost, operator health, emergence of herbicide-resistant weed species, and environment impact. Automated robotic weeding offers a possibility of controlling weeds in a precise fashion, particularly for weeds growing near crops or within crop rows. However, identification and localization of plants have not yet been fully automated. The goal of this reported project is to develop a high-throughput plant recognition and localization algorithm by fusing 2D color and textural data with 3D point cloud data. Plant morphological models were developed and applied for plant recognition against different weed species at different growth stages. Copyright © (2015) by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers All rights reserved.
Bastwros M.,Lowa State University |
Kim G.-Y.,Lowa State University |
Wang J.,Lowa State University
ASME 2014 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, MSEC 2014 Collocated with the JSME 2014 International Conference on Materials and Processing and the 42nd North American Manufacturing Research Conference | Year: 2014
Reinforcement with nano-sized particles offers a promising potential to significantly enhance the mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of a metal matrix composite (MMC). One of the challenges of synthesizing nanocomposites, however, has been the dispersion and control of the nano-reinforcement materials. In this study, a laminate nanocomposite has been synthesized by incorporating ultrasonic spray deposition technique. An ultrasonic spray deposition system was used to deposit nano-particles on substrate foils, which were consolidated to synthesize a laminate composite. Aluminum 6061 (Al6061) alloy foils were used as the matrix material. Nano-silicon carbide (SiC) particles were used as the reinforcement phase (deposited layer). The sprayed foils were stacked together to form the composite. The composite was then consolidated by hot compaction in the semi-solid regime of the Al6061. A three point bend test was carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties. In addition, the suspension and spraying parameters that control the deposited microstructure was studied to help control the final properties of the deposited structure. The yield and ultimate flexural strength of the SiC sprayed Al6061 laminate composite showed an increase (32% and 15%, respectively) compared with that of the unsprayed sample (reference sample) processed at the same condition. Copyright © 2014 by ASME.