Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI

Albuquerque, NM, United States

Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI

Albuquerque, NM, United States

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Reed M.D.,Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI | Wilder J.A.,Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI | Mega W.M.,Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI | Hutt J.A.,Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Protective antigen (PA), one of the components of the anthrax toxin, is the major component of human anthrax vaccine (Biothrax). Human anthrax vaccines approved in the United States and Europe consist of an alum-adsorbed or precipitated (respectively) supernatant material derived from cultures of toxigenic, non-encapsulated strains of Bacillus anthracis. Approved vaccination schedules in humans with either of these vaccines requires several booster shots and occasionally causes adverse injection site reactions. Mutant derivatives of the protective antigen that will not form the anthrax toxins have been described.We have cloned and expressed both mutant (PA SNKE167-ΔFF-315-E308D) and native PA molecules recombinantly and purified them. In this study, both the mutant and native PA molecules, formulated with alum (Alhydrogel), elicited high titers of anthrax toxin neutralizing anti-PA antibodies in New Zealand White rabbits. Both mutant and native PA vaccine preparations protected rabbits from lethal, aerosolized, B. anthracis spore challenge subsequent to two immunizations at doses of less than 1 μg. © 2015 Reed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Steele V.R.,Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI | Michael Maurer J.,Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI | Bernat E.M.,University of Maryland University College | Calhoun V.D.,Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI | Kiehl K.A.,Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment | Year: 2016

Psychopathy is a serious personality disorder characterized by dysfunctional affective and behavioral symptoms. In incarcerated populations, elevated psychopathic traits have been linked to increased rates of violent recidivism. Cognitive processes related to error processing have been shown to differentiate individuals with high and low psychopathic traits and may contribute to poor decision making that increases the risk of recidivism. Error processing abnormalities related to psychopathy may be attributable to error-monitoring (error detection) or posterror processing (error evaluation). A recent 'bottleneck' theory predicts deficiencies in posterror processing in individuals with high psychopathic traits. In the current study, incarcerated males (n = 93) performed a Go/NoGo response inhibition task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Classic time-domain windowed component and principal component analyses were used to measure error-monitoring (as measured with the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne]) and posterror processing (as measured with the error positivity [Pe]). Psychopathic traits were assessed using Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). PCL-R Total score, Factor 1 (interpersonal-affective traits), and Facet 3 (lifestyle traits) scores were positively related to posterror processes (i.e., increased Pe amplitude) but unrelated to error-monitoring processes (i.e., ERN/Ne). These results support the attentional bottleneck theory and further describe deficiencies related to elevated psychopathic traits that could be beneficial for new treatment strategies for psychopathy. © 2015 American Psychological Association.


Anderson N.E.,Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI | Steele V.R.,Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI | Maurer J.M.,Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI | Maurer J.M.,University of New Mexico | And 3 more authors.
Psychophysiology | Year: 2015

Psychopathy is a disorder accompanied by cognitive deficits including abnormalities in attention. Prior studies examining cognitive features of psychopaths using ERPs have produced some inconsistent results. We examined psychopathy-related differences in ERPs during an auditory oddball task in a sample of incarcerated adult males. We extend previous work by deriving ERPs with principal component analysis (PCA) and relate these to the four facets of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R). Features of psychopathy were associated with increased target N1 amplitude (facets 1, 4), decreased target P3 amplitude (facet 1), and reduced slow wave amplitude for frequent standard stimuli (facets 1, 3, 4). We conclude that employing PCA and examining PCL-R facets improve sensitivity and help clarify previously reported associations. Furthermore, attenuated slow wave during standards may be a novel marker for psychopaths' abnormalities in attention. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.


Damaraju E.,Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI | Caprihan A.,Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI | Lowe J.R.,University of New Mexico | Allen E.A.,Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI | And 5 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2014

We characterize the development of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) from 4 to 9. months of age with resting state magnetic resonance imaging performed on sleeping infants without sedative medication. Data is analyzed with independent component analysis (ICA). Using both low (30 components) and high (100 components) ICA model order decompositions, we find that the functional network connectivity (FNC) map is largely similar at both 4 and 9. months. However at 9. months the connectivity strength decreases within local networks and increases between more distant networks. The connectivity within the default-mode network, which contains both local and more distant nodes, also increases in strength with age. The low frequency power spectrum increases with age only in the posterior cingulate cortex and posterior default mode network. These findings are consistent with a general developmental pattern of increasing longer distance functional connectivity over the first year of life and raise questions regarding the developmental importance of the posterior cingulate at this age. © 2013 Elsevier Inc..


Steele V.R.,Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI | Steele V.R.,University of New Mexico | Claus E.D.,Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI | Aharoni E.,Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute LBERI | And 9 more authors.
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2014

We report a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of 102 healthy participants who completed a demanding Go/NoGo task. The primary purpose of this study was to delineate the neural systems underlying responses to errors in a large sample. We identified a number of regions engaged during error processing including the anterior cingulate, left lateral prefrontal areas and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, and the subthalamic nucleus. The power afforded by the large cohort enabled identification of regions not consistently measured during Go/NoGo tasks thus helping to incrementally refine our understanding of the neural correlates of error processing. With the present fMRI results, in combination with our previous exploration of response inhibition (Steele et al.), we outline a comprehensive set of regions associated with both response inhibition and error processing. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.

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