New Orleans, LA, United States

Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
New Orleans, LA, United States

Louisiana State University Health science Center Shreveport, also known as LSU Health Shreveport, is an academic center for medicine and medical research in Shreveport, North Louisiana, in the United States. It is part of the Louisiana State University System. The medical school opened in 1969. Among the founders were Joe E. Holoubek of Shreveport and Edgar Hull, who in 1931 had been one of the founders of the Medical Center of Louisiana at New Orleans. Wikipedia.

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News Article | April 17, 2017

A team of researchers, including UNM Honors College Professor Jason R. Moore, has found a new species of tyrannosaur dinosaur -- the most popular of the prehistoric creatures. After the fossils were pulled out of the muddy banks of a Montana river, the team was able to analyze the texture of the facial bones of the new species. The findings suggest that the face of tyrannosaurs was covered in a scaly protective layer with a high degree of tactile sensitivity, similar to crocodiles. "Being a tyrannosaur, they had really small arms," says Moore. "They wouldn't be able to interact with their environment with their hands the way mammals do -- find food, build nests, tend to eggs and young. In order to do these things, Daspletosaurus needed to use its feet or head. The discovery and analysis of the tyrannosaur shows that the dinosaur had a developed face sensitivity similar to the sensitivity in our finger tips, suggesting it could use its snout for all those complex ecological interactions, similar to the way crocodiles do today." An investigation by a team of scientists from Wisconsin, Australia, Louisiana, Montana and New Mexico has identified and named the new species of the tyrannosaur clan: Daspletosaurus horneri - "Horner's Frightful Lizard." The species is named for the renowned dinosaur paleontologist, John "Jack" R. Horner, formerly curator at the Museum of the Rockies (MOR) in Bozeman, Montana. The tyrannosaur's name honors his discoveries of numerous dinosaur fossils and his mentorship of so many students that launched them on to accomplished scientific careers. The name-bearing specimens are stored in the research collections of the MOR. The fossil resources of Montana, where the new tyrannosaur was found, are central to studies of dinosaur evolution. "Montana, similar to many Rocky Mountain states, has lots of rock exposed at the right time and right environment to contain dinosaurs," says Moore. "The fossils are found preserved in ancient river channels and flood plains. If you know what you're looking for, they are widespread." The research is led by Thomas Carr of Carthage College's Department of Biology in Wisconsin, an expert on the evolution and growth of Tyrannosaurus rex and its closest relatives, collectively called tyrannosaurs. In addition to adding a new species to the tyrannosaur family tree, the team's research provides new information about the mode of evolution and life appearance of tyrannosaurs, specifically the face. This latest study, published in Nature Publishing Group's Scientific Reports, found evidence for a rare, nonbranching type of evolution in tyrannosaurs and that tyrannosaurs had scaly, lipless faces and a highly touch-sensitive snout. "Daspletosaurus horneri was the youngest, and last, of its lineage that lived after its closest relative, D. torosus, which is found in Alberta, Canada," says Carr. "The geographic proximity of these species and their sequential occurrence suggests that they represent a single lineage where D. torosus has evolved into D. horneri." Moore elaborated, "One of the difficulties in demonstrating this style of evolution is establishing that the different species don't overlap in time. The new radiometric dates we measured help support this temporal separation between D. torosus and D. horneri." The research confirms that the ages of the two species shows that the evolution of the dinosaur was slow--happening over a span of 2.3 million years. The team's work literally changes the face of tyrannosaurs, which they found was covered by a lipless 'mask' of large flat scales and extensive patches of armor-like skin. This conclusion results from comparison of tyrannosaur skulls with those of crocodylians, birds and mammals, and earlier work by other researchers who had matched bone texture with different types of skin covering. Jayc Sedlmayr, professor at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans, explained, "Much of our research ... was generated from lab based comparative anatomy, where you get arms deep in 'blood and guts' dissecting birds--living dinosaurs and crocodilians--their closest living relatives." "It turns out that tyrannosaurs are identical to crocodylians in that the bones of their snouts and jaws are rough, except for a narrow band of smooth bone along the tooth row," explained Carr. "We did not find any evidence for lips in tyrannosaurs: the rough texture covered by scales extends nearly to the tooth row, providing no space for lips." "However, we did find evidence for other types of skin on the face, including areas of extremely coarse bone that supported armor-like skin on the snout and on the sides of the lower jaws. The armor-like skin would have protected tyrannosaurs from abrasions, perhaps sustained when hunting and feeding." The researchers found that, like in crocodylians, the snout and jaws of the tyrannosaurs are penetrated by numerous small nerve openings, allowing hundreds of branches of nerves to innervate the skin, producing a sensitivity similar to that of human fingertips. This sensitivity is part of a bigger evolutionary story, explained Sedlmayr. "The trigeminal nerve has an extraordinary evolutionary history of developing into wildly different 'sixth senses' in different vertebrates, such as sensing magnetic fields for bird migration, electroreception for predation in the platypus bill or the whisker pits of dolphins, sensing infrared in pit vipers to identify prey, guiding movements in mammals through the use of whiskers, sensing vibrations through the water by alligators and turning the elephant trunk into a sensitive 'hand' similar to what has been done to the entire face of tyrannosaurs."

SAN ANTONIO--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Acelity, a global advanced wound care company, today announced that the PREVENA DUO™ Incision Management System is now available to physicians in the United States. The PREVENA DUO™ System is the first single use negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) system designed specifically for the simultaneous management of two closed surgical incisions, configured to help reduce post-operative complications in bilateral procedures, such as vascular harvesting, breast reconstruction and orthopedic trauma surgeries. Acelity is the market leader in leveraging innovation to advance the art of healing. Acelity is applying that expertise to help clinicians better manage surgical incisions with the aim of reducing complications, expediting recovery and reducing unnecessary expense. In fact, more than 70 clinical publications supporting negative pressure incision management have been published. The effectiveness of the PREVENA™ Incision Management System or incisional V.A.C.® Therapy have established Acelity as the principal authority on the use of negative pressure for closed incisions. “ We are finding that surgeons around the world are adopting PREVENA™ Therapy as standard practice to provide care for their post-operative patients,” said Ron Silverman, M.D., Chief Medical Officer, Acelity. “ With the introduction of the PREVENA DUO™ Platform, Acelity is able to provide the same proven clinical benefits of negative pressure therapy that is specially configured for procedures where there are two closed incisions on the patient.” There are eight million people at risk for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), and post-surgical complications can lead to significant costs. According to research published in The New England Journal of Medicine, surgical site infections (SSIs) are 21.8 percent of all HAIs, and these infections increase average length of hospital stay by an extra 9.58 days at an additional cost of $38,656.i “ SSIs encompass more than 20 percent of all HAIs and represent a significant burden both financially and psychologically for the patient, so there is a need to proactively address this issue,” said Allen Gabriel, MD of PeaceHealth Medical Group Plastic Surgery. “ With the PREVENA™ Incision Management System, surgeons can rely upon a significant body of clinical evidence demonstrating the system’s efficacy and coupled with its ease of use, ensures that we are doing all we can to help reduce this burden in an effort to improve outcomes for patients.” Clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of PREVENA™ Incision Management System in significantly reducing the incidence rate of infections. According to one study led by Tim Matatov, M.D., Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, evaluating the PREVENA™ Incision Management System in reducing the risk of groin wound infection after vascular surgery, PREVENA™ Therapy was found to reduce the incidence of groin wound infection compared to traditional skin adhesive or absorbent dressings (6 percent incidence of infection with PREVENA™ Therapy compared to 30 percent with control group). As groin incisions are prone to complications and the incidence of groin SSIs after vascular surgery can be as high as 44 percent, prevention is a key component of improving patient care.ii The results also indicated significant cost savings with the PREVENA™ Incision Management System. In fact, the study authors concluded that the cost of the PREVENA™ System was quickly exceeded by the traditional dressings group due to long hospitalization required for two patients with Szilagyi Grade III infections ($25,740 vs. > $45,000 respectively).ii “ Until now, clinicians did not have the option to manage two incisions simultaneously with a single, disposable negative pressure source. The new PREVENA DUO™ Platform offers one efficient, easy-to-use method for providing therapy to these patients,” added Dr. Silverman. The PREVENA™ System, launched in 2010, is the first disposable Negative Pressure system designed specifically for the management of closed surgical incisions. The system covers and protects the incision from external contamination, while negative pressure removes fluid and infectious material from the surgical incision. Please refer to the Instructions for Use for the PREVENA™ Systems for a complete list of appropriate uses, warnings, and precautions. The PREVENA DUO™ Platform provides the power and clinical benefits of PREVENA™ Therapy and is available in unique configurations. Each configuration includes two easy to use PEEL & PLACE™ Dressings for management of linear incisions up to 20cm in length. The PREVENA DUO™ Platform is now available in the U.S. To learn more about the platform, visit Acelity L.P. Inc. and its subsidiaries are a global advanced wound care company that leverages the strengths of Kinetic Concepts, Inc. and Systagenix Wound Management, Limited. Available in more than 90 countries, the innovative and complementary ACELITY™ product portfolio delivers value through solutions that speed healing and lead the industry in quality, safety and customer experience. Headquartered in San Antonio, Texas, Acelity employs nearly 5,000 people around the world. ii Matatov T, Reddy KN, Doucet LD, Zhao CX, Zhang WW. Experience with a new negative pressure incision management system in prevention of groin wound infection in vascular surgery patients. J Vasc Surg. 2013;57(3):791-5.

Gilpin N.W.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Herman M.A.,Scripps Research Institute | Roberto M.,Scripps Research Institute
Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2015

The central amygdala (CeA) plays a central role in physiologic and behavioral responses to fearful stimuli, stressful stimuli, and drug-related stimuli. The CeA receives dense inputs from cortical regions, is the major output region of the amygdala, is primarily GABAergic (inhibitory), and expresses high levels of prostress and antistress peptides. The CeA is also a constituent region of a conceptual macrostructure called the extended amygdala that is recruited during the transition to alcohol dependence. We discuss neurotransmission in the CeA as a potential integrative hub between anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorder, which are commonly co-occurring in humans. Imaging studies in humans and multidisciplinary work in animals collectively suggest that CeA structure and function are altered in individuals with anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorder, the end result of which may be disinhibition of downstream "effector" regions that regulate anxiety-related and alcohol-related behaviors. © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

Bazan N.G.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2012

Neurodegenerative diseases encompass complex cell signaling disturbances that initially damage neuronal circuits and synapses. Due to multiple protective mechanisms enacted to counteract the onset of neurodegenerative diseases, there is often a prolonged period without noticeable impairments during their initiation. Since severe cognitive deficit or vision loss takes place after that period there is an opportunity to harness endogenous protective mechanisms as potential therapeutic approaches. The activation of the biosynthesis of the docosanoid mediator neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1) is an early response to the upsurge of protein misfolding and other neuroinflammatory events. This overview discusses the potent neuroprotective and inflammation-modulating bioactivity of NPD1. This lipid mediator represents an early response to neurodegenerations, aiming to restore homeostasis. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Diaz J.H.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Clinical Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2013

Paragonimiasis is a parasitic lung infection caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus, with most cases reported from Asia and caused by P. westermani following consumption of raw or undercooked crustaceans. With the exception of imported P. westermani cases in immigrants, in travelers returning from areas of disease endemicity, and in clusters of acquired cases following consumption of imported Asian crabs, human paragonimiasis caused by native lung flukes is rarely described in the United States, which has only one indigenous species of lung fluke, Paragonimus kellicotti. Clinicians should inquire about the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater crabs by immigrants, expatriates, and returning travelers, and the consumption of raw or undercooked crayfish in U.S. freshwater river systems where P. kellicotti is endemic when evaluating patients presenting with unexplained fever, cough, rales, hemoptysis, pleural effusions, and peripheral eosinophilia. Diagnostic evaluation by specific parasitological, radiological, serological, and molecular methods will be required in order to differentiate paragonimiasis from tuberculosis, which is not uncommon in recent Asian immigrants. All cases of imported and locally acquired paragonimiasis will require treatment with oral praziquantel to avoid any potential pulmonary and cerebral complications of paragonimiasis, some of which may require surgical interventions. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Weiss J.S.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Cornea | Year: 2015

PURPOSE:: To update the 2008 International Classification of Corneal Dystrophies (IC3D) incorporating new clinical, histopathologic, and genetic information.METHODS:: The IC3D reviewed worldwide peer-reviewed articles for new information on corneal dystrophies published between 2008 and 2014. Using this information, corneal dystrophy templates and anatomic classification were updated. New clinical, histopathologic, and confocal photographs were added.RESULTS:: On the basis of revisiting the cellular origin of corneal dystrophy, a modified anatomic classification is proposed consisting of (1) epithelial and subepithelial dystrophies, (2) epithelial–stromal TGFBI dystrophies, (3) stromal dystrophies, and (4) endothelial dystrophies. Most of the dystrophy templates are updated. The entity “Epithelial recurrent erosion dystrophies” actually includes a number of potentially distinct epithelial dystrophies (Franceschetti corneal dystrophy, Dystrophia Smolandiensis, and Dystrophia Helsinglandica) but must be differentiated from dystrophies such as TGFBI-induced dystrophies, which are also often associated with recurrent epithelial erosions. The chromosome locus of Thiel-Behnke corneal dystrophy is only located on 5q31. The entity previously designated as a variant of Thiel-Behnke corneal dystrophy on chromosome 10q24 may represent a novel corneal dystrophy. Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED, formerly CHED2) is most likely only an autosomal recessive disorder. The so-called autosomal dominant inherited CHED (formerly CHED1) is insufficiently distinct to continue to be considered a unique corneal dystrophy. On review of almost all of the published cases, the description appeared most similar to a type of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy linked to the same chromosome 20 locus (PPCD1). Confocal microscopy also has emerged as a helpful tool to reveal in vivo features of several corneal dystrophies that previously required histopathologic examination to definitively diagnose.CONCLUSIONS:: This revision of the IC3D classification includes an updated anatomic classification of corneal dystrophies more accurately classifying TGFBI dystrophies that affect multiple layers rather than are confined to one corneal layer. Typical histopathologic and confocal images have been added to the corneal dystrophy templates. © 2015 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Pandey U.B.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Nichols C.D.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Pharmacological Reviews | Year: 2011

The common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a well studied and highly tractable genetic model organism for understanding molecular mechanisms of human diseases. Many basic biological, physiological, and neurological properties are conserved between mammals and D. melanogaster, and nearly 75% of human disease-causing genes are believed to have a functional homolog in the fly. In the discovery process for therapeutics, traditional approaches employ high-throughput screening for small molecules that is based primarily on in vitro cell culture, enzymatic assays, or receptor binding assays. The majority of positive hits identified through these types of in vitro screens, unfortunately, are found to be ineffective and/or toxic in subsequent validation experiments in whole-animal models. New tools and platforms are needed in the discovery arena to overcome these limitations. The incorporation of D. melanogaster into the therapeutic discovery process holds tremendous promise for an enhanced rate of discovery of higher quality leads. D. melanogaster models of human diseases provide several unique features such as powerful genetics, highly conserved disease pathways, and very low comparative costs. The fly can effectively be used for low- to high-throughput drug screens as well as in target discovery. Here, we review the basic biology of the fly and discuss models of human diseases and opportunities for therapeutic discovery for central nervous system disorders, inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. We also provide information and resources for those interested in pursuing fly models of human disease, as well as those interested in using D. melanogaster in the drug discovery process. © 2011 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ORGANIZATION | Award Amount: 395.00K | Year: 2015

Brain neurons can sense the activity level of neuron networks. If the activity levels are too low or too high, the neurons can adjust the communication level between the neurons. The way that this is accomplished is not completely understood. In previous work, the researcher found one interesting way that involves a protein called protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) that is regulated by another protein called inhibitor-2 (I-2). In this project, the researcher will investigate the role of these two proteins in regulating neuron communications. This work will lay the foundation for future studies in animals to understand how the brain adapts to visual experience or deprivation. Adaptation to environmental light is important for daily life, so these studies will have broad impact on understanding vision in other animals, including humans. The project will provide opportunities for a postdoctoral fellow, undergraduate, and high school students, including underrepresented minorities and women, to be trained in research in this EPSCoR state.

Studies will focus on the function of an abundant enzyme, protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), and its regulator, inhibitor-2 (I-2), in bi-directional synaptic scaling. The study will also determine how I-2 regulates PP1 function in the dephosphorylation of serine 295 (Ser295) on postsynaptic density protein 95 kilo Dalton (PSD95), a molecule critical for synapse architecture and neuronal communication. The impact of I-2 regulation by myosin light chain kinases (MLCK) via I-2 phosphorylation at serine 43 (Ser43) will be determined in the context of both PP1 function on PSD95 dephosphorylation at Ser295 and synaptic scaling. Using primary rat cortical neurons as a model system, the PI will apply bicuculline to enhance neuronal activity or tetrodotoxin (TTX) to decrease neuronal activity. I-2 will be knocked-down (KD) by expression of I-2 short hairpin RNA fragment RNA (ShRNA), and its effect on PSD95 phosphorylation at Ser295 will be examined by western blotting. The effect of I-2 KD on synaptic transmission will be examined by electrophysiological recording. The identity of the MLCK isoform responsible for I-2 phosphorylation at Ser43 will be determined by examining the effect of ShRNAs of various MLCK isoforms on I-2pS43 by western blotting. MLCK isoform effects on bi-directional synaptic scaling will be determined using electrophysiological recordings of neurons expressing the corresponding ShRNA.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: I-Corps | Award Amount: 50.00K | Year: 2017

The broader impact/commercial potential of this I-Corps project is to improve diagnostic tests for gastrointestinal disease and to reduce healthcare costs. Digestive diseases constitute a worldwide burden on health care. Moreover, the incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases has increased in children and in adults. Current diagnostic tools, such as biopsy, are not usually available to initiate patient treatment or management; nor is it a favorable method for repeat sampling needed in such chronic conditions. Thus, lack of tools to molecularly identify disease has restricted the ability to manage gastrointestinal inflammation in both pediatric and adult patients. A molecular diagnosis can translate to better care for the patient and financial advantage for payers.

This I-Corps project will examine the potential product-market fit of diagnostic biomarkers for gastrointestinal tract disorders. Accurate, rapid, and inexpensive diagnostics can make personalized management of inflammatory bowel disease accessible. A prototype of a simple and accurate diagnostic medical device for a common and devastating bowel disease in preterm infants has been developed. Customer interviews will provide an in-depth understanding and prioritization of their needs and requirements. They also will trigger an iterative evolution of the team?s business model and product design. Beyond the economic benefit of improved clinical management of patients, technology use in clinical labs, veterinary labs, and pharmaceutical development markets can be evaluated.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Campus Cyberinfrastrc (CC-NIE) | Award Amount: 499.64K | Year: 2017

This CC* Networking Infrastructure project at LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans (LSUHSC-NO) is constructing a high-speed science network to connect LSUHSC-NOs research areas to facilitate unimpeded movement of large data sets and to provide a pathway to national and global high-performance computing resources. The project enables researchers, scientists, and students to exchange and store large data sets, to expand their opportunities for remote collaboration, and to facilitate leadership in research and education within multiple disciplines of Science at LSUHSC-NO: Anatomy, Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Genetics, Hematology, Immunology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Oncology, Ophthalmology, Parasitology, Pathology, Pharmacology, and Physiology. This project has broader implications for the scientific community including the next generation of researchers and scientists. Whether it is a high school student pondering ones future by participating in a summer research program or internship, a budding student enrolled in curricula at LSUHSC-NO, or a collaborative researcher somewhere in cyberspace, this project is key to the future of research at LSUHSC-NO and this project unlocks the door to many exciting discoveries.

This project consists of three objectives: (i) Upgrade the distribution and access layer networking infrastructure to provide 10Gbps and/or 1Gbps ports in the research areas; (ii) Re-architect the campus network to support large data flows by designing and building a Science DMZ; and (iii) Connect to LSUHSC-NOs regional optical exchanges Science DMZ via 20Gbps connections.

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