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Saint-Jean-de-Braye, France

Sage J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Mallevre F.,CEA Grenoble | Barbarin-Costes F.,University of Tours | Samsonov S.A.,TU Dresden | And 11 more authors.
Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Human cysteine cathepsin S (catS) participates in distinct physiological and pathophysiological cellular processes and is considered as a valuable therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases, cancer, atherosclerosis, and asthma. We evaluated the capacity of negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (heparin, heparan sulfate, chondroitin 4/6-sulfates, dermatan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid) to modulate the activity of catS. Chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4-S) impaired the collagenolytic activity (type IV collagen) and inhibited the peptidase activity (Z-Phe-Arg-AMC) of catS at pH 5.5, obeying a mixed-type mechanism (estimated Ki = 16.5 ± 6 μM). Addition of NaCl restored catS activity, supporting the idea that electrostatic interactions are primarly involved. Furthermore, C4-S delayed in a dose-dependent manner the maturation of procatS at pH 4.0 by interfering with the intermolecular processing pathway. Binding of C4-S to catS was demonstrated by gel-filtration chromatography, and its affinity was measured by surface plasmon resonance (equilibrium dissociation constant Kd = 210 ± 40 nM). Moreover, C4-S induced subtle conformational changes in mature catS as observed by intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy analysis. Molecular docking predicted three specific binding sites on catS for C4-S that are different from those found in the crystal structure of the cathepsin K-C4-S complex. Overall, these results describe a novel glycosaminoglycan-mediated mechanism of catS inhibition and suggest that C4-S may modulate the collagenase activity of catS in vivo. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Sage J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Sage J.,University of Tours | Leblanc-Noblesse E.,Louis Vuitton Moet Hennessy LVMH Recherche | Nizard C.,Louis Vuitton Moet Hennessy LVMH Recherche | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Cathepsin S (catS), which is expressed in normal human keratinocytes and localized close to the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) degrades some of major basement membrane (BM) constituents. Among them, catS readily hydrolyzed in a time and dose dependent manner human nidogen-1 (nid-1) and nidogen-2, which are key proteins in the BM structure. CatS preferentially cleaved nid-1 at both acid and neutral pH. Hydrolysis of nid-1 was hampered in murine ctss-/- spleen lysates pretreated with inhibitors of other classes of proteases. Nid-1 was cleaved within its G2 and G3 globular domains that are both involved in interactions with other BM components. Binding assays with soluble and immobilized ligands indicated that catS altered the formation of complexes between nid-1 and other BM components. Assuming that the cleavage of nid-1 impairs its ability to crosslink with BM partners and perturbs the viscoelastic properties of BM matrix, these data indicate that catS may participate in BM proteolysis, in addition to already identified proteases. © 2012 Sage et al. Source

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