Musil C.M.,Case Western Reserve University |
Zauszniewski J.A.,Case Western Reserve University |
Burant C.J.,Case Western Reserve University |
Burant C.J.,Cleveland Louis Stokes Medical Center |
And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Aging and Human Development | Year: 2015
Few resources are available to help grandmother caregivers to grandchildren manage their complex family situations that may have immediate and long-term consequences for themselves and their families. Resourcefulness training is an intervention designed to help grandmothers improve their ability to deal with these problems. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the necessity, feasibility, acceptability, fidelity, safety, and effectiveness (i.e., effect sizes) of an online, computer-based resourcefulness training intervention that was adapted from a face-to-face intervention. Twelve grandmothers raising or living with grandchildren participated in the pilot intervention that included (a) watching an instructional video on resourcefulness, (b) completing two online questionnaires over a 6-week time period, and (c) writing in an online journal every day for 4 weeks. Data are evaluated within the context of the six parameters important to intervention development. Qualitative and quantitative results provide initial support for all six parameters. Recommendations to improve aspects of the intervention are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Soler D.C.,Case Western Reserve University |
Soler D.C.,Murdough Family Center for Psoriasis |
Ohtola J.,Case Western Reserve University |
Sugiyama H.,Case Western Reserve University |
And 14 more authors.
Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences | Year: 2016
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment for malignant and inflammatory dermal disorders. Photoirradiation of the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 photosensitizer with red light generates singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species to induce cell death. We previously reported that Pc 4-PDT elicited cell death in lymphoid-derived (Jurkat) and epithelial-derived (A431) cell lines in vitro, and furthermore that Jurkat cells were more sensitive than A431 cells to treatment. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of Pc 4-PDT on primary human CD3+ T cells in vitro. Fluorometric analyses of lysed T cells confirmed the dose-dependent uptake of Pc 4 in non-stimulated and stimulated T cells. Flow cytometric analyses measuring annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) demonstrated a dose-dependent increase of T cell apoptosis (6.6-59.9%) at Pc 4 doses ranging from 0-300 nM. Following T cell stimulation through the T cell receptor using a combination of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, activated T cells exhibited increased susceptibility to Pc 4-PDT-induced apoptosis (10.6-81.2%) as determined by Pc 4 fluorescence in each cell, in both non-stimulated and stimulated T cells, Pc 4 uptake increased with Pc 4 dose up to 300 nM as assessed by flow cytometry. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of Pc 4 uptake measured in stimulated T cells was significantly increased over the uptake of resting T cells at each dose of Pc 4 tested (50, 100, 150 and 300 nM, p < 0.001 between 50 and 150 nM, n = 8). Treg uptake was diminished relative to other T cells. Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) T cells appeared to take up somewhat more Pc 4 than normal resting T cells at 100 and 150 nm Pc 4. Confocal imaging revealed that Pc 4 localized in cytoplasmic organelles, with approximately half of the Pc 4 co-localized with mitochondria in T cells. Thus, Pc 4-PDT exerts an enhanced apoptotic effect on activated CD3+ T cells that may be exploited in targeting T cell-mediated skin diseases, such as cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) or psoriasis. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies.