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Mieyal J.J.,Case Western Reserve University | Mieyal J.J.,Louis okes Veterans Affairs Medical Research Center | Chock P.B.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2012

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have become recognized as second messengers for initiating and/or regulating vital cellular signaling pathways, and they are known also as deleterious mediators of cellular stress and cell death. ROS and RNS, and their cross products like peroxynitrite, react primarily with cysteine residues whose oxidative modification leads to functional alterations in the proteins. In this Forum, the collection of six review articles presents a perspective on the broad biological impact of cysteine modifications in health and disease from the molecular to the cellular and organismal levels, focusing in particular on reversible protein-S-glutathionylation and its central role in transducing redox signals as well as protecting proteins from irreversible cysteine oxidation. The Forum review articles consider the role of S-glutationylation in regulation of the peroxiredoxin enzymes, the special redox environment of the mitochondria, redox regulation pertinent to the function of the cardiovascular system, mechanisms of redox-activated apoptosis in the pulmonary system, and the role of glutathionylation in the initiation, propagation, and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Several common themes emerge from these reviews; notably, the probability of crosstalk between signaling/regulation mechanisms involving protein-S-nitrosylation and protein-S-glutathionylation, and the need for quantitative analysis of the relationship between specific cysteine modifications and corresponding functional changes in various cellular contexts. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Johnson W.M.,Case Western Reserve University | Yao C.,Case Western Reserve University | Siedlak S.L.,Case Western Reserve University | Wang W.,Case Western Reserve University | And 6 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2015

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Although the etiology of PD remains incompletely understood, oxidative stress has been implicated as an important contributor in the development of PD. Oxidative stress can lead to oxidation and functional perturbation of proteins critical to neuronal survival. Glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1) is an evolutionally conserved antioxidant enzyme that repairs protein oxidation by reversing the oxidative modification of cysteine known as S-glutathionylation. We aimed to explore the regulatory role of Grx1 in PD. We first examined the levels of Grx1 in postmortem midbrain samples from PD patients, and observed that Grx1 content is decreased in PD, specifically within the dopaminergic neurons. We subsequently investigated the potential role of Grx1 deficiency in PD pathogenesis by examining the consequences of loss of the Caenorhabditis elegans Grx1 homolog in well-established worm models of familial PD caused by overexpression of pathogenic human LRRK2 mutants G2019S or R1441C. We found that loss of the Grx1 homolog led to significant exacerbation of the neurodegenerative phenotype in C. elegans overexpressing the human LRRK2 mutants. Re-expression in the dopaminergic neurons of the active, but not a catalytically inactive form of the Grx1 homolog rescued the exacerbated phenotype. Loss of the Grx1 homolog also exacerbated the neurodegenerative phenotype in other C. elegans models, including overexpression of human a-synuclein and overexpression of tyrosine hydroxylase (a model of sporadic PD). Therefore, our results reveal a novel neuroprotective role of glutaredoxin against dopaminergic neurodegeneration in models of familial and sporadic PD. © The Author 2014. Source

Sabens Liedhegner E.A.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Gao X.-H.,Case Western Reserve University | Mieyal J.J.,Case Western Reserve University | Mieyal J.J.,Louis okes Veterans Affairs Medical Research Center
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2012

Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by progressive loss of neurons. A common feature is oxidative stress, which arises when reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) exceed amounts required for normal redox signaling. An imbalance in ROS/RNS alters functionality of cysteines and perturbs thiol-disulfide homeostasis. Many cysteine modifications may occur, but reversible protein mixed disulfides with glutathione (GSH) likely represents the common steady-state derivative due to cellular abundance of GSH and ready conversion of cysteine-sulfenic acid and S-nitrosocysteine precursors to S-glutathionylcysteine disulfides. Thus, S-glutathionylation acts in redox signal transduction and serves as a protective mechanism against irreversible cysteine oxidation. Reversal of protein-S-glutathionylation is catalyzed specifically by glutaredoxin which thereby plays a critical role in cellular regulation. This review highlights the role of oxidative modification of proteins, notably S-glutathionylation, and alterations in thiol homeostatic enzyme activities in neurodegenerative diseases, providing insights for therapeutic intervention. Recent Advances: Recent studies show that dysregulation of redox signaling and sulfhydryl homeostasis likely contributes to onset/progression of neurodegeneration. Oxidative stress alters the thiol-disulfide status of key proteins that regulate the balance between cell survival and cell death. Critical Issues: Much of the current information about redox modification of key enzymes and signaling intermediates has been gleaned from studies focused on oxidative stress situations other than the neurodegenerative diseases. Future Directions: The findings in other contexts are expected to apply to understanding neurodegenerative mechanisms. Identification of selectively glutathionylated proteins in a quantitative fashion will provide new insights about neuropathological consequences of this oxidative protein modification. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Sabens E.A.,Case Western Reserve University | Distler A.M.,Case Western Reserve University | Distler A.M.,Cuyahoga Community College | Mieyal J.J.,Case Western Reserve University | Mieyal J.J.,Louis okes Veterans Affairs Medical Research Center
Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Parkinson's disease (PD), characterized by dopaminergic neuronal loss, is attributed to oxidative stress, diminished glutathione (GSH) levels, mitochondrial dysfunction, and protein aggregation. Treatment of PD involves chronic administration of Levodopa (L-DOPA) which is a pro-oxidant and may disrupt sulfhydryl homeostasis. The goal of these studies is to elucidate the effects of L-DOPA on thiol homeostasis in a model akin to PD, i.e., immortalized dopaminergic neurons (SHSY5Y cells) with diminished GSH content. These neurons exhibit hypersensitivity to L-DOPA-induced cell death, which is attributable to concomitant inhibition of the intracellular thiol disulfide oxidoreductase enzymes. Glutaredoxin (Grx) was deactivated in a dose-dependent fashion, but its content was unaffected. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) reductase (GR) activity was not altered. Selective knockdown of Grx resulted in an increased level of apoptosis, documenting the role of the Grx system in neuronal survival. L-DOPA treatments also led to decreased activities of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TR), concomitant with diminution of their cellular contents. Selective chemical inhibition of TR activity led to an increased level of apoptosis, documenting the Trx system's contribution to neuronal viability. To investigate the mechanism of inhibition at the molecular level, we treated the each isolated enzyme with oxidized L-DOPA. GR, Trx, and TR activities were little affected. However, Grx was inactivated in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion indicative of irreversible adduction of dopaquinone to its nucleophilic active-site Cys-22, consistent with the intracellular loss of Grx activity but not Grx protein content after L-DOPA treatment. Overall L-DOPA is shown to impair the collaborative contributions of the Grx and Trx systems to neuron survival. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Johnson W.M.,Case Western Reserve University | Johnson W.M.,Louis okes Veterans Affairs Medical Research Center | Wilson-Delfosse A.L.,Case Western Reserve University | Mieyal J.J.,Case Western Reserve University | Mieyal J.J.,Louis okes Veterans Affairs Medical Research Center
Nutrients | Year: 2012

Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are increasingly implicated in the induction and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Friedreich's ataxia. In this review background is provided on the steady-state synthesis, regulation, and transport of glutathione, with primary focus on the brain. A brief overview is presented on the distinct but vital roles of glutathione in cellular maintenance and survival, and on the functions of key glutathione-dependent enzymes. Major contributors to initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases are considered, including oxidative stress, protein misfolding, and protein aggregation. In each case examples of key regulatory mechanisms are identified that are sensitive to changes in glutathione redox status and/or in the activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes. Mechanisms of dysregulation of glutathione and/or glutathione-dependent enzymes are discussed that are implicated in pathogenesis of each neurodegenerative disease. Limitations in information or interpretation are identified, and possible avenues for further research are described with an aim to elucidating novel targets for therapeutic interventions. The pros and cons of administration of N-acetylcysteine or glutathione as therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the potential utility of serum glutathione as a biomarker, are critically evaluated. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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