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Loughborough, United Kingdom

Brass C.,Royal College of Art | Mazzarella F.,Loughborough Design School
Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education: Great Expectations: Design Teaching, Research and Enterprise, E and PDE 2015 | Year: 2015

Our society is currently facing complex challenges, such us climate change, loss of biodiversity, ageing population, unemployment, to name but a few. This has created growing expectations on designers and engineers to explore, experiment and implement innovative solutions to such issues. At this critical time, if we want design to be part of the solution, we need to wonder whether we are asking designers suitable and sustainable questions. Both in post-graduate design education and in business, the brief still overwhelmingly requires designers to follow a linear problem-solving approach that focuses on product rather than strategies, services and systems. Traditional design briefs result no longer appropriate to face the challenges of our unsustainable world, as they relate to market, growth economy and human needs rather than society, business models and the needs of nature. Instead, we need to be asking questions about, for example, how we overcome the barriers for change, create sustainable business opportunities, and facilitate the process of innovation through design methodology. If the role of design is to create new visions and outline strategic directions towards a sustainable future world - for policy makers, businesses, communities and individual citizens - we need those stakeholders to create briefs for designers that allow them to do that. This paper will explain how the reframing of questions has been embedded into SustainRCA's teaching practice in post-graduate design, art and engineering, leading to the development of new tools and methods, as well as some innovative outcomes. © 2015, The Design Society. All rights reserved. Source

Christie N.,University College London | Beckett K.,University of the West of England | Earthy S.,University of Surrey | Kellezi B.,Nottingham Trent University | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of General Practice | Year: 2016

Background In the UK, studies suggest that the transition from hospital to home after an injury can be a difficult time and many patients report feeling inadequately prepared. Patients often use primary care services after hospital discharge. These consultations provide opportunities to consider problems that patients experience and to facilitate recovery. Little is known, however, about how patients and service providers view care after hospital discharge and the role played by primary care services, specifically GPs. Aim To identify good practice and unmet needs in respect of post-discharge support for injured patients. Design and setting Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews at four sites (Bristol, Leicester/Loughborough, Nottingham, and Surrey). Method Qualitative interviews with 40 service providers and 45 hospitalised injured patients. Results Although there were examples of wellmanaged hospital discharges, many patients felt they were not provided with the information they needed about their injury, what to expect in terms of recovery, pain control, return to work, psychological problems, and services to help meet their needs. They also described difficulty accessing services such as physiotherapy or counselling. Service providers identified problems with communication between secondary and primary care, lack of access to physiotherapy, poor communication about other services that may help patients, GP service and resource constraints, and difficulties in providing information to patients concerning likely prognosis. Conclusion Discharge from hospital after an injury can be problematic for patients. Changes in both secondary and primary care are required to resolve this problem. © 2016 British Journal of General Practice. Source

Kellezi B.,University of Nottingham | Beckett K.,University of the West of England | Earthy S.,University of Surrey | Barnes J.,Loughborough Design School | And 5 more authors.
Injury | Year: 2015

Objective To explore information needs of unintentional injury patients and their carers over time, across services, and how such needs are met from the perspectives of patients, carers and service providers. Methods Qualitative nested study within a multi-centre longitudinal study quantifying psycho-social, physical, occupational outcomes and service use and costs following a range of unintentional injuries. Semi-structured interviews conducted with 45 patients during the first year post injury, 18 of their carers and 40 providers of services. Results Patients and carers needed information about the nature and severity of injury, prognosis, self-management and further services. Information needs changed over time with the biggest difficulties being during transfer from primary to secondary care. Barriers to information provision included service providers' time limitations and uncertainty around information provision, and patients' reluctance to ask for information or inability to process it. Suggested improvements included provision of reassurance as well as factual information, information about further services, earlier follow-up, increased appointment times and greater involvement of families where appropriate. Conclusions The information needs of patients and carers post injury change with time and there are a number of ways to remove gaps and barriers in current provision to meet such needs. Practice implications Providing information on injury management, prognosis and available services and reassurance at each stage of the recovery process in secondary care and when transferring to primary care would be helpful for patients and carers. A follow-up contact soon after discharge and the opportunity to ask questions could be beneficial. Better information about the patient's needs and ways they can help could help carers fulfil their caring role. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Beckett K.,University of the West of England | Earthy S.,University of Surrey | Sleney J.,University of Surrey | Barnes J.,Loughborough Design School | And 6 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2014

Objective: To explore views of service providers caring for injured people on: the extent to which services meet patients' needs and their perspectives on factors contributing to any identified gaps in service provision. Design: Qualitative study nested within a quantitative multicentre longitudinal study assessing longer term impact of unintentional injuries in working age adults. Sampling frame for service providers was based on patient-reported service use in the quantitative study, patient interviews and advice of previously injured lay research advisers. Service providers' views were elicited through semistructured interviews. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Setting: Participants were recruited from a range of settings and services in acute hospital trusts in four study centres (Bristol, Leicester, Nottingham and Surrey) and surrounding areas. Participants: 40 service providers from a range of disciplines. Results: Service providers described two distinct models of trauma care: an 'ideal' model, informed by professional knowledge of the impact of injury and awareness of best models of care, and a 'real' model based on the realities of National Health Service (NHS) practice. Participants' 'ideal' model was consistent with standards of high-quality effective trauma care and while there were examples of services meeting the ideal model, 'real' care could also be fragmented and inequitable with major gaps in provision. Service provider accounts provide evidence of comprehensive understanding of patients' needs, awareness of best practice, compassion and research but reveal significant organisational and resource barriers limiting implementation of knowledge in practice. Conclusions: Service providers envisage an 'ideal' model of trauma care which is timely, equitable, effective and holistic, but this can differ from the care currently provided. Their experiences provide many suggestions for service improvements to bridge the gap between 'real' and 'ideal' care. Using service provider views to inform service design and delivery could enhance the quality, patient experience and outcomes of care. Source

McMahon M.,University of Limerick | Bhamra T.,Loughborough Design School
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2012

Social sustainability in design, like the notion of social impacts in Sustainable Development, is a complex, contradictory and challenging area. Transforming the rhetoric surrounding sustainability into action is where designers often struggle. In order to do this effectively, this paper argues that designers need to be introduced to a set of skills and capacities that go beyond the traditional design competencies and implementing these skills will require a shift in how designers are taught as students and subsequently practice as professionals. Through the exploration of contemporary design practices, social sustainability and educational theory this research pinpoints these skills and capacities. Using a participatory Action Research methodology it is suggested that international collaborative projects at undergraduate level can play an important role in introducing these skills into design education. The paper describes two projects (fulfilling two phases of the action research process) involving collaborations between groups of undergraduate design students from different geographical locations. A brief description of the projects logistics is followed by an analysis of the outcomes and experiences of participants, looking specifically at what worked and what did not and why mistakes and successes in collaborative work can inform in equal measure. The learning from these projects will highlight how future projects can be structured and delivered and how the 'softer' skills acquired during the projects can bring about a change in designers behaviours. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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