Lotus Engineering

Hethel, United Kingdom

Lotus Engineering

Hethel, United Kingdom
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Pearson R.J.,Lotus Engineering | Eisaman M.D.,Palo Alto Research Center PARC | Eisaman M.D.,Brookhaven National Laboratory | Turner J.W.G.,Lotus Engineering | And 7 more authors.
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2012

Fossil fuels are renewable only over geological time scales. The oxidation, via combustion, of considerable amounts of carbonaceous fuels since the dawn of the industrial revolution has led to a rapid accumulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere leading to an anthropogenic influence on the Earth's climate. We highlight here that a versatile energy carrier can be produced by recycling CO 2 and combining it chemically with a substance of high chemical bond energy created from renewable energy. If CO 2 is taken from the atmosphere, a closed-loop production process for carbon-neutral fuels is possible providing an energy-dense and easily distributed storage medium for renewable energy. The rationale for reduced carbon or carbon-neutral energy carriers made from recycled CO $ 2 is described, focusing on, for transport applications, their manifestation as energy-dense carbonaceous liquid fuels. Techniques for the separation of CO 2 directly from the atmosphere are reviewed, and the challenges and advantages relative to flue-gas capture are discussed. Pathways for the production of carbonaceous fuels from CO 2 are discussed. An integrated system is proposed where renewable energy is stored in the form of synthetic methane in the gas grid for supply to the power generation and heat sectors while methanol and drop-in hydrocarbon fuels are supplied to the transport sector. The use of atmospheric CO 2 and water as feed stocks for renewable energy carriers raises the important prospect of alleviating a dependency on imported fossil energy with the associated large financial transfers. Their application in the transport sector yields a high-value end product. The synthesis and storage of carbon-neutral liquid fuels offers the possibility of decarbonizing transport without the paradigm shifts required by either electrification of the vehicle fleet or conversion to a hydrogen economy.They can be supplied either as drop-in hydrocarbon fuels for existing reciprocating and turbine-powered combustion engines or, at lower energetic cost and using simpler chemical plant, in the form of low-carbon-number alcohols which can be burned at high efficiency levels in optimized internal combustion engines. The suitability of these fuels for conventional engines enables the continued provision of globally compatible, affordable vehicles. © 2006 IEEE.

News Article | November 9, 2015
Site: cleantechnica.com

As we reported recently, the first electric car recently rolled off the production lines at Detroit Electric’s manufacturing facility in the UK, bringing the anticipated electric sports car one step closer to wide release. As many have no doubt predicted — following the company’s scrapping of plans for production in the car manufacturing hub of Detroit, Michigan… from which Detroit Electric gets its name — it seems that the company may well end up not releasing the new electric vehicle (EV) in the US at all…. The name appears to (possibly) just be a means of selling Americana to Europeans (as with cowboys, country/honky tonk, blues music, jazz, etc). Even though the first SP:01 has rolled off the line and been sent on its way to an unidentified buyer in an unidentified location, the company (which is headquartered in The Netherlands, by the way) has yet to announce the car’s retail price. One thing is certain, though: the figure won’t be in American dollars. Despite its name, a nod to a defunct US-based maker of electric carriages from 1907 to 1938, the Detroit Electric sports car won’t be available in Detroit — or anywhere else in America. The company plans to sell the SP:01 only in Europe, Asia and few other select markets, including Iceland and South Africa. Detroit Electric’s CEO, Albert Lam, who announced the SP:01 with stars-and-stripes-waving enthusiasm back in 2013, doesn’t take the company’s geographic incongruity lightly. “We are Detroit Electric, not London Electric,” said Lam, former CEO of the Lotus Engineering Group. “Our commitment to the city of Detroit, the state of Michigan and the United States is as strong as it ever was.” But as the saying goes, love is a verb, and whether Lam can turn affectionate words into action remains to be seen. The company has promised that if things go well for its UK-built sports car, it will open a production facility in its namesake city to build a clean-sheet electric sedan. You can count me as skeptical that the Detroit Electric SP:01 will ever actually be available for general purchase in Detroit. Oh well, at least we still have Tesla to showcase the (seemingly asleep) “American entrepreneurial spirit.” And, yes, I’m aware that CEO Elon Musk is South African.     Get CleanTechnica’s 1st (completely free) electric car report → “Electric Cars: What Early Adopters & First Followers Want.”   Come attend CleanTechnica’s 1st “Cleantech Revolution Tour” event → in Berlin, Germany, April 9–10.   Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.   James Ayre 's background is predominantly in geopolitics and history, but he has an obsessive interest in pretty much everything. After an early life spent in the Imperial Free City of Dortmund, James followed the river Ruhr to Cofbuokheim, where he attended the University of Astnide. And where he also briefly considered entering the coal mining business. He currently writes for a living, on a broad variety of subjects, ranging from science, to politics, to military history, to renewable energy. You can follow his work on Google+.

Turner J.W.G.,Lotus Engineering | Pearson R.J.,Lotus Engineering | Dekker E.,Biomcn Inc. | Iosefa B.,Methanex | And 2 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

Ethanol has become widely used in low concentration blends with gasoline in many parts of the world and has more limited use in high concentration blends. In the long term the supply of biomass for transport fuels will be severely limited, perhaps to as little as 20% of transport energy demand. The inability to satisfy the total transport demand means that biofuels are in danger of being regarded as a technological and strategic dead end. Methanol can be made from a wide variety of fossil and biomass feed stocks and can also be synthesized by reducing carbon dioxide and water using renewable energy. Methanol therefore has the potential to extend significantly the availability of alcohols for transport fuel. Ternary blends of gasoline, ethanol, and methanol (GEM) are proposed which can be formulated to have identical stoichiometric air-fuel ratios to any binary blend of gasoline and ethanol. The present work examines the properties of GEM ternary blends which are iso-stoichiometric with E85 and reports initial test results where the blends have been used as drop-in fuels for E85-gasoline flex-fuel vehicles. Provision of such fuels extends the ability of ethanol to displace gasoline from the transport fuel sector, increasing security of supply and, if the methanol feedstock is renewable, reducing the climatic impact of the transport sector. The increased gasoline displacement which can be achieved using the approach is discussed, together with the potential of the blends to decrease the operating costs of flex-fuel vehicles to lower than that which can be achieved when operating them on gasoline. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Turner J.W.G.,Jaguar Land Rover | Popplewell A.,Jaguar Land Rover | Patel R.,Jaguar Land Rover | Johnson T.R.,Jaguar Land Rover | And 16 more authors.
SAE International Journal of Engines | Year: 2014

The paper discusses the concept, design and final results from the 'Ultra Boost for Economy' collaborative project, which was part-funded by the Technology Strategy Board, the UK's innovation agency. The project comprised industry- and academia-wide expertise to demonstrate that it is possible to reduce engine capacity by 60% and still achieve the torque curve of a modern, large-capacity naturally-aspirated engine, while encompassing the attributes necessary to employ such a concept in premium vehicles. In addition to achieving the torque curve of the Jaguar Land Rover naturally-aspirated 5.0 litre V8 engine (which included generating 25 bar BMEP at 1000 rpm), the main project target was to show that such a downsized engine could, in itself, provide a major proportion of a route towards a 35% reduction in vehicle tailpipe CO2 on the New European Drive Cycle, together with some vehicle-based modifications and the assumption of stop-start technology being used instead of hybridization. In order to do this vehicle modelling was employed to set part-load operating points representative of a target vehicle and to provide weighting factors for those points. The engine was sized by using the fuel consumption improvement targets and a series of specification steps designed to ensure that the required full-load performance and driveability could be achieved. The engine was designed in parallel with 1-D modelling which helped to combine the various technology packages of the project, including the specification of an advanced charging system and the provision of the necessary variability in the valvetrain system. An advanced intake port was designed in order to ensure the necessary flow rate and the charge motion to provide fuel mixing and help suppress knock, and was subjected to a full transient CFD analysis. A new engine management system was provided which necessarily had to be capable of controlling many functions, including a supercharger engagement clutch and full bypass system, direct injection system, port-fuel injection system, separately-switchable cam profiles for the intake and exhaust valves and wide-range fast-acting camshaft phasing devices. Testing of the engine was split into two phases. The first usied a test bed Combustion Air Handling Unit to enable development of the combustion system without the complication of a new charging system being fitted to the engine. To set boundary conditions during this part of the programme, heavy reliance was placed on the 1-D simulation. The second phase tested the full engine. The ramifications of realizing the engine design from a V8 basis in terms of residual friction versus the fuel consumption results achieved are also discussed. The final improvement in vehicle fuel economy is demonstrated using a proprietary fuel consumption code, and is presented for the New European Drive Cycle, the FTP-75 cycle and a 120 km/h (75 mph) cruise condition. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

Turner J.W.G.,Lotus Engineering | Blundell D.W.,Lotus Engineering | Pearson R.J.,Lotus Engineering | Patel R.,Lotus Engineering | And 7 more authors.
SAE International Journal of Engines | Year: 2010

The paper describes the principal features of Omnivore, a spark-ignition-based research engine designed to investigate the possibility of true wide-range HCCI operation on a variety of fossil and renewable liquid fuels. The engine project is part-funded jointly by the United Kingdom's Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and the Department of the Environment of Northern Ireland (DoENI). The engineering team includes Lotus Engineering, Jaguar Cars, Orbital Corporation and Queen's University Belfast. The research engine so far constructed is of a typical automotive cylinder capacity and operates on an externally scavenged version of the two-port Day 2-stroke cycle, utilising both a variable charge trapping mechanism to control both trapped charge and residual concentration and a wide-range variable compression ratio (VCR) mechanism in the cylinder head. This approach permits individual control of retained and compression heat as separate inputs to the ATAC combustion process (now commonly referred to as HCCI), an ideal situation which is not possible when attempting to operate a traditional fixed compression ratio, variable valve timing 4-stroke engine in HCCI combustion. The ease of application of the VCR system due to the elimination of poppet valves for gas exchange is fundamental to the concept and this feature is discussed in detail, together with the very wide range of compression ratios that the chosen solution permits (from 10:1 to 40:1 in this initial configuration). In addition to describing the engine and its technologies, test results from its initial operation on 98 RON gasoline are presented, including stable operation at idle load and 450 rpm in true HCCI (i.e. without spark assistance). © 2010 SAE International.

Pitcher G.,Lotus Engineering | Turner J.W.G.,Lotus Engineering | Pearson R.J.,Lotus Engineering
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2012

Five different fuels, including gasoline, commercial E85, pure methanol and two mixtures of gasoline, ethanol and methanol, (GEM), configured to a target stoichiometric air fuel ratio have been investigated in a fully-optically- accessed engine. The work investigated effects of injection duration, and performed spray imaging, thermodynamic analysis of the combustion and OH imaging, for two fixed engine conditions of 2.7 and 3.7 bar NMEP at 2000 rpm. The engine was operated with constant ignition timing for all fuels and both loads. One of the most important results from this study was the suitability of a single type of injector to handle all the fuels tested. There were differences observed in the spray morphology between the fuels, due to the different physical properties of the fuels. The energy utilisation measured in this study showed differences of up to 14% for the different GEM fuels whereas an earlier in-vehicle study had showed only 2 to 3%. However, there was no information about any changes imposed by the engine management system for the earlier in-vehicle study, and this work was performed without a dynamometer (load being set by operating the engine at a fixed valve timing and intake depression as per earlier work using the equipment). The combustion analysis gave some interesting results when the OH images were compared to the rate of heat release. Here, E85 showed a consistently faster burn rate to that of gasoline, whereas the combustion images appeared to show the opposite. A short section on future work details further investigations that are required to explain some of the contradictory results found in the present work. Copyright © 2012 Lotus Cars Limited.

Chapman A.,Lotus Engineering | Rosario L.,Lotus Engineering
26th Electric Vehicle Symposium 2012, EVS 2012 | Year: 2012

The latest addition to Lotus Engineering's low carbon vehicle demonstrators is the Lotus Evora 414E. This series hybrid sports car is capable accelerating from 0-60mph in less than 4.5 seconds, yet produces less than 50g of CO2 per kilometre on the ECE-R101 emissions test. The vehicle showcases new developments in plug-in, range-extended electric propulsion, new electronic technologies to enhance driver involvement and torque vectoring. The vehicle is equipped with a 35kW normally aspirated Lotus range extender engine and a 300kW, 14kWh battery-pack to power the twin-motor driveline. To manage the system energy flow between battery, range-extender system and vehicle loads, an adaptive energy management technique has been developed. The energy management framework is capable of multi-objective optimisation over a variable time horizon. Arbitration of power flow is derived by evaluating the instantaneous cost functions for the battery and range extender respectively. The energy manager calculates the average vehicle power demand over a series of trailing time windows and evaluates instantaneous cost functions before determining the feed forward range extender operating point. Details of the energy management module developed for the Lotus 414E are presented in this paper. Implementation methods are discussed to demonstrate operation of the control system.

Zhao H.,Brunel University | Psanis C.,Brunel University | Ma T.,Brunel University | Turner J.,Lotus Engineering | Pearson R.,Lotus Engineering
International Journal of Engine Research | Year: 2011

As an alternative to the electric hybrid powertrain, air-hybrid engine concepts have the potential to achieve regenerative braking and air-assisted engine operations for low-carbon vehicle applications. Over the last few years, systematic studies have been carried out by the authors on a number of air-hybrid engine concepts. This paper presents the modelling and experimental results of air-hybrid engine operation enabled by fully variable valve actuation (FVVA). The principle and key operating features of such an air-hybrid engine will be presented first. This is followed by a detailed theoretical analysis of the two-stroke compression and expansion operations enabled by the FVVA system. Finally, experimental results will be presented with regard to the actual performance of a single-cylinder engine operating in the compression mode and expansion mode through the Lotus active valve train system. copyright © 2012 by institution of mechanical engineers.

Blundell D.W.,Lotus Engineering | Turner J.,Lotus Engineering | Pearson R.,Lotus Engineering | Patel R.,Lotus Engineering | Young J.,Lotus Engineering
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2010

Omnivore is a single cylinder spark ignition based research engine conceived to maximize the operating range of auto-ignition on a variety of fossil and renewable fuels. In order to maximize auto-ignition operation, the two-stroke cycle was adopted with two independent mechanisms for control. The charge trapping valve system is incorporated as a means of varying the quantity of trapped residuals whilst a variable compression ratio mechanism is included to give independent control over the end of compression temperature. The inclusion of these two technologies allows the benefits of trapped residual gas to be maximised (to minimize NOx formation) whilst permitting variation of the onset of auto-ignition. 2000rpm and idle are the main focus of concern whilst also observing the influence of injector location. This paper describes the rational behind the engine concept and presents the results achieved at the time of writing using 98ulg and E85 fuels. Copyright © 2010 Lotus Cars Ltd.

Knapp J.,Loughborough University | Chapman A.,Lotus Engineering | Mody S.,Loughborough University | Steffen T.,Loughborough University
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

Hybrid electric vehicles offer significant fuel economy benefits, because battery and fuel can be used as complementing energy sources. This paper presents the use of dynamic programming to find the optimal blend of power sources, leading to the lowest fuel consumption and the lowest level of harmful emissions. It is found that the optimal engine behavior differs substantially to an on-line adaptive control system previously designed for the Lotus Evora 414E. When analyzing the trade-off between emission and fuel consumption, CO and HC emissions show a traditional Pareto curve, whereas NOx emissions show a near linear relationship with a high penalty. These global optimization results are not directly applicable for online control, but they can guide the design of a more efficient hybrid control system. Copyright © 2015 SAE International.

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