Lot L3 I 1 Enterprise

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Lot L3 I 1 Enterprise

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
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Song S.-L.,University of Malaya | Lim P.-E.,University of Malaya | Phang S.-M.,University of Malaya | Lee W.-W.,Lot L3 I 1 Enterprise | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2013

Gracilaria is a red seaweed that has been cultivated worldwide and is commercially used for food, fertilizers, animal fodder, and phycocolloids. However, the high morphological plasticity of seaweeds often leads to the misidentification in the traditional identification of Gracilaria species. Molecular markers are important especially in the correct identification of Gracilaria species with high economic value. Microsatellite markers were developed from the expressed sequence tags of seaweeds deposited at the National Center for Biotechnology Information database and used for differentiating Gracilaria changii collected at various localities and two other Gracilaria species. Out of 33 primer pairs, only one primer pair gave significant results that can distinguish between three different Gracilaria species as well as G. changii from various localities based on the variation in repeated nucleotides. The unweighted pair group method using arithmetic mean dendrogram analysis grouped Gracilaria species into five main clades: (a) G. changii from Batu Besar (Malacca), Sandakan (Sabah), Bintulu (Sarawak), Batu Tengah (Malacca), Gua Tanah (Malacca), Middle Banks (Penang), Sungai (Sg.) Merbok (Kedah), Teluk Pelandok (Negeri Sembilan), Pantai Dickson (Negeri Sembilan), Sg. Kong-Kong (Johore), and Sg. Pulai (Johore); (b) Gracilaria manilaensis from Cebu, Philippines; (c) G. changii from Morib (Selangor); (d) Gracilaria fisheri from Pattani, Thailand; and (e) G. changii from Pantai Dickson (Negeri Sembilan), Gua Tanah (Malacca), Sg. Merbok (Kedah), Sg. Kong-Kong (Johore), and Sg. Pulai (Johore). This result shows that this primer pair was able to distinguish between three different species, which are G. changii from Morib (Malaysia), G. fisheri from Pattani (Thailand), and G. manilaensis from Cebu (Philippines), and also between different genotypes of G. changii. This suggested that the simple sequence repeat primer we developed was suitable for differentiating between different Gracilaria species due to the polymorphisms caused by the variability in the number of tandem repeats. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Song S.-L.,University of Malaya | Lim P.-E.,University of Malaya | Phang S.-M.,University of Malaya | Lee W.-W.,Lot L3 I 1 Enterprise | And 2 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014

Background: Gracilaria tenuistipitata is an agarophyte with substantial economic potential because of its high growth rate and tolerance to a wide range of environment factors. This red seaweed is intensively cultured in China for the production of agar and fodder for abalone. Microsatellite markers were developed from the chloroplast genome of G. tenuistipitata var. liui to differentiate G. tenuistipitata obtained from six different localities: four from Peninsular Malaysia, one from Thailand and one from Vietnam. Eighty G. tenuistipitata specimens were analyzed using eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer-pairs that we developed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Findings. Five mononucleotide primer-pairs and one trinucleotide primer-pair exhibited monomorphic alleles, whereas the other two primer-pairs separated the G. tenuistipitata specimens into two main clades. G. tenuistipitata from Thailand and Vietnam were grouped into one clade, and the populations from Batu Laut, Middle Banks and Kuah (Malaysia) were grouped into another clade. The combined dataset of these two primer-pairs separated G. tenuistipitata obtained from Kelantan, Malaysia from that obtained from other localities. Conclusions: Based on the variations in repeated nucleotides of microsatellite markers, our results suggested that the populations of G. tenuistipitata were distributed into two main geographical regions: (i) populations in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and (ii) populations facing the South China Sea. The correct identification of G. tenuistipitata strains with traits of high economic potential will be advantageous for the mass cultivation of seaweeds. © 2014 Song et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Yong H.-Y.,Tohoku University | Yong H.-Y.,Lot L3 I 1 Enterprise | Wang C.,Tohoku University | Wang C.,Yangzhou University | And 6 more authors.
Planta | Year: 2015

Main conclusion: By genome-wide association study, QTLs for salt tolerance in rapeseed were detected, and aTSN1ortholog was identified as a candidate gene responsible for genetic variation in cultivars. Dissecting the genomic regions governing abiotic stress tolerance is necessary for marker-assisted breeding to produce elite breeding lines. In this study, a world-wide collection of rapeseed was evaluated for salt tolerance. These rapeseed accessions showed a large variation for salt tolerance index ranging from 0.311 to 0.999. Although no significant correlation between salt tolerance and Na+ content was observed, there was a significant negative correlation between shoot biomass production under a control condition and salt tolerance. These rapeseed accessions were genotyped by DArTseq for a total of 51,109 genetic markers, which were aligned with ‘pseudomolecules’ representative of the genome of rapeseed to locate their hypothetical order for association mapping. A total of 62 QTLs for salt tolerance, shoot biomass, and ion-homeostasis-related traits were identified by association mapping using both the P and Q+K models. Candidate genes located within the QTL regions were also shortlisted. Sequence analysis showed many polymorphisms for BnaaTSN1. Three of them in the coding region resulting in a premature stop codon or frameshift were found in most of the sensitive lines. Loss-of-function mutations showed a significant association with salt tolerance in B. napus. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Tee S.-S.,University Putra Malaysia | Tee S.-S.,Lot L3 I 1 Enterprise | Tan Y.-C.,University Putra Malaysia | Abdullah F.,University Putra Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2013

Basal stem rot (BSR) is the most devastating disease of oil palm. In this study, we examined the transcriptional responses of oil palm roots treated with a causal agent of BSR, Ganoderma boninense using a cDNA microarray approach. A total of 61 from 3,748 transcripts examined were found to be significantly up- or down-regulated in oil palm roots infected with G. boninense at 3 and 6 weeks post inoculation compared to those from uninfected roots. The differentially expressed genes identified in the artificially infected oil palm roots included genes encoding isoflavone reductase, Em protein H2, SPX domain-containing protein 1, pathogenesis-related protein 1, vicilin-like antimicrobial peptide. The gene expression of isoflavone reductase, which is involved in the production of phytoalexin and three related genes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway was also profiled in the treated oil palms using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. This information has contributed to our understanding of the defense mechanisms of oil palm in response to G. boninense, the future development of molecular markers for marker assisted breeding and screening of oil palms that are tolerant to G. boninense. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Ramli U.S.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Sambanthamurthi R.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Rasid O.A.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Kadir A.P.G.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Oil Palm Research | Year: 2012

Modulating endogenous levels and/or producing novel fatty acids of oils have gained significant attention in recent years to meet the demand for oils for specific markets. The commodity palm oil is composed mainly of four fatty acids: palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2). The percentages of these fatty acids in palm oil average 44%, 4%, 39% and 10%, respectively, with trace amounts of other fatty acids. Metabolic engineering may be used to produce oil crops with desired fatty acid compositions. We have isolated and characterised b-ketoacyl ACP-synthase II (KASII) cDNA from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) which is one of the main components for the oil palm genetic engineering programme. KAS II is associated with the accumulation of palmitic acid in oil palm, and its role in controlling the ratio of C16:C18 has been previously determined. We isolated KAS II cDNA from oil palm, and functionally characterised the same in Escherichia coli and Arabidopsis. Partial length KAS II cDNA was first obtained by the reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was then used to isolate both the 5' and 3' ends of the KAS II sequences. Assembly of the partial length sequence fragments, including the 5' and 3' ends, allowed for the full-length sequence information on the KAS II cDNA to be obtained and used in the gene isolation. Expression studies in E. coli resulted in an increase in oleic acid at the expense of palmitic acid. Arabidopsis thaliana was also used to further confirm the functional activity of the oil palm KAS II. A significant decrease in C18:0 and accumulation of C16:0 were detected in the plants that had been transformed with the antisense KASII construct. This suggests that the substrate specificity of the oil palm KAS II is similar to that of KAS II from other plants which preferentially elongate palmitic to stearic acids. The oil palm KAS II may, therefore, be useful in providing new opportunities in the genetic engineering programme for the production of high-value products such as an oil with a high content of monounsaturated fatty acids from the transgenic oil crops.

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