Time filter

Source Type

Los Angeles, CA, United States

The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power is the largest municipal utility in the United States, serving over four million residents. It was founded in 1902 to supply water to residents and businesses in Los Angeles and surrounding communities. In 1917, it started to deliver electricity. It has been involved in a number of controversies and media portrayals over the years, including the 1928 St. Francis Dam failure and the books Water and Power and Cadillac Desert.LADWP can currently deliver 7200 megawatts of electricity and, in each year, 200 billion US gallons of water. Wikipedia.

Gomez B.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Livingston D.M.,Los Angeles Department of Water and Power
Geomorphology | Year: 2012

Post-glacial incision created 50 to 120m of relief in the headwaters of the Waipaoa River basin, but it is not known how the signal of incision propagated along the trunk streams. We addressed this issue by imposing previously determined long-term rates of rock uplift, that vary between 0.6 and 4mmyear -1, on the preaggradation longitudinal profile. Acting over the past 27.1±2cal.kaBP, these rates are sufficient to passively elevate the Waipaoa-1 terrace to its present level. But during the Last Glacial Maximum, rates of vertical incision failed to match those of the uplifting rocks. Thus, by the time favorable conditions for incision were reestablished after the Antarctic Cold/New Zealand Late Glacial reversal we estimate that the channel would have been elevated ≤55m above the datum the river should otherwise have maintained. The channel incised rapidly after the transition from glacial to interglacial conditions and reacquired its steady-state form in the mid-Holocene (5.5±2cal.kaBP). Thereafter, we suggest rates of incision matched rates of uplift. No knickpoints are found on the upper Waipaoa and Mangatu Rivers because incision commenced simultaneously along the entire length of the trunk streams, and the pattern of incision is consistent with the downstream decline in the rate of rock uplift. We also used hypsometric analysis to show how post-glacial incision affected the surface morphology of low order (0.1-4.3km 2) drainages in the headwaters of the Waipaoa River basin. Values of the hypsometric integral are higher for proximal basins, which the incision signal did not permeate, than for low-order basins bordering the upper Waipaoa River and the lower reaches of tributaries that possessed enough erosive capacity to keep pace with incision along the mainstem. Hillslope adjustments were focused on the lower and mid-sections of these basins so that the most pronounced changes to the hypsometric curve occur in the vicinity of the toe, whereas the entire form of the hypsometric curve changes once mass wasting processes encroach onto hillslopes in the middle and upper sections of a basin. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Davis C.A.,Los Angeles Department of Water and Power
Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology - AQUA | Year: 2010

The City of Los Angeles, as well as the entire Southern California population of over 22 million people, is highly dependent on water imported through the Los Angeles, California and Colorado River Aqueducts. The San Andreas Fault poses one of the greatest risks to these critical water supply lines; all three aqueducts cross the San Andreas Fault. A preliminary review of potential damage to these three major aqueducts in response to a magnitude 7.8 earthquake scenario on the San Andreas Fault was performed. The results indicate repairs to restore flow into each aqueduct may take a year or more. Local storage is estimated to last approximately 6 months with significant rationing. As a result, there may be inadequate storage to supply the local population during the length of time it takes to repair the aqueducts. Inadequate water storage has significant health, safety and economic impacts on the Southern California region. This investigation identifies the need for a more thorough evaluation of aqueduct restoration times. In addition, mitigation measures for additional local storage and more rapid aqueduct restoration must be implemented. © IWA Publishing 2010. Source

Davis C.A.,Los Angeles Department of Water and Power
Pure and Applied Geophysics | Year: 2012

The purpose of using loss functions for earthquake prediction and disaster preparedness is to minimize expected costs when destructive earthquakes occur. This study focuses on developing a greater understanding of the interrelation between earthquake prediction characteristics and economic parameters. Equations for estimating economic losses and optimizing both earthquake prediction and disaster preparedness are presented in different dimensional forms to improve the understanding of parametric relationships between prediction and preparedness. The equations expand upon previously presented loss functions by explicitly considering loss as a function of both time and space and the cost parameters are clearly described to allow for practical application. Derivations reveal the close relationship between the loss function in terms of earthquake prediction characteristics and the benefit-cost analysis commonly used for disaster preparedness. An optimal preparedness scheme is presented based on a concept of unpreventable damage in extreme events and is shown to be a function of the level of damage prevented by taking action in response to an earthquake prediction. The formulations show that alarm durations are optimal relative to the type and time to implement different actions and the alarm area is optimal relative to the potential earthquake size and related geohazards. The presentation shows that earthquake prediction need not be constrained at a point in space to be useful for disaster preparedness and that mitigation activity is more economically feasible the smaller the area of prediction is with respect to the potential earthquake source size. Examples are used to show how loss functions can be utilized to determine if an algorithm may be useful to implement into practice and how earthquake prediction strategies can be implemented in coordination with other risk reduction strategies to make cost effective mitigations. Optimized earthquake prediction algorithms will greatly aid disaster managers and decision makers in their preparations once a prediction is made. The loss functions help to develop a greater understanding between earthquake prediction research and disaster preparedness implementation, allowing for future improvements in earthquake disaster prevention. © 2012 Springer Basel AG. Source

Davis C.,Los Angeles Department of Water and Power | O'Rourke T.,Cornell University
Earthquake Spectra | Year: 2011

Seismic response simulations of the Los Angeles water supply to a M w 7.8 San Andreas Fault earthquake scenario are used toassess the regional aqueduct and water distribution system performance in Southern California. Aqueducts sustain significant damage, and restoration of water flow is estimated to take between 4 and 18 months.Local emergency water supplies are insufficient to match the duration of aqueduct repairs, requiring severe water rationing. System serviceability declines rapidly due to numerous pipe leaks, causing serious difficulties for firefighting. Water service restoration to all customers is projected to take several months, with restoration of pre-earthquake water demand requiring more than a year. Business interruptions from long-term water rationing affect the regional economy greater than previously anticipated. Results from this scenario show how critical it is for all water agencies to prepare for a large-magnitudeSan Andreas earthquake. © 2011,Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Source

News Article | March 31, 2016
Site: http://cleantechnica.com

Californians pay some of the highest electricity bills on the West Coast. As the sun is shining more than 240 days a year in most areas, this is also an ideal setting for solar energy. I went to a San Diego website called Solar to the People to find out what rooftop solar costs in California. “We started the site to provide more information so that people can make more intelligent buying decisions. So we took the data from across the state and said on average, if you are a homeowner, what price would you expect to pay for solar panels,” said Ryan Willemsen, Founder and CEO of Solar to the People. After using his site’s sample cost tool, I think this question should really be how much do you lose by not having solar? “The best savings are pretty much always from a cash purchase, because you don’t have the cost of the loan interest over time,” said Willemsen. Typing a San Diego address into its savings search engine, I found that even without incentives, the average installation should pay for itself in 8 years. Over the course of 20 years, owners who pay cash for their systems save about $26,780 over their typical utility bills. Even if they borrowed the money to pay for that system @ 5% interest, they would save $20,180. “There are a lot of loan providers out there, and pretty low rates,” said Willemsen. However, most homeowners still lease their systems. This means they don’t have any upfront costs, but their 20 year savings are only about $17,151. That’s almost $10,000 less than the homeowner that paid cash – $9,629 to be exact – and the system still belongs to someone else! Solar to the People calculated that when you include the solar investment tax credit (ITC), the average Californian solar system is 5.5 kW and, after the incentives and tax credits have been taken off,  costs about $18,675. Some of the lowest cost per installed kilowatt systems are in the Redding and Shasta/Cascades region, so they tend to be larger (6.7 kW) and more expensive ($20,698).  People in the Central Coast tend to purchase systems that are 20% smaller and less expensive ($16.212) than average.  San Diego is right in the middle, a 5.5 kW system for $18,580. Though California’s three investor owned utilities (SDG&E, SCE and PG&E) have all tapped out their incentive programs, there are still additional programs for customers of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and Sacramento District Utility. In addition to providing general information about solar systems, Solar To The People can also send would-be-buyers to installation companies. “We have multiple providers and, if customers apply through us, we end up getting a commission. We encourage people to compare local providers. Look at a cost per kilowatt basis and really understand where the best deal is,” said Willemsen. “We do well as a business if we are known as someone who can provide valuable information. So, although obviously we need to make money, we also want to drive solar forward, and at the end of the day I am not as concerned about whether they go through us or not.” Photo Credits: (top) Solar Installation – Courtesy Baker Electric Solar; Jim from Sullivan Solar Power coming up to the roof – Courtesy Sullivan Solar Power;Screenshot from Solar to the People; Cost of Solar in California by Region – Solar to the People; Average cost of installing solar in California in 2015, after incentives, lowest to highest – Courtesy Solar To The People;A Baker Electric Solar installation – Courtesy Baker Electric Solar; Installation photo courtesy Sullivan Solar Power     Get CleanTechnica’s 1st (completely free) electric car report → “Electric Cars: What Early Adopters & First Followers Want.”   Come attend CleanTechnica’s 1st “Cleantech Revolution Tour” event → in Berlin, Germany, April 9–10.   Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.  

Discover hidden collaborations