Robinson E.A.,Lorillard Tobacco Company |
Johnson J.D.,Lorillard Tobacco Company
Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry | Year: 2011
Free radicals in the particulate phase of cigarette smoke were first measured by direct electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy over 60 years ago. Early efforts to measure free radicals in cigarette smoke were prompted by the theory that radicals could be involved in carcinogenesis. It was thought that free radicals could be either direct acting or produced by other components of cigarette smoke such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Even today, it is uncertain which of these routes of action is the most important. Ultimately, the development of a strategy to minimize potential biological damage from free radicals is dependent on the extent to which free radicals delivered in cigarette smoke are directly involved in disease processes. In recent years, the primary instrumental means for identifying and studying free radicals in smoke have been both EPR and mass spectrometry (MS) techniques using spin trapping. The spin trapping technique allows stabilization of short-lived species. When coupled with MS, spin trapping allows complete structural characterization of free radicals. When coupled with EPR, spin trapping allows structural characterization by comparison to EPR spectra of known chemical species. Advances in the development of spin traps and spin trapping techniques, along with EPR and MS methods used for the study of cigarette smoke free radicals are presented in this review. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers.
Heck J.D.,Lorillard Tobacco Company
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2010
Cigarette smoking is established as a substantial contributor to risks for cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Less is known about the potential of cigarette composition to affect smoking risks. The use of cigarette flavoring ingredients such as menthol is currently of worldwide public health and regulatory interest. The unique conditions of menthol inhalation exposure that occur coincident with that of the complex cigarette smoke aerosol require specialized studies to support an assessment of its safety in cigarette flavoring applications. The present state of knowledge is sufficient to support an assessment of the safety of the use of menthol in cigarettes. Scientific, smoking behavioral and epidemiological data available through mid-2009 is critically reviewed and a broad convergence of findings supports a judgment that menthol employed as a cigarette tobacco flavoring ingredient does not meaningfully affect the inherent toxicity of cigarette smoke or the human risks that attend smoking. There remains a need for well-designed studies of the potential of menthol to affect smoking initiation, cessation and addiction in order to differentiate any independent effects of menthol in cigarettes from those imposed by socioeconomic, environmental and peer influences on these complex human behaviors. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tayyarah R.,Lorillard Tobacco Company |
Long G.A.,Lorillard Tobacco Company
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014
Leading commercial electronic cigarettes were tested to determine bulk composition. The e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes were evaluated using machine-puffing to compare nicotine delivery and relative yields of chemical constituents. The e-liquids tested were found to contain humectants, glycerin and/or propylene glycol, (≥75% content); water (<20%); nicotine (approximately 2%); and flavor (<10%). The aerosol collected mass (ACM) of the e-cigarette samples was similar in composition to the e-liquids. Aerosol nicotine for the e-cigarette samples was 85% lower than nicotine yield for the conventional cigarettes. Analysis of the smoke from conventional cigarettes showed that the mainstream cigarette smoke delivered approximately 1500. times more harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) tested when compared to e-cigarette aerosol or to puffing room air. The deliveries of HPHCs tested for these e-cigarette products were similar to the study air blanks rather than to deliveries from conventional cigarettes; no significant contribution of cigarette smoke HPHCs from any of the compound classes tested was found for the e-cigarettes. Thus, the results of this study support previous researchers' discussion of e-cigarette products' potential for reduced exposure compared to cigarette smoke. © 2014 The Authors.
Yan X.S.,Lorillard Tobacco Company |
D'Ruiz C.,Lorillard Tobacco Company
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015
The development of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) has the potential to offer a less harmful alternative for tobacco users. This clinical study was designed to characterize e-cig users' exposure to nicotine, and to investigate the acute effects of e-cigs on the hemodynamic measurements (blood pressure and heart rate) in comparison with the effects of regular smoking. Five e-cigs and one Marlboro® cigarette were randomized for twenty-three participants under two exposure scenarios from Day 1 to Day 11: half-hour controlled administration and one hour ad lib use. The nicotine plasma concentrations after 1.5h of product use (C90) were significantly lower in the users of e-cigs than of Marlboro® cigarettes. The combination of glycerin and propylene glycol as the vehicle facilitated delivery of more nicotine than glycerin alone. The heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly elevated after use of Marlboro® cigarettes, but the elevation was less after use of most of the e-cigs. Use of e-cigs had no impact on the exhaled CO levels, whereas the Marlboro® cigarette significantly increased the exhaled CO more than 8times above the baseline. In conclusion, e-cigs could be a less harmful alternative for tobacco users. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Long G.A.,Lorillard Tobacco Company
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2014
Exhaled aerosols were collected following the use of two leading U.S. commercial electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and a conventional cigarette by human subjects and analyzed for phenolics, carbonyls, water, glycerin and nicotine using a vacuum-assisted filter pad capture system. Exhaled breath blanks were determined for each subject prior to each product use and aerosol collection session. Distribution and mass balance of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol composition was greater than 99.9% water and glycerin, and a small amount (<0.06%) of nicotine. Total phenolic content in exhaled e-cigarette aerosol was not distinguishable from exhaled breath blanks, while total phenolics in exhaled cigarette smoke were significantly greater than in exhaled e-cigarette aerosol and exhaled breaths, averaging 66 μg/session (range 36 to 117 μg/session). The total carbonyls in exhaled e-cigarette aerosols were also not distinguishable from exhaled breaths or room air blanks. Total carbonyls in exhaled cigarette smoke was significantly greater than in exhaled e-cigarette aerosols, exhaled breath and room air blanks, averaging 242 μg/session (range 136 to 352 μg/session). These results indicate that exhaled e-cigarette aerosol does not increase bystander exposure for phenolics and carbonyls above the levels observed in exhaled breaths of air. © 2014 by the author; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Lorillard Tobacco Company | Date: 2014-09-05
A filter for a smoking article comprises a mouth end filter segment and a rod end filter segment. The rod end filter segment has a passage extending longitudinally therethrough. The passage has a diameter of about 1.0 mm or greater. In one embodiment, the rod end filter segment is comprised of an infinite pressure drop material. In another embodiment, the rod end filter segment is comprised of a low pressure drop material having a hollow tubular element disposed within to define the passage with an inner diameter greater than about 1.55 mm. Air dilution means are disposed in one of said filter segments to admit ventilating air into the filter.
Lorillard Tobacco Company | Date: 2012-03-08
A composition for imparting reduced ignition propensity properties to a smoking article by treating the smoking article wrapper. The composition comprising at least one phase transition substance which, upon being subjected to the heat of the smoking article burning firecone, physically transforms and at least partially fills the pores of the smoking article wrapper to reduce the permeability of the wrapper in the vicinity of the burning firecone. The reduced permeability of the wrapper in the vicinity of the firecone will permit sufficient air flow to sustain free burn, but, when the smoking article is placed on a substrate, the reduced permeability of the wrapper imparts reduced ignition propensity such that there is insufficient air flow to sustain combustion of the firecone or insufficient air flow to sustain an intensity of the burning firecone necessary to ignite the substrate.
Lorillard Tobacco Company | Date: 2014-12-12
A smoking article filter is designed to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO) and increase the ratio of total particulate material (TPM) to CO in mainstream cigarette smoke. The design includes a non-porous microcapillary tube centered axially within a low-density filter.
Lorillard Tobacco Company | Date: 2012-03-05
A method for imparting reduced ignition propensity properties to a smoking article by treating the smoking article wrapper with a phase transition substance which, upon being subjected to the heat of the smoking article burning firecone, physically transforms and at least partially fills the pores of the smoking article wrapper to reduce the permeability of the wrapper in the vicinity of the burning firecone. The reduced permeability of the wrapper in the vicinity of the firecone will permit sufficient air flow to sustain free burn, but, when the smoking article is placed on a substrate, the reduced permeability of the wrapper imparts reduced ignition propensity such that there is insufficient air flow to sustain combustion of the firecone or insufficient air flow to sustain an intensity of the burning firecone necessary to ignite the substrate.
Lorillard Tobacco Company | Date: 2012-03-05
Method of applying phase transition substance to impart reduced ignition propensity to a smoking article comprising a tobacco column and a wrapper surrounding the tobacco column and having a porous structure with a base permeability. The method comprising forming a pattern of phase transition material on the wrapper such that, when subjected to the heat of the tobacco column burning firecone, the phase transition material at least partially fills the wrapper porous structure in the vicinity of the burning firecone to form an area on the wrapper having reduced permeability lower than that of the wrapper base permeability. The reduced permeability of the wrapper in the vicinity of the burning firecone imparts reduced ignition propensity such that there is insufficient air flow to sustain combustion of the firecone or insufficient air flow to sustain an intensity of the burning firecone necessary to ignite the substrate.