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Khorramabad, Iran

Amiri H.,Lorestan University
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds) were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger) Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak) Jalas which represented 89.9, 99.7, and 95.8 of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were thymol (16.4-42.6), carvacrol (7.6-52.3), and γ-terpinene (3-11.4). Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging and Β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Antioxidant activity of polar subfraction of T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak) Jalas was found to be higher than those of the others in DPPH assay, while nonpolar subfraction of T. eriocalyx (Ronniger) Jalas has most antioxidant activity in -Βcarotene/linoleic acid test (19.1±0.1 g/mL and 96.1±0.8 inhibition rate, resp.). Source

Shahbazi F.,Lorestan University
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture

Background: Wild mustard seed is similar in size and shape to canola seed and can be separated by pneumatic means if the aerodynamic properties of these two materials are well known. The objective of this study was evaluation of the aerodynamic properties of canola and wild mustard seeds as a function of moisture content from 5% to 20% (w.b). Results: The results showed that the terminal velocity of canola seeds increased, following a polynomial relationship from 5.401 to 6.566 m s-1, as the moisture content increased from 5% to 20%. Over this same moisture content range the terminal velocity of wild mustard seeds varied from 4.276 to 5.433 m s-1. The drag coefficient of canola and wild mustard seeds decreased linearly from 1.062 to 0.646 and from 1.432 to 0.928, respectively, as moisture content increased from 5% to 20%. Analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference between the terminal velocity and drag coefficient of canola and wild mustard seed at a 1% probability level. Conclusion: The results suggest that aerodynamic separation of wild mustard seed from canola is possible. Moisture content had a significant effect on the terminal velocity and drag coefficient of seeds. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Alirezaei M.,Lorestan University
Journal of physiology and biochemistry

Oxidative stress is a hypothesis for the association of reactive oxygen species with cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, we examined whether oral betaine can act as a preventive agent in ethanol-induced oxidative stress on the cerebellum of rats. Thirty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four equal groups (control, ethanol, betaine, and betaine plus ethanol) with different dietary regimens and were followed up for 1 month. Total homocysteine (tHcy) of plasma and cerebellum homogenate was determined by an Axis(®) homocysteine EIA kit, and antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), SOD, and CAT) activities of cerebellum homogenate were measured chemically by a spectrophotometer. Lipid peroxidation of cerebellum was shown by the measurement of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) via a spectrophotometer. Ethanol-induced hyperhomocysteinemia was manifested by an increase in the concentrations of tHcy in the plasma and cerebellum homogenates of the ethanol group, while ethanol-induced oxidative stress was indicated via an increase in lipid peroxidation marker (TBARS) in cerebellum homogenates of ethanol-treated rats. In contrast, betaine prevented hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress in the betaine plus ethanol group as well as the betaine group. The results of the present investigation indicated that the protective effect of betaine is probably related to its ability to strengthen the cerebellum membrane cells by enhancement of antioxidant enzyme activity principally GPx, while the methyl donor effect of betaine to reduce hyperhomocysteinemia has been explained previously and confirmed in the present study. Source

In this paper, the concept of chance constrained programming approaches is used to develop output oriented super-efficiency model in stochastic data envelopment analysis. Output oriented super-efficiency model is one of the classic models in data envelopment analysis widely used by DEA people and practitioners. However, in many real applications, data is often imprecise. A successful method to address uncertainty in data is replacing deterministic data by random variables, leading to stochastic DEA. Therefore, in this paper, output oriented super-efficiency model is developed in stochastic data envelopment analysis, and its deterministic equivalent which is a nonlinear program is derived. Moreover, it is shown that the deterministic equivalent of the stochastic super-efficiency model can be converted to a quadratic program. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis of the proposed super-efficiency model is also discussed with respect to changes on parameter variables. Finally, data related to seventeen Iranian electricity distribution companies is used to illustrate the methods developed in this article. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

This paper is devoted to an investigation carried out on a simple, rapid and sensitive method, which is proposed for selective determination of ultra trace amounts of silver from water and biological samples. The method is based on highly efficient separation and pre-concentration of silver by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and determination with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol (PAN) was used as a silver chelating agent prior to extraction. Parameters such as type and volume of extraction solvent, type and volume of dispersive solvent, pH, extraction time and concentration of the chelating agent have been optimized. Liner range of calibration curve, detection limit and relative standard deviation were 0.2-6.0 ng mL-1,0.02 ng mL-1 and 4.4 C/o, respectively. Silver determined successfully with this method in real samples. Source

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