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Aulnay-sous-Bois, France

Barroso J.,Cosmetics Europe The Personal Care Association | Barroso J.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Pfannenbecker U.,Front End Innovation Toxicology | Adriaens E.,Adriaens Consulting BVBA | And 9 more authors.
Archives of Toxicology | Year: 2016

A thorough understanding of which of the effects assessed in the in vivo Draize eye test are responsible for driving UN GHS/EU CLP classification is critical for an adequate selection of chemicals to be used in the development and/or evaluation of alternative methods/strategies and for properly assessing their predictive capacity and limitations. For this reason, Cosmetics Europe has compiled a database of Draize data (Draize eye test Reference Database, DRD) from external lists that were created to support past validation activities. This database contains 681 independent in vivo studies on 634 individual chemicals representing a wide range of chemical classes. A description of all the ocular effects observed in vivo, i.e. degree of severity and persistence of corneal opacity (CO), iritis, and/or conjunctiva effects, was added for each individual study in the database, and the studies were categorised according to their UN GHS/EU CLP classification and the main effect driving the classification. An evaluation of the various in vivo drivers of classification compiled in the database was performed to establish which of these are most important from a regulatory point of view. These analyses established that the most important drivers for Cat 1 Classification are (1) CO mean ≥ 3 (days 1–3) (severity) and (2) CO persistence on day 21 in the absence of severity, and those for Cat 2 classification are (3) CO mean ≥ 1 and (4) conjunctival redness mean ≥ 2. Moreover, it is shown that all classifiable effects (including persistence and CO = 4) should be present in ≥60 % of the animals to drive a classification. As a consequence, our analyses suggest the need for a critical revision of the UN GHS/EU CLP decision criteria for the Cat 1 classification of chemicals. Finally, a number of key criteria are identified that should be taken into consideration when selecting reference chemicals for the development, evaluation and/or validation of alternative methods and/or strategies for serious eye damage/eye irritation testing. Most important, the DRD is an invaluable tool for any future activity involving the selection of reference chemicals. © 2016 The Author(s)

Provin C.,University of Tokyo | Nicolas A.,Nihon lOreal K.K. | Gregoire S.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Fujii T.,University of Tokyo
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2015

Purpose: Percutaneous absorption assays of molecules for pharmaceutical and cosmetology purposes are important to determine the bioavailability of new compounds, once topically applied. The current method of choice is to measure the rate of diffusion through excised human skin using a diffusion cell. This method however entails significant drawbacks such as scarce availability and poor reproducibility of the sample, low sampling rate, and tedious assay setup.Methods: The objective of the present work is to propose an alternative method that overcomes these issues by integrating an experimental model of the skin (artificial stratum corneum) and online optical sensors into a microfluidic device.Results: The measurement of the diffusion profile followed by the calculation of the permeability coefficients and time lag were performed on seven different molecules and obtained data positively fit with those available from literature on human skin penetration. The coating of the lipid mixture to generate the artificial stratum corneum also proved robust and reproducible. The results show that the proposed device is able to give fast, real-time, accurate, and reproducible data in a user-friendly manner, and can be produced at a large scale.Conclusion: These assets should help both the cosmetics and pharmaceutics fields where the skin is the target or a pathway of a formulated compound, by allowing more candidate molecules or formulations to be assessed during the various stages of their development. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Sextius P.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Marionnet C.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Tacheau C.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Bon F.-X.,ARIC | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Dermatological Research | Year: 2015

With aging, epidermal homeostasis and barrier function are disrupted. In a previous study, we analyzed the transcriptomic response of young skin epidermis after stratum corneum removal, and obtained a global kinetic view of the molecular processes involved in barrier function recovery. In the present study, the same analysis was performed in aged skin in order to better understand the defects which occur with aging. Thirty healthy male volunteers (67 ± 4 years old) were involved. Tape-strippings were carried out on the inner face of one forearm, the other unstripped forearm serving as control. At 2, 6, 18, 30 and 72 h after stripping, TEWL measurements were taken, and epidermis samples were collected. Total RNA was extracted and analyzed using DermArray® cDNA microarrays. The results highlighted that barrier function recovery and overall kinetics of gene expression were delayed following stripping in aged skin. Indeed, the TEWL measurements showed that barrier recovery in the young group appeared to be dramatically significant during the overall kinetics, while there were no significant evolution in the aged group until 30 h. Moreover, gene expression analysis revealed that the number of modulated genes following tape stripping increased as a function of time and reached a peak at 6 h after tape stripping in young skin, while it was at 30 h in aged skin, showing that cellular activity linked to the repair process may be engaged earlier in young epidermis than in aged epidermis. A total of 370 genes were modulated in the young group. In the aged group, 382 genes were modulated, whose 184 were also modulated in the young group. Only eight genes that were modulated in both groups were significantly differently modulated. The characterization of these genes into 15 functional families helped to draw a scenario for the aging process affecting epidermal repair capacity. © 2015, The Author(s).

Flament F.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Francois G.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Qiu H.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Ye C.,Loreal Research And Innovation | And 6 more authors.
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology | Year: 2015

Skin pores (SP), as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc) that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage) on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 µm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm2) and determination of their respective sizes in mm2. Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage) that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1) were recorded in all studied subjects; 2) varied greatly with ethnicity; 3) plateaued with age in most cases; and 4) globally refected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having “enlarged pores” like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly distinct from other ethnicities in having very low density and sizes. Analyzing the present results suggests that facial skin pore’s morphology as perceived by human eye less result from functional criteria of associated appendages such as sebaceous glands. To what extent skin pores may be viewed as additional criteria of a photo-altered skin is an issue to be further addressed. © 2015 Flament et al.

Flament F.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Bazin R.,RB Consult | Qiu H.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Ye C.,Loreal Research And Innovation | And 5 more authors.
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology | Year: 2015

A new reference clinical atlas of facial signs dedicated to photoaging was applied to 301 Chinese women of various ages through standardized photographs. Such approach aimed at better describing the facial changes induced by both real/chronological age and sun exposure and their respective impact on two subcohorts of different behavior with regard to sun exposure. A total of 28 various facial signs were individually graded according to their severity by a panel of experts, and a perceived apparent age of each subject was assessed. Results showed that the severity of major signs significantly increased rather linearly with age, with a higher rate in sun-exposed subjects as compared with subjects who regularly avoid sun exposure. The sever­ity of facial signs, all impacted by sun exposure, better correlated with perceived apparent age than real/chronological age. The protocol used in the present work, similar to that previously applied to two cohorts of French women, assigned a greater impact of sun exposure in the facial aging signs of Asian women – all clinical signs are influenced by extrinsic factors – as compared with Caucasian women of comparable ages, likely related to much more intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation. © 2015 Flament et al.

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