Loreal Research And Innovation

Aulnay-sous-Bois, France

Loreal Research And Innovation

Aulnay-sous-Bois, France
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Cavusoglu N.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Delattre C.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Donovan M.,Loreal Research And Innovation | El Rawadi C.,Loreal Research And Innovation | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Dermatological Research | Year: 2016

The study aimed at detecting differentially expressed proteins in the stratum corneum of dandruff versus non-dandruff scalps to better understand dandruff aetiology. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis revealed a total of 68 differentially expressed biomarkers. A detailed analysis of their known physiological functions provided new insights into the affected metabolic pathways of a dandruff scalp. Dandruff scalp showed (1) profound changes in the expression and maturation of structural and epidermal differentiation related proteins, that are responsible for the integrity of the skin, (2) altered relevant factors that regulate skin hydration, and (3) an imbalanced physiological protease–protease inhibitor ratio. Stratum corneum proteins with antimicrobial activity, mainly those derived from sweat and sebaceous glands were also found modified. Comparing our data with those reported for atopic dermatitis revealed that about 50 % of the differentially expressed proteins in the superficial layers of the stratum corneum from dandruff and atopic dermatitis are identical. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Provin C.,University of Tokyo | Nicolas A.,Nihon l'Oreal K.K. | Gregoire S.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Fujii T.,University of Tokyo
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2015

Purpose: Percutaneous absorption assays of molecules for pharmaceutical and cosmetology purposes are important to determine the bioavailability of new compounds, once topically applied. The current method of choice is to measure the rate of diffusion through excised human skin using a diffusion cell. This method however entails significant drawbacks such as scarce availability and poor reproducibility of the sample, low sampling rate, and tedious assay setup.Methods: The objective of the present work is to propose an alternative method that overcomes these issues by integrating an experimental model of the skin (artificial stratum corneum) and online optical sensors into a microfluidic device.Results: The measurement of the diffusion profile followed by the calculation of the permeability coefficients and time lag were performed on seven different molecules and obtained data positively fit with those available from literature on human skin penetration. The coating of the lipid mixture to generate the artificial stratum corneum also proved robust and reproducible. The results show that the proposed device is able to give fast, real-time, accurate, and reproducible data in a user-friendly manner, and can be produced at a large scale.Conclusion: These assets should help both the cosmetics and pharmaceutics fields where the skin is the target or a pathway of a formulated compound, by allowing more candidate molecules or formulations to be assessed during the various stages of their development. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Barroso J.,Cosmetics Europe The Personal Care Association | Barroso J.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Pfannenbecker U.,Beiersdorf AG | Adriaens E.,Adriaens Consulting BVBA | And 9 more authors.
Archives of Toxicology | Year: 2016

A thorough understanding of which of the effects assessed in the in vivo Draize eye test are responsible for driving UN GHS/EU CLP classification is critical for an adequate selection of chemicals to be used in the development and/or evaluation of alternative methods/strategies and for properly assessing their predictive capacity and limitations. For this reason, Cosmetics Europe has compiled a database of Draize data (Draize eye test Reference Database, DRD) from external lists that were created to support past validation activities. This database contains 681 independent in vivo studies on 634 individual chemicals representing a wide range of chemical classes. A description of all the ocular effects observed in vivo, i.e. degree of severity and persistence of corneal opacity (CO), iritis, and/or conjunctiva effects, was added for each individual study in the database, and the studies were categorised according to their UN GHS/EU CLP classification and the main effect driving the classification. An evaluation of the various in vivo drivers of classification compiled in the database was performed to establish which of these are most important from a regulatory point of view. These analyses established that the most important drivers for Cat 1 Classification are (1) CO mean ≥ 3 (days 1–3) (severity) and (2) CO persistence on day 21 in the absence of severity, and those for Cat 2 classification are (3) CO mean ≥ 1 and (4) conjunctival redness mean ≥ 2. Moreover, it is shown that all classifiable effects (including persistence and CO = 4) should be present in ≥60 % of the animals to drive a classification. As a consequence, our analyses suggest the need for a critical revision of the UN GHS/EU CLP decision criteria for the Cat 1 classification of chemicals. Finally, a number of key criteria are identified that should be taken into consideration when selecting reference chemicals for the development, evaluation and/or validation of alternative methods and/or strategies for serious eye damage/eye irritation testing. Most important, the DRD is an invaluable tool for any future activity involving the selection of reference chemicals. © 2016 The Author(s)

Sextius P.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Marionnet C.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Tacheau C.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Bon F.-X.,ARIC | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Dermatological Research | Year: 2015

With aging, epidermal homeostasis and barrier function are disrupted. In a previous study, we analyzed the transcriptomic response of young skin epidermis after stratum corneum removal, and obtained a global kinetic view of the molecular processes involved in barrier function recovery. In the present study, the same analysis was performed in aged skin in order to better understand the defects which occur with aging. Thirty healthy male volunteers (67 ± 4 years old) were involved. Tape-strippings were carried out on the inner face of one forearm, the other unstripped forearm serving as control. At 2, 6, 18, 30 and 72 h after stripping, TEWL measurements were taken, and epidermis samples were collected. Total RNA was extracted and analyzed using DermArray® cDNA microarrays. The results highlighted that barrier function recovery and overall kinetics of gene expression were delayed following stripping in aged skin. Indeed, the TEWL measurements showed that barrier recovery in the young group appeared to be dramatically significant during the overall kinetics, while there were no significant evolution in the aged group until 30 h. Moreover, gene expression analysis revealed that the number of modulated genes following tape stripping increased as a function of time and reached a peak at 6 h after tape stripping in young skin, while it was at 30 h in aged skin, showing that cellular activity linked to the repair process may be engaged earlier in young epidermis than in aged epidermis. A total of 370 genes were modulated in the young group. In the aged group, 382 genes were modulated, whose 184 were also modulated in the young group. Only eight genes that were modulated in both groups were significantly differently modulated. The characterization of these genes into 15 functional families helped to draw a scenario for the aging process affecting epidermal repair capacity. © 2015, The Author(s).

Flament F.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Bazin R.,RB Consult | Qiu H.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Ye C.,Loreal Research And Innovation | And 5 more authors.
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology | Year: 2015

A new reference clinical atlas of facial signs dedicated to photoaging was applied to 301 Chinese women of various ages through standardized photographs. Such approach aimed at better describing the facial changes induced by both real/chronological age and sun exposure and their respective impact on two subcohorts of different behavior with regard to sun exposure. A total of 28 various facial signs were individually graded according to their severity by a panel of experts, and a perceived apparent age of each subject was assessed. Results showed that the severity of major signs significantly increased rather linearly with age, with a higher rate in sun-exposed subjects as compared with subjects who regularly avoid sun exposure. The sever­ity of facial signs, all impacted by sun exposure, better correlated with perceived apparent age than real/chronological age. The protocol used in the present work, similar to that previously applied to two cohorts of French women, assigned a greater impact of sun exposure in the facial aging signs of Asian women – all clinical signs are influenced by extrinsic factors – as compared with Caucasian women of comparable ages, likely related to much more intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation. © 2015 Flament et al.

Jourdain R.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Vingler P.,Loreal Research And Innovation | el Rawadi C.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Pouradier F.,Loreal Research And Innovation | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Dermatological Research | Year: 2016

Dandruff is a common but complex disorder with three major contributing factors: (1) individual predisposition, (2) scalp sebum and (3) Malassezia yeast colonization. To obtain further insights into the role of sebum in dandruff biogenesis, we analyzed scalp lipid species in a cohort of ten dandruff-free (control) and ten dandruff-afflicted volunteers by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Lipid peroxidation levels and biochemical markers of oxidative stress were also assessed. Squalene, a major sebum component, was significantly more peroxidized in dandruff-affected scalps, resulting in significantly higher ratios of squalene monohydroperoxide (SQOOH)/squalene. This was observed when comparing dandruff-affected zones of dandruff subjects to both their non-affected zones and control subjects. In addition, other biomarkers such as malondialdehyde indicated that oxidative stress levels were raised on dandruff scalps. Surprisingly, differences regarding either free or bound fatty acids were fairly rare and minor. Certain novel findings, especially squalene peroxidation levels, were then confirmed in a validation cohort of 24 dandruff-affected subjects, by comparing dandruff-affected and non-dandruff zones from the same individuals. As SQOOH can induce both keratinocyte inflammatory responses and hyperproliferation in vitro, we hypothesized that increased SQOOH could be considered as a new etiological dandruff factor via its ability to impair scalp barrier function. Our results also indicated that Malassezia could be a major source of squalene peroxidation on the scalp. © 2016, The Author(s).

La Rocca M.V.,Chimie Paristech | La Rocca M.V.,University of Insubria | Rutkowski M.,Chimie Paristech | Ringeissen S.,Loreal Research And Innovation | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Modeling | Year: 2016

The overall objective was to identify an accurate computational electronic method to virtually screen phenolic compounds through their antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity. The impact of a key parameter of the density functional theory (DFT) approach was studied. Performances of the 21 most commonly used exchange-correlation functionals are thus detailed in the evaluation of the main energetic parameters related to the activities of two prototype antioxidants, namely quercetin and edaravone, is reported. These functionals have been chosen among those belonging to three different families of hybrid functionals, namely global, range separated, and double hybrids. Other computational parameters have also been considered, such as basis set and solvent effects. The selected parameters, namely bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization potential (IP), and proton dissociation enthalpy (PDE) allow a mechanistic evaluation of the antioxidant activities of free radical scavengers. Our results show that all the selected functionals provide a coherent picture of these properties, predicting the same order of BDEs and PDEs. However, with respect to the reference values, the errors found at CBS-Q3 level significantly vary with the functional. Although it is difficult to evidence a global trend from the reported data, it clearly appears that LC-ωPBE, M05-2X, and M06-2X are the most suitable approaches for the considered properties, giving the lowest cumulative mean absolute errors. These methods are therefore suggested for an accurate and fast evaluation of energetic parameters related to an antioxidant activity via free radical scavenging. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Flament F.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Francois G.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Qiu H.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Ye C.,Loreal Research And Innovation | And 6 more authors.
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology | Year: 2015

Skin pores (SP), as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc) that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage) on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 µm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm2) and determination of their respective sizes in mm2. Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage) that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1) were recorded in all studied subjects; 2) varied greatly with ethnicity; 3) plateaued with age in most cases; and 4) globally refected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having “enlarged pores” like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly distinct from other ethnicities in having very low density and sizes. Analyzing the present results suggests that facial skin pore’s morphology as perceived by human eye less result from functional criteria of associated appendages such as sebaceous glands. To what extent skin pores may be viewed as additional criteria of a photo-altered skin is an issue to be further addressed. © 2015 Flament et al.

Hallegot P.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Hussler G.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Jeanne-Rose V.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Leroy F.,Loreal Research And Innovation | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Abstract: The human hair presents a fibrillar structure, composed of keratinized cells, covered by a wall of cellular scales, piled up like tiles on a roof. Substantial variations in diameter exist in the population. Fine hair is a major concern for women and men. Hair may lack volume and lack of firmness and bounce. Hairstyles lack volume and hold, and hair is flat and difficult to style. To strengthen the hair structure, penetration of materials, like polymers, could be a realistic approach. The hair cuticle barrier, however, prevents big molecules to penetrate. To overcome this hurdle, reactive sol–gel have been studied, leading to the identification of the 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Smaller than polymers, this silane has been studied on the key question of the penetration. After having understood its potential in penetration, the effect on mechanical transformation has been studied. The objective of this work was also to evaluate the efficacy of the 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, formulated in products for fine hair to respond to the needs of both feminine or masculine head hair. Several studies and techniques were used to determine the impact of the optimal efficacy of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane by provisory transforming hair fiber. Graphical Abstract: To improve hair resistance, reactive sol–gels have been studied, leading to the identification of the 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. After treatment, material is detected inside the fiber. The resistance of material to shampoos leads to think that the molecules reacted to oligomers. Several studies and techniques were used to determine the impact of the optimal efficacy of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The three-point bending measurements showed that 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane improves the mechanical resistance of dry hair. In addition, the morphology of the surface revealed an absence of a perceptible coating. These results explain the effect of body given to fine hair, and its remarkable natural touch. Other experiments have been done to elucidate the intimate effect of material on the complex structure of hair.[Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2016 The Author(s)

Girardeau-Hubert S.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Teluob S.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Pageon H.,Loreal Research And Innovation | Asselineau D.,Loreal Research And Innovation
European Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2015

Background: Clinical studies on dermal fillers have essentially focused upon visible improvement of skin quality and any eventual side effects, whereas very little is known about their detailed biological effects. Objectives: New skin equivalent models were created to investigate the biological impact of hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers on the dermal compartment in vitro. Materials and methods: Two different reconstructed skin models were developed to incorporate HA within the collagen fibers. In the mixed model, HA was distributed throughout the whole collagen gel whereas the HA was concentrated in the center of collagen gel in the inclusion model. Results: A comparison of the addition of fillers in two models of reconstructed skin has permitted a better understanding of the biological impact of HA fillers. Protein profiling of supernatants from both models suggested a regulation of MMP-1 secretion by fibroblasts as a function of HA volume, distribution in the dermis and degree of cross-linking. Immunostaining of the inclusion model revealed increased production of type I and III procollagens close to the cross-linked HA. Fibroblasts located in this area showed a fusiform morphology as well as an increase in α-smooth actin expression. The observed increase in collagen production may thus result in part from tension in fibroblasts surrounding the cross-linked HA. Conclusion: The inclusion reconstructed skin model, as compared to the mixed model, presented here, appears to be a useful tool for investigating the properties of various fillers in vitro and closer to the in vivo situation; our results show that HA fillers promote in vitro remodeling of the dermis by fibroblasts. © 2015, John Libbey Eurotext. All rights reserved.

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