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Kim S.-H.,Bristol Myers Squibb | De Mas N.,Process Research and Development | De Mas N.,Lonza Biologics Inc. | Parlanti L.,Process Research and Development | And 20 more authors.
Organic Process Research and Development | Year: 2011

We describe the synthesis, chromatographic purification, and isolation of the epothilone-folic acid conjugate BMS-753493, an investigational new drug candidate for the treatment of cancer. The main challenges for process development were the instability of BMS-753493 in aqueous solution, the design and optimization of the preparative chromatography, and the removal of phosphate salts and water from the purified material. The operating conditions of the batch chromatographic purification were optimized using a column adsorption model. The free-salt active pharmaceutical ingredient was isolated via the precipitation of its zwitterion following a careful determination of the isolation parameters that controlled thermal and pH-related decomposition. This process enabled the manufacturing of several batches (10-30 g) of cGMP quality BMS-753493. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Zhang X.,Ohio State University | Zhang X.,Lonza Biologics Inc. | Yang S.-T.,Ohio State University
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2011

An online, analytical technology was developed that utilized fluorescence to detect cells during an immobilized cell culture process. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that produced monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were transfected to express green fluorescent protein (GFP), and stable, fluorescence-positive cells were obtained by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The immobilized cell culture process was then used to test the effects of sodium butyrate on cells. In this study, cells were cultured in porous, fibrous matrices that were placed in spinner flasks. A lab-scale, perfusion bioreactor with computer-controlled, online fluorescence sensors that continuously detected GFP fluorescence and quantified cell growth was utilized. In addition, the level of GFP fluorescence was used to predict mAb production in the culture without sampling for cell counting and protein analysis. Thus, non-invasive, fluorescence detection of cells provided a rapid, reliable and robust approach for developing an immobilized cell culture process. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Zang R.,Ohio State University | Zang R.,Genzyme | Zhang X.,Ohio State University | Zhang X.,Lonza Biologics Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Cell-based high throughput proliferation and cytotoxicity assays are increasingly used in drug screening and bioprocess development. However, online monitoring of cell proliferation, pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) has been a challenge in 3D cell-based assays. In this work, a 40-microwell bioreactor (40-MBR) system was developed from a 384-well plate for real-time, noninvasive monitoring of pH, DO, and cell proliferation in 3D microenvironments. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and MCF-07 breast cancer cells cultured in 40-MBR confirmed that the 40-MBR was capable of simultaneously monitoring DO and cell proliferation based on culture fluorescence and pH by measuring the absorbance of phenol red. Cytotoxicity studies of sodium butyrate on CHO cells demonstrated that 40-MBR with dynamic background fluorescence correction gave more reliable and highly reproducible growth kinetic data compared to conventional multiwells with static background correction. Furthermore, the dosage effects of two new anticancer drug candidates, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-8-[(E)-2- phenylethenyl]-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-4-one (DH-8P-DB) and 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-6-[(E)-2-phenylethenyl]-3,4-dihydro-2H-1- benzopyran-4-one (DH-6P-DB), on HT-29 colon cancer cells were assessed using the 40-MBR, and the results indicated that DH-6P-DB would be a more potent drug in treating colon cancer than DH-8P-DB. These studies demonstrated that 40-MBR could serve as a high throughput platform for screening potential cancer drugs in early-stage drug discovery. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Erler A.,Lonza AG | de Mas N.,Lonza Biologics Inc. | de Mas N.,Bristol Myers Squibb | Ramsey P.,University of New Hampshire | Henderson G.,Lonza Biologics Inc.
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2013

As part of the process-characterization campaign of a candidate vaccine product, a recently developed class of three-level designs-definitive-screening designs-was employed to select a quadratic model that describes the effect of six input process parameters, including protein concentration, formaldehyde-to-protein ratio, lysine concentration, reaction duration, pH, and reaction temperature, on a formylation protein-crosslinking reaction. This design requires only 17 experimental runs. The resulting model was then used to simulate 10,000 runs that account for the variability in the inputs expected on manufacturing scale. The extent of protein polymerization was predicted to be within specifications for all simulated runs, demonstrating the robustness of the unit operation for subsequent process validation and future commercial manufacturing. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Tripathi S.A.,Mascoma Corporation | Tripathi S.A.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Olson D.G.,Mascoma Corporation | Olson D.G.,Dartmouth College | And 20 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

We report development of a genetic system for making targeted gene knockouts in Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that rapidly solubilizes cellulose. A toxic uracil analog, 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), was used to select for deletion of the pyrF gene. The ΔpyrF strain is a uracil auxotroph that could be restored to a prototroph via ectopic expression of pyrF from a plasmid, providing a positive genetic selection. Furthermore, 5-FOA was used to select against plasmid-expressed pyrF, creating a negative selection for plasmid loss. This technology was used to delete a gene involved in organic acid production, namely pta, which encodes the enzyme phosphotransacetylase. The C. thermocellum Δpta strain did not produce acetate. These results are the first examples of targeted homologous recombination and metabolic engineering in C. thermocellum, a microbe that holds an exciting and promising future in the biofuel industry and development of sustainable energy resources. © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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