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London, United Kingdom

The Centre for History in Public Health is an academic research centre at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , University of London. It specializes in historical research into public health and health services, and advocates the use of history within public health policy making. Wikipedia.

Coleman M.P.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Millions of people will continue to be diagnosed with cancer every year for the foreseeable future. These patients all need access to optimum health care. Population-based cancer survival is a key measure of the overall effectiveness of health systems in management of cancer. Survival varies very widely around the world. Global surveillance of cancer survival is needed, because unless these avoidable inequalities are measured, and reported on regularly, nothing will be done explicitly to reduce them. Source

Dudbridge F.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2013

Polygenic scores have recently been used to summarise genetic effects among an ensemble of markers that do not individually achieve significance in a large-scale association study. Markers are selected using an initial training sample and used to construct a score in an independent replication sample by forming the weighted sum of associated alleles within each subject. Association between a trait and this composite score implies that a genetic signal is present among the selected markers, and the score can then be used for prediction of individual trait values. This approach has been used to obtain evidence of a genetic effect when no single markers are significant, to establish a common genetic basis for related disorders, and to construct risk prediction models. In some cases, however, the desired association or prediction has not been achieved. Here, the power and predictive accuracy of a polygenic score are derived from a quantitative genetics model as a function of the sizes of the two samples, explained genetic variance, selection thresholds for including a marker in the score, and methods for weighting effect sizes in the score. Expressions are derived for quantitative and discrete traits, the latter allowing for case/control sampling. A novel approach to estimating the variance explained by a marker panel is also proposed. It is shown that published studies with significant association of polygenic scores have been well powered, whereas those with negative results can be explained by low sample size. It is also shown that useful levels of prediction may only be approached when predictors are estimated from very large samples, up to an order of magnitude greater than currently available. Therefore, polygenic scores currently have more utility for association testing than predicting complex traits, but prediction will become more feasible as sample sizes continue to grow. © 2013 Frank Dudbridge. Source

Conway D.J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2015

More human death and disease is caused by malaria parasites than by all other eukaryotic pathogens combined. As early as the sequencing of the first human genome, malaria parasite genomics was prioritized to fuel the discovery of vaccine candidate antigens. This stimulated increased research on malaria, generating new understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of infection and immunity. This review of recent developments illustrates how new approaches in parasite genomics, and increasingly large amounts of data from population studies, are helping to identify antigens that are promising lead targets. Although these results have been encouraging, effective discovery and characterization need to be coupled with more innovation and funding to translate findings into newly designed vaccine products for clinical trials. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Date: 2014-01-28

The invention relates to a method for producing a modified viral strain of a virus which is a member of the Reoviridae family and, in particular, relates to vaccinal viral strains of the Orbivirus genus.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Date: 2015-11-30

The present invention relates to a transfer vector for inserting a gene into a genetic locus of a baculovirus sequence. The transfer vector comprises an expression cassette comprising a eukaryotic promoter operably linked to the gene and a bipartite selection cassette. The present invention also relates to methods of using the transfer vector and derived bacmids and baculoviruses.

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